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    AuthorTitleYearJournal/ProceedingsBibTeX typeDOI/URL
    Antoni
    Antoni, Judit
    Polished stone tools from New Guinea in the Museum of Ethnography, Budapest (the collections of Fenichel and Bíró) / A Néprajzi Múzeum (Budapest) új-guineai csiszolt kőeszközei (Fenichel és Bíró gyűjtemény) 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(4), pp. 179-186 
    article URL 
    Abstract: At the end of the 19th century, between 1891 and 1893 the young Hungarian archaeologist Samuel Fenichel collected 315 polished stone implements (42 with wooden handle) in Astrolabe Bay, Northeast New Guinea. Because of his death in 1893, his work and his collection became unfinished. His compatriot, Lajos Bíró decided to carry on with his researches, previously on the same area, after on other parts of the island. He worked in New Guinea from 1896 until 1901. The stone implements disappeared in the meantime, so he didn't collect so many objects as his predecessor, but - while Fenichel hadn't any notices about the objects, he recorded all about the craftsmanship of stone adzes. The two collections together offer a unique opportunity to study the making and use of stone axes and adzes at the moment of their "transformation". The collection was never published: this paper is an attempt to present it.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Antoni2014_4,
      author = {Antoni, Judit},
      title = {Polished stone tools from New Guinea in the Museum of Ethnography, Budapest (the collections of Fenichel and Bíró) / A Néprajzi Múzeum (Budapest) új-guineai csiszolt kőeszközei (Fenichel és Bíró gyűjtemény)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {4},
      pages = {179-186},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_4/AM-2014-4-AJ.pdf}
    }
    
    Archeometriai Műhely 2007/1. szám
    Archeometriai Műhely 2007/1. szám
    Miklós Kretzoi and the interdisciplinary aspects of archaeology 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(1), pp. 01-70 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{ArcheometriaiMuhely2007_1,
      author = {Archeometriai Műhely 2007/1. szám,},
      title = {Miklós Kretzoi and the interdisciplinary aspects of archaeology},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {1},
      pages = {01-70},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_1/2007_1_contents.html}
    }
    
    Archeometriai Műhely 2009/1. szám
    Archeometriai Műhely 2009/1. szám
    A geokémiai interpretáció jelentősége az archeometriai kutatásban. Előadóülés az MTA Geokémiai Kutatóintézetben 'A Magyar Tudomány Ünnepe' alkalmából, 2008. november 19. 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(1), pp. 01-94 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{ArcheometriaiMuhely2009_1,
      author = {Archeometriai Műhely 2009/1. szám,},
      title = {A geokémiai interpretáció jelentősége az archeometriai kutatásban. Előadóülés az MTA Geokémiai Kutatóintézetben 'A Magyar Tudomány Ünnepe' alkalmából, 2008. november 19.},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {1},
      pages = {01-94},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_1/2009_1_tartalom.html}
    }
    
    Archeometriai Műhely 2009/2. szám
    Archeometriai Műhely 2009/2. szám
    Régészet - Geológia - Talajtan - hogy is állunk a környezet-rekonstrukcióval? 2009. március 31 vitaülés előadásaiból / Archaeology - Geology - Pedology: actual issues of environmental reconstruction. Lectures from the meeting of the Archaeometry Workshop on 31st March 2009 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(2), pp. 01-65 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{ArcheometriaiMuhely2009_2,
      author = {Archeometriai Műhely 2009/2. szám,},
      title = {Régészet - Geológia - Talajtan - hogy is állunk a környezet-rekonstrukcióval? 2009. március 31 vitaülés előadásaiból / Archaeology - Geology - Pedology: actual issues of environmental reconstruction. Lectures from the meeting of the Archaeometry Workshop on 31st March 2009},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {2},
      pages = {01-65},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_2/2009_2_tartalom.html}
    }
    
    Archeometriai Műhely 2009/3. szám
    Archeometriai Műhely 2009/3. szám
    Kora-neolitikus közösségek kőeszközeinek archeometriai vizsgálata Prompt Gamma Aktivációs Analízissel 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(3), pp. 01-56 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{ArcheometriaiMuhely2009_3,
      author = {Archeometriai Műhely 2009/3. szám,},
      title = {Kora-neolitikus közösségek kőeszközeinek archeometriai vizsgálata Prompt Gamma Aktivációs Analízissel},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {3},
      pages = {01-56},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_3/2009_3_tartalom.html}
    }
    
    Archeometriai Műhely 2009/4. szám
    Archeometriai Műhely 2009/4. szám
    Szemelvények a 'Természettudományos vizsgálatok régészeti és művészettörténeti alkalmazása fiatal kutatók előadásában' c. archeometriai előadóülés anyagából 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(4), pp. 01-64 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{ArcheometriaiMuhely2009_4,
      author = {Archeometriai Műhely 2009/4. szám,},
      title = {Szemelvények a 'Természettudományos vizsgálatok régészeti és művészettörténeti alkalmazása fiatal kutatók előadásában' c. archeometriai előadóülés anyagából},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {4},
      pages = {01-64},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_4/2009_4_tartalom.html}
    }
    
    Archeometriai Műhely 2010/3 szám
    Archeometriai Műhely 2010/3 szám
    IMA WS2: Siliceous rocks and their nomenclature - an interface of mineralogy, petrography and archeology. Előadások az IMA kongresszus WSC2 workshop találkozóján (Budapest, MNM 2010. augusztus 24) 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(3), pp. 163-214 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{ArcheometriaiMuhely2010_3,
      author = {Archeometriai Műhely 2010/3 szám,},
      title = {IMA WS2: Siliceous rocks and their nomenclature - an interface of mineralogy, petrography and archeology. Előadások az IMA kongresszus WSC2 workshop találkozóján (Budapest, MNM 2010. augusztus 24)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {3},
      pages = {163-214},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_3/2010_3_contents.html}
    }
    
    Archeometriai Műhely 2011/1. szám
    Archeometriai Műhely 2011/1. szám
    Szemelvények a "Magyar archeometriai előadások a budapesti IMA 2010 világkonferencián" c. előadóülés anyagából (GKKI, 2010.11..17) 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(1), pp. 1-84 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{AM2011_1,
      author = {Archeometriai Műhely 2011/1. szám,},
      title = {Szemelvények a "Magyar archeometriai előadások a budapesti IMA 2010 világkonferencián" c. előadóülés anyagából (GKKI, 2010.11..17)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-84},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_1/2011_1_contents.html}
    }
    
    Archeometriai Műhely 2011/2. szám
    Archeometriai Műhely 2011/2. szám
    Archeomalakológiai Konferencia "Krolopp Endre emlékülés" 2011. március 29. / Archaeomalacological Workshop, Memorial session in honour of Endre Krolopp, malacologist (1935-2010) 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(2), pp. 101-208 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{AM2011_2,
      author = {Archeometriai Műhely 2011/2. szám,},
      title = {Archeomalakológiai Konferencia "Krolopp Endre emlékülés" 2011. március 29. / Archaeomalacological Workshop, Memorial session in honour of Endre Krolopp, malacologist (1935-2010)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {2},
      pages = {101-208},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_2/2011_2_contents.html}
    }
    
    Archeometriai Műhely 2012/2. szám
    Archeometriai Műhely 2012/2. szám
    Az archeometallurgia aktuális kérdései - Fémek és társadalom: az archeometallurgia aktuális kérdései Közép-Európában a 21. század kezdetén (Archeometriai Műhely MNM, Budapest 2011.11.23) / From the program of the Archaeometry Workshop on Actual problems of Archaeometallurgy... 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(2), pp. 61-116 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{ArcheometriaiMuhely2012_2,
      author = {Archeometriai Műhely 2012/2. szám,},
      title = {Az archeometallurgia aktuális kérdései - Fémek és társadalom: az archeometallurgia aktuális kérdései Közép-Európában a 21. század kezdetén (Archeometriai Műhely MNM, Budapest 2011.11.23) / From the program of the Archaeometry Workshop on Actual problems of Archaeometallurgy...},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {2},
      pages = {61-116},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_2/2012_2_tartalom.html}
    }
    
    Archeometriai Műhely 2012/4. szám
    Archeometriai Műhely 2012/4. szám
    Japán... és Magyar... / Japanese... and Hungarian... Az Archeometriai Műhely előadóülése magyar-japán közös programok anyagából. 2012. november 26., MNM 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(4), pp. 219-264 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{ArcheometriaiMuhely2012_4,
      author = {Archeometriai Műhely 2012/4. szám,},
      title = {Japán... és Magyar... / Japanese... and Hungarian... Az Archeometriai Műhely előadóülése magyar-japán közös programok anyagából. 2012. november 26., MNM},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {4},
      pages = {219-264},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_4/2012_4_tartalom.html}
    }
    
    Archeometriai Műhely 2013/1. szám
    Archeometriai Műhely 2013/1. szám
    Magyar részvétel a leuveni 39. Nemzetközi Archeometriai Szimpóziumon? ElHo)adóülés a Tudomány Napja tiszteletére 2012.11.15 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(1), pp. 1-92 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{AM2013_1,
      author = {Archeometriai Műhely 2013/1. szám,},
      title = {Magyar részvétel a leuveni 39. Nemzetközi Archeometriai Szimpóziumon? ElHo)adóülés a Tudomány Napja tiszteletére 2012.11.15},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-92},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_1/2013_1_contents.html}
    }
    
    Archeometriai Műhely 2013/2. szám
    Archeometriai Műhely 2013/2. szám
    Előadások és laborlátogatás az ELTE TTK-n 2013.05.09 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(2), pp. 95-102 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{ArcheometriaiMuhely2013_2,
      author = {Archeometriai Műhely 2013/2. szám,},
      title = {Előadások és laborlátogatás az ELTE TTK-n 2013.05.09},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {2},
      pages = {95-102},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_2/2013_2_tartalom.html}
    }
    
    Archeometriai Műhely 2013/3-4 szám
    Archeometriai Műhely 2013/3-4 szám
    Animals and Archaeology Workshop June 14?16, 2013 King Matthias Museum of the Hungarian National Museum Royal Palace, Visegrád 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(3-4), pp. 179-312 
    article URL 
    Abstract: T. Biró, Katalin and Bartosiewicz, László eds.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ArcheometriaiMuhely2013_3-4,
      author = {Archeometriai Műhely 2013/3-4 szám,},
      title = {Animals and Archaeology Workshop June 14?16, 2013 King Matthias Museum of the Hungarian National Museum Royal Palace, Visegrád},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {3-4},
      pages = {179-312},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_3/2013_3_tartalom.html}
    }
    
    Archeometriai Műhely 2014/1. szám
    Archeometriai Műhely 2014/1. szám
    Múlt ? jelen ? jövendő. Archeometria az oktatásban fiatal kutatók és egyetemi hallgatók munkájának tükrében. ElHo)adóülés a Tudomány Napja tiszteletére 2013.11.19. 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(1), pp. 1-70 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{AM2014_1,
      author = {Archeometriai Műhely 2014/1. szám,},
      title = {Múlt ? jelen ? jövendő. Archeometria az oktatásban fiatal kutatók és egyetemi hallgatók munkájának tükrében. ElHo)adóülés a Tudomány Napja tiszteletére 2013.11.19.},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-70},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_1/2014_1_contents.html}
    }
    
    Archeometriai Műhely 2014/3. szám
    Archeometriai Műhely 2014/3. szám
    Tanulmányok az Archeometriai Műhely ünnepi vitaüléséről / Papers for the Jubilee discussion of the periodical. MNM 2014.10.03. / HNM 03.10.2014. 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(3), pp. 139-178 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{AM2014_3,
      author = {Archeometriai Műhely 2014/3. szám,},
      title = {Tanulmányok az Archeometriai Műhely ünnepi vitaüléséről / Papers for the Jubilee discussion of the periodical. MNM 2014.10.03. / HNM 03.10.2014.},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {3},
      pages = {139-178},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_3/2014_3_contents.html}
    }
    
    Archeometriai Műhely 2014/4. szám
    Archeometriai Műhely 2014/4. szám
    JADE2 local meeting on greenstones / ?Zöldkövek? 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(4), pp. 179-250 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{AM2014_4,
      author = {Archeometriai Műhely 2014/4. szám,},
      title = {JADE2 local meeting on greenstones / ?Zöldkövek?},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {4},
      pages = {179-250},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_4/2014_4_contents.html}
    }
    
    Archeometriai Műhely 2015/3. szám
    Archeometriai Műhely 2015/3. szám
    Az archeometriai kutatás táguló körei. MTA Archeometriai Albizottság előadó ülés, 2015. november 10. 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(3), pp. 163-204 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{AM2015_3,
      author = {Archeometriai Műhely 2015/3. szám,},
      title = {Az archeometriai kutatás táguló körei. MTA Archeometriai Albizottság előadó ülés, 2015. november 10.},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {3},
      pages = {163-204},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_3/2015_3_contents.html}
    }
    
    Archeometriai Műhely 2016/2. szám
    Archeometriai Műhely 2016/2. szám
    Isztriai amforák kutatása / Archaeological and petrographical research of Istrian amphorae, 2015. december 7. 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(2), pp. 69-140 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{AM2016_2,
      author = {Archeometriai Műhely 2016/2. szám,},
      title = {Isztriai amforák kutatása / Archaeological and petrographical research of Istrian amphorae, 2015. december 7.},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {2},
      pages = {69-140},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_2/2016_2_contents.html}
    }
    
    Archeometriai Műhely 2016/3. szám
    Archeometriai Műhely 2016/3. szám
    "New methods and interpretation techniques for petroarchaeology" / "Új módszerek és értelmezési lehetőségek a petroarcheológiában", 2015. december 7. 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(3), pp. 145-202 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{AM2016_3,
      author = {Archeometriai Műhely 2016/3. szám,},
      title = {"New methods and interpretation techniques for petroarchaeology" / "Új módszerek és értelmezési lehetőségek a petroarcheológiában", 2015. december 7.},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {3},
      pages = {145-202},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_3/2016_3_contents.html}
    }
    
    Archeometriai Műhely 2016/4. szám
    Archeometriai Műhely 2016/4. szám
    Az archeometriai kutatás táguló körei II. MTA Archeometriai Albizottság előadó ülés, 2016. november 30. 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(4), pp. 219-266 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{AM2016_4,
      author = {Archeometriai Műhely 2016/4. szám,},
      title = {Az archeometriai kutatás táguló körei II. MTA Archeometriai Albizottság előadó ülés, 2016. november 30.},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {4},
      pages = {219-266},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_4/2015_4_contents.html}
    }
    
    Bacci
    Bacci, Mauro
    Non-invasive instrumentation for diagnostics and colour control 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(1), pp. 46-50 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The fact that every work of art is a unique piece emphasises the necessity of working with non-invasive methodologies. In this communication instruments developed at IFAC-CNR, Florence, and their application to actual cases will be presented. Such instrumentation is based on spectroscopic techniques, namely image spectroscopy (IS) and fibre optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS). Indeed, the combined use of these two techniques constitute a powerful tool for obtaining a large amount of spectroscopic information without any sampling, thus overcoming all the limitations and problems involved in sampling operations. Moreover, the availability of lightweight and compact equipment makes it possible to perform measurements in situ on objects that cannot be removed from their location. Furthermore, due to the fact that these techniques are non-invasive and are thus safe for works of art, it is possible to re-measure the same object after a given time, to monitor the progress of the conservation of the work of art, and also to follow the restoration processes. The methodology also enables the acquisition of a large number of spectra over the entire artefact. This wide sampling operation, the performance of which would be unimaginable with micro-sampling techniques, provides a large amount of data, which can be used for statistical analysis. As regards the application to actual cases, two case studies will be reported: a) a Leonardo da Vinci's painting, where pigments, binding medium, preparatory layer and previous restoration works were identified; b) the monitoring of the colour evolution of a Luca Signorelli's predella over the years during the exhibition to the public, during the restoration intervention and after the restoration. Finally, a brief account of the studies performed at IFAC CNR on indoor light control will be given and the possible use of a new light dosimeter will be suggested.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bacci2006,
      author = {Bacci, Mauro},
      title = {Non-invasive instrumentation for diagnostics and colour control},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {1},
      pages = {46-50},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_1/AM-2006-1-MB.pdf}
    }
    
    Bader and T. Biró
    Bader, Tibor & T. Biró, Katalin
    Elhunyt Ivan Ordentlich 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(4), pp. 294-295 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bader&Biro2012_4,
      author = {Bader, Tibor and T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {Elhunyt Ivan Ordentlich},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {4},
      pages = {294-295},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_4/AM-12-04-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Bajkai et al.
    Bajkai, Rozália; B. Kiss, Gabriella & Dódony, István
    Hajdúnánás, Mácsi-dűlő és Hajdúnánás, Fekete-halom avar kori települések salakanyagának régészeti és archeometriai elemzése / Archaeological and archaeometrical investigation of finds found in the Late Avar Age settlements at Hajdúnánás, Mácsi-dűlő and Hajdúnánás, Fekete-halom (County Hajdú-Bihar, Hungary) 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(3), pp. 203-214 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Iron slags represent almost the only traces of Avar Age metalworking in the Great Hungarian Plain. However, these artefacts are still disregarded among the archaeological material of a settlement. The slag samples from the sites Hajdúnánás, Mácsi-dűlő and Hajdúnánás, Fekete-halom were found in secondary archaeological context; objects related to metal working, smithing or smelting were not found in the area. Therefore the main aim of our macroscopical investigations, analyses by polarizing microscope, scanning electron-microscope (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) was to obtain detailed data for documentation purposes as well as to draw the possible conclusions about the metal working. Based on the appearance, the mineralogical composition and the small amount of the slags, it is not possible to determine for sure, to which metal is their origin related. However, the copper and base metal free composition of the main components (glass and fayalite) would support the iron working related origin. The texture let us assume a local smithy in the settlements, which is also supported by the studied iron tools, whose composition also points to the presumed local smithy. On the basis of the element association of Ni, Cu, As, Sb identified by SEM-EDS analyses (and the missing of P and Mn) we can exclude the bog iron ore origin. The region around Dobsina/Dobąiná, Alsósajó/Niľná Slaná, Rozsnyó/Roľňava, Szomolnok/Smolník (Slovak Ore Mountains) 150-200 km away can be hypothesised as the potential source ore deposit, containing a siderite-sulphide mineralisation. This provenance and the long delivery route is unique in the Avar Age, although the ore deposits of the region could have been known in earlier times as well. The raw metal could arrive in the form of iron bloom to the sites, where the smith shaped it to iron tools.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bajkai&al_2016_3,
      author = {Bajkai, Rozália and B. Kiss, Gabriella and Dódony, István},
      title = {Hajdúnánás, Mácsi-dűlő és Hajdúnánás, Fekete-halom avar kori települések salakanyagának régészeti és archeometriai elemzése / Archaeological and archaeometrical investigation of finds found in the Late Avar Age settlements at Hajdúnánás, Mácsi-dűlő and Hajdúnánás, Fekete-halom (County Hajdú-Bihar, Hungary)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {3},
      pages = {203-214},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_3/AM-2016-3-BR.pdf}
    }
    
    Bajnóczi
    Bajnóczi, Bernadett
    Beszámoló a ?Történeti és modern kötőanyag-rendszerek a mikroszkóp alatt: lehetőségek az archeometriában és a napi gyakorlatban? c. rövidkurzusról 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(3), pp. 215-216 
    article URL 
    Abstract: .
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bajnoczi2012_3,
      author = {Bajnóczi, Bernadett},
      title = {Beszámoló a ?Történeti és modern kötőanyag-rendszerek a mikroszkóp alatt: lehetőségek az archeometriában és a napi gyakorlatban? c. rövidkurzusról},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {3},
      pages = {215-216},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_3/AM-2012-3-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Bajnóczi et al.
    Bajnóczi, Bernadett; Nagy, Géza; Tóth, Mária; Ringer, István & Ridovics, Anna
    A sárospataki ágyúöntő műhelyben feltárt 17. századi habán kerámialeletek mázának mikroszerkezete és összetétele / Microstructure and composition of glaze of 17th century Haban ceramics excavated at a gun-foundry in Sárospatak (NE-Hungary) 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(1), pp. 1-16 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The Rákóczi Museum of the Hungarian National Museum started an excavation in 2006 to uncover the remnants
    of a gun-foundry operated between 1631 and 1648 and located in the southwestern corner of the outer castle in
    Sárospatak. Fragments of white and blue tin-glazed Haban faience objects were found in the late 17th century
    filling of the workshop remnants. No contemporary written sources exist about the technology of East-Central
    European tin-glazed earthenware produced by the Habans (Hutterite Anabaptists). Archaeometric research on
    Haban faience using modern analytical techniques has not been performed in Hungary as yet. In this paper we
    present the results of the analyses carried out on the opaque glaze and coloured decorations of white-glazed
    ceramic fragments found at the gun-foundry, which give data about the raw materials used and the production
    technology. Microstructure and chemical composition of glazes were analysed by using an electron microprobe
    coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer and crystalline inclusions were identified by X-ray diffraction
    analysis.
    The white glaze, which covers the buff coloured ceramic body, is tin-opacified lead-alkali glaze containing
    relatively high amount of tin-oxide (16 to 20 wt% SnO2). Presence of relict sand grains and heterogeneous
    distribution (grouped in clusters) of cassiterite (tin-oxide) particles in the opaque glaze indicates that the glazing
    mixture was not fritted before preparing the slurry. Cassiterite is present as angular relicts of the glaze raw
    material and as up to 2 micrometer sized needles-like particles recrystallized during firing and cooling of the glaze.
    Decorations were prepared from coloured lead-alkali glazes. Lead antimonate yellow (Pb2Sb2O7) was used for
    the yellow glaze, cobalt-, nickel- and arsenic-bearing zaffre for the blue glaze, copper-bearing pigment for the
    green glaze and manganese-bearing pigment for the black glaze. The opaque glaze and the decorations were
    fired in one step; therefore glazes were more or less mixed with each other.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bajnoczi2011_1,
      author = {Bajnóczi, Bernadett and Nagy, Géza and Tóth, Mária and Ringer, István and Ridovics, Anna},
      title = {A sárospataki ágyúöntő műhelyben feltárt 17. századi habán kerámialeletek mázának mikroszerkezete és összetétele / Microstructure and composition of glaze of 17th century Haban ceramics excavated at a gun-foundry in Sárospatak (NE-Hungary)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-16},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_1/AM-11-01-BB.pdf}
    }
    
    Bajnóczi et al.
    Bajnóczi, Bernadett; Tóth, Mária & Dobosi, Gábor
    Ónmázas kerámiák technológiai jellegzetességeinek kimutatása Giovanni di Nicola Manzoni majolika tintatartójának példáján / Detection of technological characteristics of tin-glazed pottery - the case study of Giovanni di Nicola Manzoni?s majolica inkstand 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(1), pp. 81-94 
    article URL 
    Abstract: To reveal the processing steps of tin-glazed pottery (majolica, faience) production and to determine the raw
    material use and technological parameters of the workshop, joint use of phase analysis by X-ray diffraction
    (XRD) as well as microtextural and microchemical investigation by electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) are
    necessary. It is essential to define the micromorphology and chemistry of the various inclusions (relict and
    recrystallized phases) in the glaze since they can help in confining the firing temperature of the glaze, as well as
    the pigments.
    A majolica inkstand with figure groups showing ?The Nativity? and ?The Adoration of the Magi? forms part of
    the collection of the Museum of Applied Arts (Budapest). The inkstand made by Giovanni di Nicola Manzoni
    presumably in Colle Val d?Elsa (Toscana) around 1510 has prominent significance due to its scenes,
    inscriptions, signs, function and quality.
    Archaeometric research revealed that the ceramic body of the object was made using well-prepared calcareous
    clay fired at ~850-950°C according to the presence of calcium silicate minerals (diopside, gehlenite). The
    ceramic body was covered by a white, tin-opacified lead-alkali glaze, painted with different (ochre, blue, green
    and brown) colours, and a transparent lead-alkali overglaze was applied over the whole object. Abundant
    rounded-dissolved K-feldspar and quartz inclusions in the glaze layers are relicts of the sand raw material. Tinlead
    inclusions in the opaque glaze are also remnants of the raw material. Cassiterite (SnO2) can be present
    partly as relict grains, partly as recrystallized phase precipitated during the second firing. A ~700-900°C
    temperature can be estimated for the second firing. The polychrome paintings of the inkstand were made using
    the typical colouring materials of the Italian Renaissance pottery: cobalt-bearing pigment for blue, iron-bearing
    lead-antimonate pigment for ochre, copper colorant for green and manganese colorant for brown.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BajnocziETAL2009,
      author = {Bajnóczi, Bernadett and Tóth, Mária and Dobosi, Gábor},
      title = {Ónmázas kerámiák technológiai jellegzetességeinek kimutatása Giovanni di Nicola Manzoni majolika tintatartójának példáján / Detection of technological characteristics of tin-glazed pottery - the case study of Giovanni di Nicola Manzoni?s majolica inkstand},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {1},
      pages = {81-94},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_1/AM-09-01-BB.PDF}
    }
    
    Bajnóczi et al.
    Bajnóczi, Bernadett; Tóth, Mária & Mersdorf, Zsuzsa
    Kerámiák katódlumineszcens vizsgálata zalavári - népvándorláskori - leletek példáján / Cathodo-luminescent analysis of pottery from Zalavár, Migration Period 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(2), pp. 31-41 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The paper describes the possibility of using cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy for petrographic study of
    archaeological pottery objects. CL microscopy shows more details than conventional polarized light
    microscopy about the inner structure and chemistry of aplastic components of pottery products as well as the
    texture of the samples. It enables to reveal differences in the mineralogy of aplastic components, and
    characteristic minerals as “fingerprints” may allow distinguishing potteries of different provenance and origin.
    The pottery vessels studied by CL method are from Zalavár-Vársziget (W-Hungary) and derive from the second
    half of the 9th century AD. Most of the products were fired on less than 650oC. This relatively low temperature
    doesn’t really affect aplastic components, therefore enables their petrographic study using CL method combined
    with X-ray diffraction. In addition to the common calcite and feldspar detritus and quartz-bearing fragments,
    part of the samples contains several mm large, rounded, dolomite-bearing lithofragments (pebbles), which are
    supposed to be tempering material. Dolomitic rock fragments are distinguished from angular calcite grains with
    dull to very bright luminescence by their non- or very weak CL. The dolomitic temper is possibly not of local
    origin, and dolomite-bearing ceramics are assumed to be “import” objects among the finds from Zalavár-
    Vársziget.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BajnocziETAL2005,
      author = {Bajnóczi, Bernadett and Tóth, Mária and Mersdorf, Zsuzsa},
      title = {Kerámiák katódlumineszcens vizsgálata zalavári - népvándorláskori - leletek példáján / Cathodo-luminescent analysis of pottery from Zalavár, Migration Period},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {2},
      pages = {31-41},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_2/AM-2005-2-BB.pdf}
    }
    
    Balak
    Balak, Michael
    Erosion and Humidity: a Culture 2000 project for the study of building materials by scientific methods. An interim report. / Erózió és nedvesség: kutatási program az építőanyagok vizsgálatára, a Culture 2000 program keretében 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(1), pp. 60-61 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Az Európai Unió Culture 2000 programjának keretében osztrák, olasz, német és magyar résztvevőkkel egy éves
    kutatási programot indítottunk műemléki építőkövek és más, műemléki környezetben előforduló építőanyagok
    kutatására. A program 2004. szeptemberében indult. A projektindító találkozót Bécsben rendeztük, a munka
    jelenlegi állásáról Modenában, 2005. január 28-án adtak számot a résztvevők. A program részeként áprilisban
    az Archeometriai Műhely a műemléki kőanyagok kutatásának külön vitaülést rendez a Magyar Nemzeti
    Múzeumban; az eredményekről pedig részletes tájékoztatót adunk folyóiratunk őszi számában.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Balak2005,
      author = {Michael Balak},
      title = {Erosion and Humidity: a Culture 2000 project for the study of building materials by scientific methods. An interim report. / Erózió és nedvesség: kutatási program az építőanyagok vizsgálatára, a Culture 2000 program keretében},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {1},
      pages = {60-61},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_1/AM-2005-1-MB.pdf}
    }
    
    Baricza et al.
    Baricza, Ágnes; Bajnóczi, Bernadett; Szabó, Máté; Szabó, Csaba & Tóth, Mária
    Különböző korú Zsolnay épületkerámiák összehasonlító anyagtani vizsgálata / Comparative material examination of Zsolnay architectural ceramics of different age 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(1), pp. 33-50 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    The Zsolnay factory in Pécs is one of the few factories which are well-known not only in Hungary but also in other European countries due to their quality and unique ceramic products. Despite the fact that the Zsolnay ceramics are considered as traditional Hungarian items, we have deficient and partial knowledge about the material characteristics of the products in many aspects.
    The aim of this study is to carry out material examination on Zsolnay architectural ceramics (glazed roof tiles) from two buildings in Budapest: Museum of Applied Arts and Geological and Geophysical Institute of Hungary. The collected complete and broken glazed tiles originate from three different periods of the life of the buildings: the building and two renovation periods. The phase composition of the ceramics was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The texture and the non-plastic components of the ceramics were examined by polarizing and scanning electron microscopy. The microstructure (texture) and chemical composition of the glaze were studied by scanning electron microscope and electron microprobe equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS).
    The ceramics were covered by lead and alkali glazes, which were coloured with iron (yellow glaze) or chromium/copper/iron (green glazes) in the case of the Museum, whereas for the ceramics of the Institute cobalt was applied as colorant in the blue glaze. In addition tin oxide was used as opacifier in the glaze of the tiles of the Institute. The main phases of the ceramic body are quartz, cristobalite, mullite and K-feldspar/plagioclase and hematite in variable amount. The phase composition of the ceramics refers to the application of kaolinite-bearing (kaolin) raw material.
    The preliminary grouping of the samples, based on previous information about the ceramic material gained during sampling, was confirmed by the analogies in the material characteristics of the objects. All these information together served as a basis for the final grouping and correct age determination of the ceramics. Other characteristics of the distinguished groups, like differences in the ceramic raw material and in the glaze pigments, provide additional information about the production technology of the objects.
    Kivonat
    A pécsi Zsolnay manufaktúra egy a magyar kerámiaipar területén kiemelkedő teljesítményt nyújtó gyárak közül, amelyek nemcsak Magyarországon, hanem Európa szerte is ismertek, mint színvonalas és egyedi termékek készítői. A gyár által forgalmazott, ?hungarikumként? számon tartott kerámiák anyagtudományi vizsgálata mégis részleges, illetve hiányos sok tekintetben.
    Jelen tanulmány célja két budapesti épületről, az Iparművészeti Múzeumról és a Magyar Földtani és Geofizikai Intézetről származó Zsolnay mázas tetőcserepek anyagtani vizsgálata. A cseréptöredékek és egész cserepek három különböző - építési és két felújítási - időszakból származnak. A kerámiák fázisösszetételét röntgen-pordiffrakciós technikával határoztuk meg, míg a szövetet és a nem plasztikus elegyrészeket polarizációs mikroszkóppal és pásztázó elektronmikroszkóppal vizsgáltuk. A mázak mikroszerkezetét (szövetét) és kémiai összetételét pásztázó elektronmikroszkóppal és energiadiszperzív röntgenspektrométerrel felszerelt elektron-mikroszondával tanulmányoztuk.
    A kerámiák ólom- és alkáli mázakkal borítottak, amely a múzeumi tetőcserepek esetében vassal (sárga máz) és krómmal/rézzel/vassal (zöld máz) színezett, míg a Földtani Intézet kék máza kobalttal színezett, az utóbbihoz ón-oxid homályosítót is adagoltak. A kerámia-alaptestek fő fázisai a kvarc cristobalit, mullit, változó mértékben a káliföldpát/plagioklász és hematit; a fázisösszetétel kaolinites nyersanyag (kaolin) felhasználására utal.
    A mintázás során kapott információk alapján kidolgoztuk az épületkerámiák előzetes csoportosítását, amelyet az egyes elemek anyagtani jellegzetességei (kerámia nyersanyag, kerámia-máz határa) közti analógiák is megerősítettek. Az összegzett információk így együttesen szolgáltak alapul a kerámiák csoportba rendezéséhez és gyártási korhoz kötéséhez. A megkülönböztetett csoportok további vizsgálata során fellelt egyedi jellegek (nyersanyagbeli különbségek, eltérő mázszínezés) a készítés módjáról adnak bővebb információt.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baricza&al2015_1,
      author = {Baricza, Ágnes and Bajnóczi, Bernadett and Szabó, Máté and Szabó, Csaba and Tóth, Mária},
      title = {Különböző korú Zsolnay épületkerámiák összehasonlító anyagtani vizsgálata / Comparative material examination of Zsolnay architectural ceramics of different age},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {1},
      pages = {33-50},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_1/AM-2015-1-BA.pdf}
    }
    
    Barkóczy et al.
    Barkóczy, Péter; Kovács, Árpád & P. Fischl, Klára
    Réz és bronz leletek metallográfiai és metallurgiai vizsgálatai / Metallographical and Metallurgical Investigation of Prehistoric Copper and Bronze Finds 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(4), pp. 293?304 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Examination of three findings (a hammer axe from the Copper Age, a bracelet, and a disc-butted axe from the
    Bronze Age) was performed by the Research Group on Archeometallurgy of University of Miskolc. This research
    group is stated by the Department of Prehistory and Archaeology and the Faculty of Materials Engineering of
    University of Miskolc. The chemical composition, the phase constituents and the microstructure of the findings
    was examined.
    Beyond the common analysis of chemical composition features of the microstructure was examined, and data
    from the production process were collected (metallurgical processes, casting, cold and hot deformation).
    It was stated that the bracelet is produced by casting; the hammer axe and the disc-butted axe give plastic
    deformation, probably hammering, after casting. Not only the annealed and hammered microstructure but the
    casted primer microstructures were analyzed by application of different etching techniques. The chemical
    compositions and structures of inclusions were analyzed by SEM and XRD techniques. The amount, shape and
    ordering was examined of the inclusion on micrographs.
    The afore mentioned results gives a detailed study of producing process of the findings which was compared
    with the recent data of archeometallurgical research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Barkoczyetal2011_4,
      author = {Barkóczy, Péter and Kovács, Árpád and P. Fischl, Klára},
      title = {Réz és bronz leletek metallográfiai és metallurgiai vizsgálatai / Metallographical and Metallurgical Investigation of Prehistoric Copper and Bronze Finds},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {4},
      pages = {293?304},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_4/AM-11-04-BP.pdf}
    }
    
    Bartosiewicz
    Bartosiewicz, László
    The palaeopathology of wild mammals in archaeology / Vadon élő emlősállatok betegségei a régészetben 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(1), pp. 19-30 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Domestication is known to have increased animal morbidity. Wild animals, however, should not be looked upon
    romantically like Jean-Jacques Rousseau?s ?noble sauvage?, untainted by civilisation. Rare pathological lesions
    found on the bones of wild animals in archaeozoological assemblages, they offer valuable information both from a
    zoological and a archaeological point of view. In addition to discussing problems of sampling, this paper is a review
    of major factors such as taphonomy, environment, and heritability that determine the manifestation of disease
    in wild animals in archaeological assemblages. A simple classification, specifically developed for wild animals, is
    presented that helps better understand these conditions. Numerous examples from both the author?s own work and
    the broad base of international literature (especially on Europe and the Southwest Asia) are cited to help illustrate
    how disease is manifested on the bones of wild animals recovered from a variety of archaeological periods. The results
    of this paper show that although domestication undoubtedly brought about an increase in animal morbidity,
    depending on the chances of survival of a game species and the functional importance of the body part affected, a
    variety of pathological lesions regularly occur on the remains of wild animals as well.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bartosiewicz2016_1,
      author = {Bartosiewicz, László },
      title = {The palaeopathology of wild mammals in archaeology / Vadon élő emlősállatok betegségei a régészetben},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {1},
      pages = {19-30},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_1/AM-2016-1-BL.pdf}
    }
    
    Bartosiewicz and Gál
    Bartosiewicz, László & Gál, Erika
    Sample Size and Taxonomic Richness in Mammalian and Avian Bone Assemblages from Archaeological Sites / A mintanagyság és a fajgazdagság összefüggése régészeti emlős- és madármintákban 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(1), pp. 37-44 
    article URL 
    Abstract: It has been well known in archaeozoology that the number of animal species recognized in an assemblage
    increases along with the number of identifiable bone specimens. It is for this reason that comparisons between
    faunal assemblages of radically different sizes can be heavily biased, since the number of species would rather
    reflect the number of bones available for study than the number of animal taxa exploited by ancient peoples. In
    this study, parameters of 35 prehistoric mammalian and 29 avian bone assemblages are compared from this
    point of view for the first time. The numbers of identifiable bird bones result in a more intensive increase in the
    number of species than is the case with larger mammals (domesticates and game), most commonly encountered
    in prehistoric archaeozoological assemblages. The reasons behind this phenomenon include the greater number
    of bird species in nature, the smaller number of bones in the avian skeleton, and the differential taphonomic
    processes that affect selectively the remains of mammals and birds. These should all be considered during the
    analysis and interpretation of archaeozoological assemblages.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BartosiewiczGal2007,
      author = {Bartosiewicz, László and Gál, Erika},
      title = {Sample Size and Taxonomic Richness in Mammalian and Avian Bone Assemblages from Archaeological Sites / A mintanagyság és a fajgazdagság összefüggése régészeti emlős- és madármintákban},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {1},
      pages = {37-44},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_1/AM-2007-01-BL.pdf}
    }
    
    Bartosiewicz et al.
    Bartosiewicz, László; Vaughan, Maureen & Zsuzsanna, Tóth
    Roman period evidence for a special form of perimortem trauma in large livestock / A nagyállatok levágásának különleges nyomai egy római kori leleten 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(4), pp. 301-306 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    A peculiar type of injury observed on the second cervical vertebra (epistropheus) of an adult cattle in the animal
    bone assemblage from the Roman fort at Cramond, Scotland, bears a striking resemblance to similar traumatic
    lesions previously described in Migration Period sacrificial horses. Transversal metal cut marks observed on the
    dens epistrophei of the cattle specimen under discussion here are consistent with the possibility that the animal
    was disposed of by severing the spine through the dorsal intervertebral space between the atlas and
    epistropheus. Due to their relatively hidden anatomical position such cut marks are unlikely to have been post
    mortem, as targeted dismemberment leaves different traces on the cervical vertebrae. This way of killing is still
    being practiced in contemporary bull fights as a coup de grâce using a small knife called the puntilla.
    Ethnographic parallels to this method are also briefly discussed.
    Kivonat
    A skóciai Cramond római erődítéseiből felszínre hozott ételhulladék elemzésekor különös sérülés nyomait
    sikerült felfedezni egy kifejlett szarvasmarha második nyakcsigolyájának (epistropheus) belső felületén. A
    vizsgált epistropheus?fog? részének peremén fém pengével ejtett finom sérülések az állat sajátos levágási
    módjára utalnak: az első és a második nyakcsigolya közötti nyíláson keresztül a védtelen gerincvelő viszonylag
    könnyen átvágható volt. A fémmel ejtett finom vágásnyomok rendkívül hasonlítanak a népvándorlás kori lovak
    ugyanezen csigolyáján már korábban leírt elváltozáshoz, amelyet az áldozati állatok levágásával hoztak
    összefüggésbe. Viszonylag védett anatómiai helyzetüknél fogva kevésbé valószínű, hogy ezek a vágásnyomok a
    már megölt állat szétbontásakor keletkeztek, mert különböznek a céltudatos post mortem feldarabolás
    nyakcsigolyákon ejtett nyomaitól. Ezt a módszert bikaviadalokon kegyelemdöfésként mindmáig alkalmazzák,
    elegendő hozzá egy kicsiny, mintegy 10 cm pengehosszúságú kés, a puntilla. A dolgozat kitér a módszer más
    néprajzi párhuzamaira is.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bartosiewicz2013_4,
      author = {Bartosiewicz, László and Vaughan, Maureen and Tóth Zsuzsanna},
      title = {Roman period evidence for a special form of perimortem trauma in large livestock / A nagyállatok levágásának különleges nyomai egy római kori leleten},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {4},
      pages = {301-306},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_4/AM-13-04-BL.pdf}
    }
    
    Bede et al.
    Bede, Ádám; Csathó, András István; Czukor, Péter; Páll, Dávid Gergely; Sümegi, Balázs Pál; Náfrádi, Katalin; Szilágyi, Gábor & Sümegi, Pál
    Preliminary results of an archaeometrical study of the Ecse-Halom (kurgan) IN Hortobágy, Hungary / A hortobágyi Ecse-Halom archeometriai vizsgálatának előzetes eredményei 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(4), pp. 251-262 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Ecse-halom is a kurgan in the Hortobágy region in Hungary that was built during the Late Copper Age/Early Bronze Age by eastern nomadic communities. It is located on the border between two modern settlements. A road of medieval origin runs along the body of the mound and separates it into two parts. Its southern half was ploughed and used as a rice field; later a military observation tower was built on the top of it. Despite of all the surface of the mound is in a fairly good condition and provides a home for regionally significant, species-rich loess steppe vegetation. During the winter of 2011 the research team of Professor Pál Sümegi conducted an undisturbed core in Ecse-halom and complex archaeometrical analyses were carried out on the profile of the mound. The mound comprises two construction layers as indicated by the decrease of magnetic susceptibility. The examination of organic compounds and carbonate content at various levels showed different values. The distribution of grain size within the section is characterized by mid-sized silt fraction.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bede&al2014_4,
      author = {Bede, Ádám and Csathó, András István and Czukor, Péter and Páll, Dávid Gergely and Sümegi, Balázs Pál and Náfrádi, Katalin and Szilágyi, Gábor and Sümegi, Pál},
      title = {Preliminary results of an archaeometrical study of the Ecse-Halom (kurgan) IN Hortobágy, Hungary / A hortobágyi Ecse-Halom archeometriai vizsgálatának előzetes eredményei},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {4},
      pages = {251-262},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_4/AM-2014-4-BA.pdf}
    }
    
    Belényesy and Virágos
    Belényesy, Károly & Virágos, Gábor
    The use of 3D technologies to survey and document archaeological buildings and sites 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(1), pp. 41-45 
    article URL 
    Abstract: A háromdimenziós felmérés és dokumentálás terén ma a legmodernebb technológiát képviselő lézeres térszkennelés terén már Magyarországon sem beszélhetünk teljesen kísérleti korszakról. A technológia alkalmazására számos hazai példát lehet már felhozni. Az eljárás természetesen folyamatosan fejlődik, de már a mostani állapotával is az a gond, hogy többet kínál, mint amit a szakemberek be- és elfogadni képesek. Az eljárás egyértelműen a jövő hétköznapi felmérési és dokumentálási technikája, ám alkalmazásának széles körben való elterjedéséhez, az általa kínált lehetőségek komolyabb kihasználásához a felhasználói közeg gondolkodásának megváltozása szükséges. Ugyanakkor a váltás egyedi és egyszeri lehetőséget kínál, hogy egy egységes európai dokumentálási standard kerüljön megfogalmazásra és bevezetésre, amihez azonban széleskörű együttműködés szükséges.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BelenyesyViragos2006,
      author = {Belényesy, Károly and Virágos, Gábor},
      title = {The use of 3D technologies to survey and document archaeological buildings and sites},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {1},
      pages = {41-45},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_1/AM-2006-1-BK-VG.pdf}
    }
    
    BendHo) et al.
    BendHo), Zsolt; Oláh, István; Péterdi, Bálint; Szakmány, György & Horváth, Eszter
    Csiszolt kHo)eszközök és ékkövek roncsolásmentes SEM-EDX vizsgálata: lehetHo)ségek és korlátok / Non-destructive SEM-EDX analytical method for polished stone tools and gems: opportunities and limitations 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(1), pp. 51-66 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Recently we have developed a new method in the SEM laboratory of Department of Petrology and
    Geochemistry; Eötvös Loránd University, in order to perform in situ mineral chemical and textural examination
    of artifacts. This method called as ?original surface investigation method? allows to complete non-destructive in
    situ textural and mineral chemical studies on the archaeological findings. Our SEM is equipped with quite large
    sample chamber, in which samples up to 300x200x55 mm can be analyzed. This special investigation needs
    special sample preparation process. The main steps of this process: cleaning, wrapping the sample into
    aluminum foil, performing an appropriate surface for investigation, and at last carbon coating. After this
    process we can place the artifacts into the sample chamber of the scanning electron microscope, take photos and
    achieve EDX measurements.
    The aim of this work was a comparative chemical and textural analysis which was carried out on thin sections and
    original (raw) surfaces of the same samples. We chose easily recognizable and chemically durable mineral phases
    for the comparative chemical analyses. Mounted gemstones can be well studied too by using this sample
    preparation method, without doing any harm to them or modifying their state. According to our results this method
    is a useful tool to perform non-destructive archaeometrical investigations in most cases. It can provide adequate
    chemical and visual information about several rocks types and gemstones. In some cases this method can provide
    only partial results, in these cases other ? and maybe destructive ? methods needed for precise results.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bendo2013_1,
      author = {BendHo), Zsolt and Oláh, István and Péterdi, Bálint and Szakmány, György and Horváth, Eszter},
      title = {Csiszolt kHo)eszközök és ékkövek roncsolásmentes SEM-EDX vizsgálata: lehetHo)ségek és korlátok / Non-destructive SEM-EDX analytical method for polished stone tools and gems: opportunities and limitations},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1},
      pages = {51-66},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_1/AM-13-01-BZS.pdf}
    }
    
    Bendő et al.
    Bendő, Zsolt; Szakmány, György; Kasztovszky, Zsolt; Maróti, Boglárka; Szilágyi, Szandra; Szilágyi, Veronika & T. Biró, Katalin
    Results of non-destructive SEM-EDX and PGAA analyses of jade and eclogite polished stone tools in Hungary / Magyarországi jade és eklogit nyersanyagú csiszolt kőeszközök roncsolásmentes vizsgálatának eredményei 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(4), pp. 187-206 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Good quality high pressure (HP) metaophiolites suitable for making stone implements, like jade and eclogite, are geologically absent in the Carpathian Basin and its surroundings. Therefore this raw material type was unknown among Hungarian findings for a long time, and henceforward this is one of the rarest types of raw material of polished stone implements in Hungary. Their investigation is very important because of their scarcity and distant origin. The nearest geological locality where these raw materials can be found is over 1000 kms away. The specific form and integrity of these stone implements indicate that they were transported as complete (finished) artefacts.
    Petrological investigations of large collections (Miháldy and Ebenhöch collections) revealed their presence among Hungarian findings (Friedel et al. 2008, Szakmány et al. 2013). In 2013 and 2014, several new pieces of HP stone implements were found in museums of Hungary, most of them from known archaeological context. Most samples were found in Transdanubia, only one piece turned up in Eastern Hungary (Fig. 3.). The 7 pieces of known archaeological context are from four localities (Zengővárkony (3), Szombathely Oladi plató (2), Alsónyék (1), Gorzsa (1)). Other pieces are stray finds. The localities and the main features of the tools are summarized in Table 1. In addition to the 3 pieces presented in Szakmány et al. 2013, 10 pieces of stone implements made of HP metaophiolites are presented in this work (Fig. 1.).
    Only non-destructive analytical methods were used in this study. Stone implements were divided into raw material type groups based on their mineral chemical and bulk rock analytical data. Our results are corresponding to results on HP metaophiolites of North-western Italy, obtained both on geological and archaeological samples (D?Amico et al. 2003, D?Amico 2012, Pétrequin et al. 2012). Based upon these facts, the HP metaophiolite stone implements in Hungary probably originated from the same raw material sources as Italian (and other Western European) HP metaophiolite stone tools. According to technical literature, these primary sources can be the Monviso, the Voltri Massif and secondary in the resedimented Oligocene conglomerates in Quaternary of River Po, Staffora and Curone equally (D?Amico et al. 2003, D?Amico & Starnini 2006, 2012, Pétrequin et al. 2012).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bendo&al2014_4,
      author = {Bendő, Zsolt and Szakmány, György and Kasztovszky, Zsolt and Maróti, Boglárka and Szilágyi, Szandra and Szilágyi, Veronika and T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {Results of non-destructive SEM-EDX and PGAA analyses of jade and eclogite polished stone tools in Hungary / Magyarországi jade és eklogit nyersanyagú csiszolt kőeszközök roncsolásmentes vizsgálatának eredményei},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {4},
      pages = {187-206},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_4/AM-2014-4-BZS.pdf}
    }
    
    Benes
    Benes, Jaromir
    Új közép-európai interdiszciplináris folyóirat a régészetben: Interdisciplinaria archaeologica / New Central European periodical for interdisciplinary archaeology 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(1), pp. 100 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Benes2011_1,
      author = {Benes, Jaromir},
      title = {Új közép-európai interdiszciplináris folyóirat a régészetben: Interdisciplinaria archaeologica / New Central European periodical for interdisciplinary archaeology},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {1},
      pages = {100},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_1/AM-11-01-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Berentés
    Berentés, Ágnes
    A Dunától keletre található magyarországi festékföldek ásványtani és alkalmazhatósági vizsgálata / Mineralogical analysis and applicability of earth colours found to the East of the Danube in Hungary 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(3), pp. 225?234 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The present study is focused on earlier used or investigated ?earth? (mineral) pigments with occurrences
    located east from river Danube in Hungary. The main goals were to re-locate their occurrences, to find out how
    large a colour range can be obtained by their use, which minerals are responsible for their colour and what
    were their earlier applications. I could locate and thus visit the historical excavation and exploration pits based
    on oral information from locals, from earlier published results and research reports. The visited sites were
    Szendehely, Felsőpetény, Romhány, Keszeg, Nézsa, Eger, Demjén, Rudabánya, Csorbakő, Telkibánya, Regéc,
    Mád and Hejce. From most of the locations I have collected samples for mineralogical investigations and
    painting tests. A total of 13 samples were investigated by X-ray Powder Diffraction and in one case (a Fe-Mn
    oxide nodule from Mezőtúr) Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectrometry was applied, by
    the means of Back-Scattered Electron imaging and X-ray Mapping.
    Investigations have revealed that the ochre colour is produced by goethite, akaganéite or amorphous Fe oxyhydroxides,
    the red, orange and purple colours are due to the decreasing content in hematite while the black and
    dark brown colours are produced by ramsdellite and amorphous Mn-oxides.
    The applicability of materials for painting was tested by preparing dyes with the application of vitellus and
    linseed-oil mixed with and beeswax as support matrix. The miscibility and covering capability of dyes was
    different for the different techniques, based on whether the sample was kaolinite or illite dominant.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Berentes2011_3,
      author = {Berentés, Ágnes},
      title = {A Dunától keletre található magyarországi festékföldek ásványtani és alkalmazhatósági vizsgálata / Mineralogical analysis and applicability of earth colours found to the East of the Danube in Hungary},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {3},
      pages = {225?234},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_3/AM-11-03-BA.pdf}
    }
    
    Bertók et al.
    Bertók, Gábor; Gáti, Csilla & Simon, Béla
    Adatbetakarítás? Agrárrégészet? A roncsolásmentes régészeti kutatás újabb módszerei és aspektusai Szemely?Hegyes (Baranya megye) lelőhelyen / Data harvesting? Agro-archaeology? New methods and aspects of non-invasive archaeological prospection on the site of Szemely-Hegyes (Baranya County, Hungary) 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(2), pp. 103-116 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    The sample area for our study, the Late Neolithic site of Szemely?Hegyes (Baranya County) has been a target of our archaeological research for the last 10 years. The two enclosure complexes have raised numerous questions concerning their function, structure, and chronological relations. Since 2005 we could obtain aerial photography, geophysical survey, trial excavations, and LIDAR survey data of the site. As a result, we are able to analyze all the data combined. Based on a recent idea by Béla Simon we came to the conclusion that precision agriculture datasets may also be indicative of archaeological phenomena since the vegetation and crop quality are the basic characteristics of the archaeological interpretation of aerial photography. A local agricultural company provided us with the datasets of the sample area for the years 2013 and 2014. The data show a real connection between the vegetation and the archaeological features: above the ditches of the rondels the amount of the harvested crops increased, although the datasets of the two years show significant differences. These anomalies were surely caused by the weather conditions; the archaeological features show up only in the 2013 data when rainfall was significantly lower, and the maize produced the worse of the two harvest results.
    Kivonat
    A tanulmányban szereplő Szemely?Hegyes (Baranya megye) késő neolitikus lelőhely már tíz éve tárgya régészeti kutatásainknak. Az egymás mellett fekvő két körárok számos kérdést vet fel a funkciójukat, szerkezetüket és időbeli viszonyaikat érintően. 2005 óta módunk nyílt légi felderítésekre, geofizikai felmérésekre, próbafeltárásokra, és LIDAR felmérésre is a területen. Jelenleg mindezeket az adatokat összevetve tudunk megfigyeléseket végezni. Simon Béla ötletéből kiindulva vetődött fel a precíziós mezőgazdasági módszerek bevonása a kutatásba. Szerencsénkre a szemelyi táblán gazdálkodó Belvárdgyulai Zrt. 2013 óta használ precíziós technikát, melyek adatait rendelkezésünkre bocsátották. A kapott adatokat kiértékelve úgy tűnik, hogy valóban összefüggés figyelhető meg a régészeti jelenségek és betakarított növények között, bár jelentős mértékben eltér a 2013. és 2014. év adatsora: a 2013. szárazabb évben kiválóan látszó körárkok a 2014. évi adatokban alig jelentkeztek, ami feltehetően az időjárásbeli különbségekkel függ össze. Úgy tűnik ezek alapján, hogy a hozamtérképezési adatok alkalmasak lehetnek régészti jelenségek kimutatására, és a növényzet a kedvezőtlenebb körülmények között jobb indikátor a régészet számára.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bertok&al2015_2,
      author = {Bertók, Gábor and Gáti, Csilla and Simon, Béla},
      title = {Adatbetakarítás? Agrárrégészet? A roncsolásmentes régészeti kutatás újabb módszerei és aspektusai Szemely?Hegyes (Baranya megye) lelőhelyen / Data harvesting? Agro-archaeology? New methods and aspects of non-invasive archaeological prospection on the site of Szemely-Hegyes (Baranya County, Hungary)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {2},
      pages = {103-116},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_2/AM-2015-2-BG.pdf}
    }
    
    Bezeczky
    Bezeczky, Tamás
    Az isztriai olívaolaj gyártás és a Laecanius amphorák / Olive oil production in Istria and the amphorae of Laecanii 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(2), pp. 69-94 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The first topic is the North Italian and Istrian olive oil production. Then the members of the Laecanius family will be discussed. They were the best-known olive oil pr oducing family of the Istrian peninsula. This will be followed by a brief survey of their am phorae, amphora st amps and villas. Such a su rvey can give a picture of one of the segments of the Roman economy from Julius Caesar to Septimius Severus. Our work concentrates on the amphorae, the best-known containers of the ancient world. In addition, they were used for shipping important foodstuffs (wine, olive oil, fish sauce, fruit). The amphorae can be linked both with the villas where the foodstuffs were produced and with the commerce and shipping. The study of amphora production gives an insight into the processes of the ceramic industry. This article is part of the archaeometric research that analyses the amphorae produced in the Faľana workshop, as well as the dolia, tiles and bricks of the villas. The results are discussed in the article of the geologists of our team (Sándor Józsa, György Szakmány, Gabriella Obbágy, Zsolt Bend ő and Heinrich Taubald). At the end of the current paper, an English summary is given.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bezeczky2016,
      author = {Bezeczky, Tamás},
      title = {Az isztriai olívaolaj gyártás és a Laecanius amphorák / Olive oil production in Istria and the amphorae of Laecanii},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {2},
      pages = {69-94},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_2/AM-2016-2-BT.pdf}
    }
    
    Bezeczky
    Bezeczky, Tamás
    Római amphorák online tipológiája / Roman Amphorae: A digital resource. University of Southampton, 2005 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(2), pp. 37 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bezeczky2006,
      author = {Bezeczky, Tamás},
      title = {Római amphorák online tipológiája / Roman Amphorae: A digital resource. University of Southampton, 2005},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {2},
      pages = {37},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_2/AM-2006-2-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Bigazzi et al.
    Bigazzi, Giulio; Oddone, Massimo & Radi, Giovanna
    The Italian obsidian sources / Az olaszországi obszidián lelőhelyek 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(1), pp. 01-12 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Európában az obszidián igen ritka nyersanyagnak számít, összehasonlítva más területekkel, például a Közel-
    Kelettel. Az olasz obszidián nyersanyagforrások négy vulkáni komplexumban találhatók meg, Szardínia,
    Palmarola, Lipari és Pantelleria szigetén. A szerzők áttekintést adnak a nyersanyagforrások geológiai, régészeti
    és archeometriai kutatásáról.
    Az olasz obszidián források archeometriai vizsgálata igen korán megindult (optikai emissziós spektroszkópiai
    (OES) módszerrel), a tényleges elkülönítést azonban megbízhatóan a hetvenes, nyolcvanas évek vizsgálatai
    alapozták meg, neutron aktivációs analízis (NAA) és röntgen-spektroszkópia (XRF) segítségével. A
    továbbiakban izotóp-összetétel vizsgálatokkal, geokronológiai módszerekkel is sikerült a nyersanyagforrásokat
    jellemezni, többek között hasadási nyomvonal detektálás (FT) segítségével. A hatékony elkülönítésre több
    módszer együttes alkalmazásával van lehetőség.
    A szerzők vizsgálják az obszidián régészeti elterjedését is, nyersanyagforrásonként és kronológiai
    periódusonként valamint kitérnek a jellemző eszköztípusokra.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BigazziETAL2005,
      author = {Bigazzi, Giulio and Oddone, Massimo and Radi, Giovanna},
      title = {The Italian obsidian sources / Az olaszországi obszidián lelőhelyek},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {1},
      pages = {01-12},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_1/AM-2005-1-GB.pdf}
    }
    
    Biller
    Biller, Anna Zsófia
    Early Bronze Age and Roman Period elk (Alces alces Linné, 1758) remains from the area of Budapest, Hungary / Kora bronzkori és római kori jávorszarvas (Alces alces Linné, 1758) maradványok Magyarországról, Budapest körzetéből 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(4), pp. 275-282 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    This article presents recently unearthed bones of European elk in Hungary. Bones of this large cervid regularly
    occur in Pleistocene assemblages. Archaeological finds of this species, however, are curiosities in our area as
    the natural distribution of elk has been much further north during the Holocene. Elk remains found in the
    Csepel?Duna-dűlő site (Early Bronze Age, Bell beaker culture) and in the XI. district of Budapest, preventive
    excavations at the Allee shopping center (early Roman Imperial Period) probably originate from stragglers.
    Kivonat
    A cikk a jávorszarvasok újabb régészeti előfordulásait mutatja be Magyarországon. E nagytestű szarvast számos
    maradvány képviseli pleisztocén leletegyüttesekben. A hazai holocén leletanyagban azonban kuriózumnak
    számít, mert természetes élettere ma jóval északabbra helyezkedik el. Kóborló egyedek maradványait sikerült
    azonosítani a korabronzkori Harangedényes-kultúra Csepel?Duna-dűlői telepén, valamint a XI. kerületi Allee
    bevásárlóközpont építését megelőző feltáráson előkerült egyik kora császárkori objektumban..
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biller2013_4,
      author = {Biller, Anna Zsófia},
      title = {Early Bronze Age and Roman Period elk (Alces alces Linné, 1758) remains from the area of Budapest, Hungary / Kora bronzkori és római kori jávorszarvas (Alces alces Linné, 1758) maradványok Magyarországról, Budapest körzetéből},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {4},
      pages = {275-282},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_4/AM-13-04-BA.pdf}
    }
    
    Biller
    Biller, Anna Zsófia
    Vecsés környéki Árpád-kori lelőhelyek állatcsont anyagainak régészeti értelmezése / Archaeological interpretation of the archaeozoological finds of Mediaeval sites (Árpád-Dynasty period) around Vecsés 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(1), pp. 45-54 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This article is a review of the animal bone materials from three Árpád Period (AD 10-13th century)
    archaeological sites: Vecsés 36, Gyál 8 and Gyál 13 in Hungary. They are located on the future tracestage of
    the M0 motorway near Budapest. New results will be compared with contemporaneous, known sites from the
    Árpád Period. These three sites form a microregion which characterizes an archaeozoologically unknown part
    of the Hungarian Plain in light of animal exploitation during the Árpád Period. The evolving picture partly fits
    the known parameters of the period and geographically complements the north-west part of the Hungarian
    Plain. The very low consumption of pork was confirmed and it coincided with the important function of horse
    meat eating at the Gyál 8 and Vecsés 36 sites, in spite of ecclesiastical prohibition. These results direct attention
    to the fact that archaeozoological finds are also archaeological artefacts, a valuable source of information on
    cultural matters, revealing events of daily life that could not be reconstructed from other finds.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biller2007,
      author = {Biller, Anna Zsófia},
      title = {Vecsés környéki Árpád-kori lelőhelyek állatcsont anyagainak régészeti értelmezése / Archaeological interpretation of the archaeozoological finds of Mediaeval sites (Árpád-Dynasty period) around Vecsés},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {1},
      pages = {45-54},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_1/AM-2007-01-BAZS.pdf}
    }
    
    Bosznay
    Bosznay, Ádám
    Vértes László és a régészeti statisztikai elemzések / László Vértes and the application of statistical methods 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(2), pp. 07-10 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The paper describes some aspects of the application of mathematical statistical methods in the publications of L.
    Vértes. Demontrates the fact that Vértes used the methods of mathematical statistics to obtain archeological
    consequences. Shows also, that Vértes ? though he was not a mathematician- used these methods with the
    rigorousness of a professional statistician.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bosznay2008,
      author = {Bosznay, Ádám},
      title = {Vértes László és a régészeti statisztikai elemzések / László Vértes and the application of statistical methods},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {2},
      pages = {07-10},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_2/AM-08-02-BA.pdf}
    }
    
    Bradák
    Bradák, Balázs
    őskörnyezet rekonstrukció Vörs-Máriasszonysziget régészeti lelőhely környezetében - szedimentológiai és paleotalajtani közelítés / Palaeogeographical reconstruction of the archaeological site Vörs-Máriasszonysziget 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(1), pp. 67-76 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Five different sedimentological sequences by hand drilling are evaluated here from the surroundings of the Vörs,
    Máriaasszonysziget archaeological site. VORSBB1 from the higher position of the island, VORSBB2 from the coastal
    environment, VORS6, VORS7 and VORS8 from the marshy or water covered bay in the line of the overland drilling.
    ?Sartorius? sedimentation instrument was used to determine the grain size distribution of the detached layers. The
    sedimentological analysis was complemented by mesomorphological study of the remain of washing. Two main
    questions were investigated: (1) Can we determine any group of the sediments? (2) Can we reconstruct and correlate
    the sedimentological and pedogenetical environments with any periods of Holocene?
    The analysis of the samples gave the following results:
    There were three main types of the sequences due to the different environment of the (sub)recent or late Holocene. The
    bed of the samples was greyish yellow sand (Szh) with a higher content of fine-grained material (silt and clay)
    originating from ?overland sediment sequence?. Yellow sand (Sh) was identified above these strata. A possible thin
    layer with fine-grained gravel (Kh) was revealed in the lower part of this sand. Limonite and small calcareous
    concretions were identified in the latter two layers. Above the yellow sand, brown clayey sand was found. This
    archaeological layer was not detected in the ?coastal environment sediment sequence? (VORSBB2). The closing parts
    of these sequences were brownish black, weakly developed recent soil layers. This soil adjoined with a light brown
    transitional sandy layer to the lowest part of the sequences.
    The beds of the samples were grey clayey-silty sand (Bh2) originating from the ?lake environment sediment sequence?.
    Fine-grained gravel was identified in the lower part of VORS7 and VORS8 sequences. A peaty layer was revealed
    above this grey sediment in all sequences. This organic material rich layer jointed with a black, compacted, transient
    clayey matter to the grey sand. The peaty layer covered with lighter grey sand (Bh1), and the sequences closed with a
    peaty layer with remnant of recent plants.
    The sediment classification and the preconception of environment reconstruction were created on the basis of
    macroscopical, mesomorphological and sedimentological analysis. The clayey-silty sand with limonite is an important
    sediment to correlate the sequences. This material was identified in the bed of the sequence of VORSBB1, 2 and VORS7
    drilling cores. Accurate analyses are needed to characterise the material of the dolomite gravel layer in VORSBB1,
    VORSBB2 and VORS7 and 8. It should be an other important marker layer in these sequences as a correlative
    sediment between the overland, coastal and lake sediment sequence. This gravel was possibly deposited before the
    Atlantic phase (Pleistocene, Early Holocene?) than redeposited second time during the abrasion of Lake Balaton in the
    Early Subboreal period of Holocene. The redeposited gravel of this second event was identified in the lake environment
    sequence of VORS7 and 8 drilling cores. There was a possibility of a dry period and deflation before the Early
    Subboreal lake level raising in the Late Atlantic phase. The archaeological layer is missing in the ?coastal
    environment drilling? (VORSBB2) and a possible hiatus is supposed below the peaty layer (VORS6, 7 and 8). It may be
    eroded due to the abrasion of a higher level of Lake Balaton or to the (areal) erosion in a humid period of Holocene or
    because of the deflation (wind erosion) in the dryer period of Holocene. The light grey sand was deposited by the lake
    level rising of Lake Balaton in historical times.
    The above mentioned many possibilities show that more information (pollen analysis, palaeontology, chronometrical
    dating, archaeology) is needed to correlate the three main type of sequences and to reconstruct the development of the
    shallow water, marshy-peaty or sandy beach environment.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bradak2007,
      author = {Bradák, Balázs},
      title = {őskörnyezet rekonstrukció Vörs-Máriasszonysziget régészeti lelőhely környezetében - szedimentológiai és paleotalajtani közelítés / Palaeogeographical reconstruction of the archaeological site Vörs-Máriasszonysziget},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {1},
      pages = {67-76},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_1/AM-2007-01-BB.pdf}
    }
    
    Bradák et al.
    Bradák, Balázs; Szakmány, György & Józsa, Sándor
    Csiszolt kőeszközök mágnesezhetőség vizsgálata - új módszer alkalmazása az archeometriai kutatásokban / Magnetic susceptibility measurements of polished stone tools– application of new method in archeometry 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(1), pp. 13-22 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurement has been used in geoscience since ?50s of the last century. This method is successfully used for example in climatic reconstruction of the Quaternary or in volcanological investigations. This paper presents a new application of magnetic susceptibility measurement. We used kappameter KT-5 low field magnetic susceptibility meter to measure about 360 polished stone tools of the Miháldy collection, a set of prehistoric stone axes in the possession of the Veszprém regional museum. This artefacts represent well the Neolithic, Copper- and Bronze Age polished stone axes in Northern and Central parts of Transdanubia.
    Each stone tool was measured three times. The magnetic susceptibility value considered was the average of the measured results. We used correction factors to get real magnetic susceptibility values, due to the different size, thickness and surface of the artefacts. The correction for surface unevenness and correction for the size of stone tools were investigated. We elaborated model experiments to determine the thickness correction factor. The change of MS values were significant under 2 cm thickness.
    Apart from the polished stone tools we made MS measurements on samples originated from the outcrops of possible provenance of polished stone artefacts.
    With the application of this new, non-destructive method, the MS values of the most important raw materials types of the Miháldy stone tools were determined, and together with the macroscopic description we could achieve a more precise determination of the raw material.
    Statistical analysis of MS values of greenschist stone artefacts of the Miháldy collection yielded three main groups of raw material sources: 1. Greenschist stone tools with the lowest MS value, between 0.25 * 10-3 SI and 0.8 * 10-3 SI unit, originated from Felsőcsatár, Hungary; 2. Stone artefacts with higher MS value (0.2 ? 3.3 * 10-3 SI unit) originated from Velké Hamry outcrop, near ®elezn? Brod, Czech Republic; finally 3. polished stone tools with extremely high magnetic susceptibility (30 - 130 * 10-3 SI unit) originated from ®eleąice, Czech Republic. Moreover there are some greenschists, which cannot be fit to these three main groups.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BradakETAL2005,
      author = {Bradák, Balázs and Szakmány, György and Józsa, Sándor},
      title = {Csiszolt kőeszközök mágnesezhetőség vizsgálata - új módszer alkalmazása az archeometriai kutatásokban / Magnetic susceptibility measurements of polished stone tools– application of new method in archeometry},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {1},
      pages = {13-22},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_1/AM-2005-1-BB.pdf}
    }
    
    Brandl
    Brandl, Michael
    The Multi Layered Chert Sourcing Approach (MLA). Analytical provenance studies of silicite raw materials / Többrétegű stratégia kovakőzetek proveniencia vizsgálatára 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(3), pp. 145-156 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Provenance studies of chert and flint raw materials (silicites) are an important component of archaeological research. The identification of the sources of rocks used for the production of chipped stone tools is the gateway to any further investigations concerning prehistoric resource management strategies. Chert source provenance studies thus play a significant role in the interpretation of lithic assemblages concerning the procurement, processing and distribution of lithic raw materials, e.g., revealing routes of migration, intercultural exchange and circulation networks.
    A transdisciplinary concept (the Multi Layered Chert Sourcing Approach, short MLA) presents a possibility for successfully sourcing chert and flint. The proposed method consists of a tripartite analytical system: Visual (macroscopic), microscopic and petrological/geochemical. For geochemical analysis, Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is applied. LA-ICP-MS allows for the detection of main-, trace- and ultra-trace element concentrations (-0.1 ppm) in rock materials and has been well established in lithic raw material research. The multivariate geochemical datasets are subsequently evaluated by applying Compositional Data Analysis (CODA). Since CODA is concerned with the ratios between values, raw composition data (i.e. the absolute measured values) need to be transformed into the Euclidean geometry system where statistical methods can operate. After transformation, discriminant analysis (DA) is applied for classification. Several successful studies demonstrate the potential of the MLA illustrating that it is not sufficient to rely on a single analysis method for chert sourcing. A combination of the proposed techniques produces the most robust data base for a secure characterisation and source separation, including the possibility to lay weight on the performed method(s) that produced the best results.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brandl_2016_3,
      author = {Brandl, Michael},
      title = {The Multi Layered Chert Sourcing Approach (MLA). Analytical provenance studies of silicite raw materials / Többrétegű stratégia kovakőzetek proveniencia vizsgálatára},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {3},
      pages = {145-156},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_3/AM-2016-3-MB.pdf}
    }
    
    Brandl
    Brandl, Michael
    Classification of rocks within the chert group: austrian practice / Kovakőzetek osztályozása: az osztrák gyakorlat 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(3), pp. 183-190 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The detection of raw materials used in the production of flaked stone tools has served as a necessary
    methodological component within the field of archaeology. Nevertheless, controversial debates concerning
    accurate terminology for Sio2 varities have inspired a terminological lacuna between the fields of geology,
    mineralogy and archaeology. This is due to the fact that SiO2 rocks never formed the main focus of Earth
    Sciences, resulting in an inconsistent terminology and at times lacking a proper definition. As a result of years of
    research, a classification system for rocks from the chert group has been developed at the Austrian Academy of
    Sciences. This paper intends to give a practical approach to this classification system based on petrological,
    mineralogical and archaeological demands.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brandl2010_3,
      author = {Brandl, Michael},
      title = {Classification of rocks within the chert group: austrian practice / Kovakőzetek osztályozása: az osztrák gyakorlat},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {3},
      pages = {183-190},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_3/AM-10-03-MB.pdf}
    }
    
    Bánffy
    Bánffy, Eszter
    Földindulás? A régészet válsága és változása napjainkban / Landslide? The crisis and changes in archaeology in our days 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(1), pp. 01-04 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Geological sciences and archaeology has been connected since the beginnings, still, a new insight of this
    connection is taking shape nowadays, mostly as a consequence of the crisis and major changes in interpreting
    archaeological science. This change and new interpretation has reached the archaeological research in all
    countries, though not at the same time and with slight differences. In Hungary, the changes were mostly caused
    and triggered by the end of socialism as well as the start of large-scale preventive excavations. In this short
    introduction the crisis in Hungary will be discussed, its disadvantageous and beneficial aspects, as well as some
    possible future ways in archaeological research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Banffy2009,
      author = {Bánffy, Eszter},
      title = {Földindulás? A régészet válsága és változása napjainkban / Landslide? The crisis and changes in archaeology in our days},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {1},
      pages = {01-04},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_1/AM-09-01-BE.PDF}
    }
    
    Bárány
    Bárány, Annamária
    Cumanian dogs from Csengele (SE Hungary) / A csengelei kun kutyák 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(4), pp. 283-300 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    During the excavation of Csengele-Bogárhát 12/14/A/2 site (Csongrád County, SE Hungary) Cumanian
    settlement (Árpád Period, 13th century), remains of nine dogs were found in feature no. 38 (oven), no. 98
    (ditch), no. 99 (ditch), no. 113 (pit), and no. 136 (ditch). The withers heights of the Cumanian dogs from
    Csengele varied between 44.3 and 58.9 cm, indicative of medium-small and medium body-height.
    Looking at the craniometrical parameters of three individuals (feature no. 99/I, feature no. 113 and feature no.
    136) belonged to the morphological group of Canis familiaris intermedius (Woldřich 1878), which includes
    hound-type dogs. The fourth dog (feature no. 98) belonged to the morphological group Canis familiaris matris
    opitimae (Jeittneles 1877), which also contains the shepherd dogs.
    Kivonat
    Csengele-Bogárhát 12/14/A/2. lelőhely (Csongrád megye) kun település (Árpád-kor, XIII. sz.) feltárása során
    összesen 9 kutya csontmaradványai kerültek elő a 38. objektumból (tűzhely), a 98., 99., 136. objektumokból
    (árok) és a 113. objektumból (gödör). A csengelei kun kutyák 44,3 cm és 58,9 cm közötti marmagasságúak,
    kisközepes és közepes testméretűek voltak.
    Craniológiai jellemzőik alapján 3 egyed (a 99. objektum/I. egyed, 113. objektum, 136. objektum/ I. egyed) a
    kopóféléket is magába foglaló Canis familiaris intermedius (Woldřich 1878) alakkörbe tartozott. A negyedik
    kutya (98. objektum/I. egyed) a juhászkutyákat is felölelő Canis familiaris matris opitimae (Jeittneles 1877)
    alakkörbe tartozott.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Barany2013_4,
      author = {Bárány, Annamária},
      title = {Cumanian dogs from Csengele (SE Hungary) / A csengelei kun kutyák},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {4},
      pages = {283-300},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_4/AM-13-04-Barany.pdf}
    }
    
    Bíró et al.
    Bíró, Gyöngyvér; Fintor, Krisztián; Raucsik, Béla; Wolf, Mária & Tóth, Mária
    Jászfényszaru?Szőlők-alja lelőhelyről származó Árpád-kori kerámiák archeometriai vizsgálata / Archaeometrical analysis of Árpádian Age ceramics from Jászfényszaru?Szőlők-alja 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(1), pp. 27-38 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    Preventive excavation, led by Róbert Kertész in 2007 in Jászfényszaru?Szőlők-alja, revealed a fragment of a settlement from the Árpádian Age. The ceramic material is significant, and on the basis of its dating, it can be divided into two groups, an earlier one (from the end of the 11th century to the turn of the 12th/13th century) and a later one (from the turn of the 12th/13th century to the beginning of the 14th century). We chose 26 samples from the findings of the two periods which were examined with petrography and XRD analysis. On the basis of the results we can state that in the earlier period local calcareous clay was used without any clear evidence for tempering material. In the later period a carbonate-poor clay tempered with sediment grains foreign from the local geological environment was used for the production of ceramics, of mainly white pottery. Although some differences are observable between the two periods regarding the raw and temper materials, no change in the produce technology can be recognise. Based on the previous observations the same population might have lived in this settlement in the above mentioned time, but for some reason ? which has not been determined yet ? they started to use another clay raw material at the end of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th century.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biroetal2014_1,
      author = {Bíró, Gyöngyvér and Fintor, Krisztián and Raucsik, Béla and Wolf, Mária and Tóth, Mária},
      title = {Jászfényszaru?Szőlők-alja lelőhelyről származó Árpád-kori kerámiák archeometriai vizsgálata / Archaeometrical analysis of Árpádian Age ceramics from Jászfényszaru?Szőlők-alja},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {1},
      pages = {27-38},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_1/AM-14-01-BGY.pdf}
    }
    
    Casali
    Casali, Franco
    X-Ray Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography for Cultural Heritage 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(1), pp. 24-28 
    article URL 
    Abstract: X-ray detection systems for high resolution Digital Radiography (DR) and Computed Tomography (CT) have been developed at the Physics Department of the University of Bologna. The research target is the development of systems to be applied in cultural heritage conservation and industrial radiology.
    In the field of cultural heritage, different kind of objects (ancient necklaces, paintings, bronze or marble statues) have to be inspected in order to acquire significant information as the method used to assemble, the manufacturing techniques or the presence of defects. These features could be very useful, for example, for dating works of art or determining appropriate maintenance and restoration procedures. Among the advanced methods available, 3D CT can be successfully used for the investigation of ancient works of art because it preserves their integrity and provides images of inner parts, which are otherwise not visible.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Casali2006,
      author = {Casali, Franco},
      title = {X-Ray Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography for Cultural Heritage},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {1},
      pages = {24-28},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_1/AM-2006-1-FC.pdf}
    }
    
    Csedreki and Dani
    Csedreki, László & Dani, János
    A Hencidai rézkori aranykincsen végzett PIXE vizsgálatok tanúságai / Experiences of the PIXE Analyses Performed on the Copper Age Gold Treasure of Hencida 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(4), pp. 285?292 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The aim of the examination was to collect basic quantitative and qualitative data about the gold treasure of Hencida to be
    comparable with other objects for the research on Copper Age gold metallurgy. The series of PIXE measurements described in
    the article is closely connected to the already available ED-XRF, OM, SEM and FTIR analyses. It was confirmed by the new
    examination that the samples belong to at least 3 (or possibly 5) different groups based on their composition. The composition of
    the pendants differs from the elemental composition of the gold mines in the Roşia Montană area, which implies the use of other
    sources of raw material. The elemental mapping shows homogeneity in the element distribution of pendants, which may be a new
    piece of evidence for casting. At the same time ? beside the XRF analysis ? the PIXE examinations also confirmed the production
    of the various pendants on different occasions and of different raw materials.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Csedreki&Dani2011_4,
      author = {Csedreki, László and Dani, János},
      title = {A Hencidai rézkori aranykincsen végzett PIXE vizsgálatok tanúságai / Experiences of the PIXE Analyses Performed on the Copper Age Gold Treasure of Hencida},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {4},
      pages = {285?292},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_4/AM-11-04-DJ.pdf}
    }
    
    Csengeri
    Csengeri, Piroska
    Settlements of the Bükk Culture from Hernád Valley, North-Eastern Hungary / Középső neolitikus települések a Hernád völgyében 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(4), pp. 227-236 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Some new results of the research of Bükk culture has been summarized in this paper. The presented data has
    been derived from recently excavated Middle Neolithic sites of the Hernád valley. Settlement features of
    important site of the DAAD-MÖB project ?Long distance trade in Neolithic pottery?, Garadna-Elkerülő út, site
    No. 2 has been introduced. The Garadna ceramic finds and radiocarbon dates (from skeletal remains) have
    thrown new light upon the earliest phase and the earliest decoration styles of the Bükk culture. The ceramics of
    Garadna and Novajidrány-Elkerülő út sites have other interesting characteristics that have shown direct
    connections with the contemporary painted pottery groups.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Csengeri2010_4,
      author = {Csengeri, Piroska},
      title = {Settlements of the Bükk Culture from Hernád Valley, North-Eastern Hungary / Középső neolitikus települések a Hernád völgyében},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {4},
      pages = {227-236},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_4/AM-10-04-CSP.pdf}
    }
    
    Csippán
    Csippán, Péter
    Meat supplies of the markets of Medieval and Early Modern Age Debrecen (NE Hungary) / Debrecen késő közép- és kora újkori piacainak húsellátása 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(4), pp. 249-258 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    The aim of this paper is to compare animal bone material from seven different sites in and around the Old-Town
    of Debrecen. During the analysis over 13,000 bone fragments were identified from the Middle and Early Modern
    Ages. These impressive numbers offer an opportunity for drafting the organization of meat supplies in Debrecen
    during these historical periods, and help understanding butchery techniques and conventions.
    The other goal of the paper was to reconsider the concept of workshops and use it in the case of butcheries. Are
    they real workshops or not? And if they are, is it possible to investigate them by the ?general workshop
    identifier? criteria? Possibly yes, because, like the other workshops, butchery has special processes.
    Kivonat
    A tanulmány célja hét különböző lelőhely állatcsont anyagának összehasonlítása Debrecen óvárosából. Az
    elemzések során több, mint 13.000 állatcsont töredéket sikerült meghatározni a lelőhelyek késő közép- és kora
    újkorra keltezett objektumaiból. A leletek nagy számának köszönhetően megkísérelhetjük felvázolni Debrecen
    városának húsellátását, a mészárlás módját és szokásait ebben a két történeti időszakban. A vizsgálatok másik
    célja újraértelmezni a műhely fogalmát és koncepcióját a mészárszékek esetében. Értelmezhetőek-e a
    mészárszékek műhelyekként, vagy sem? Ha igen, úgy használhatjuk-e a műhelyek lokalizációjára használt
    általános kritériumokat? Nagy valószínűséggel igen, hiszen a mészárszékek ugyanolyan sajátos műveleti
    folyamatokkal rendelkeznek, mint a műhelyek általános típusai.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Csippán2013_4,
      author = {Csippán, Péter},
      title = {Meat supplies of the markets of Medieval and Early Modern Age Debrecen (NE Hungary) / Debrecen késő közép- és kora újkori piacainak húsellátása},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {4},
      pages = {249-258},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_4/AM-13-04-CSP.pdf}
    }
    
    Cuppini
    Cuppini, Giampiero
    Advanced technologies focused to the evaluation of the state of preservation and related restoration actions of the monumental historical heritage 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(1), pp. 67-68 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This presentation recalls a new initiative within the Emilia-Romagna Region: the establishment of the NEREA (NEtwork for Advanced REnewal), a consortium among research centres, universities and high-tech companies. The NEREA supports research in advanced restoration techniques and it is organised as a virtual laboratory. The main activities of the network concern evaluation of the quality of materials used in restoration and dissemination of information concerning the application techniques focused on the needs of SMEs specialised in architectural and archaeological restoration. The ultimate goal of the NEREA is creating the possibility for SMEs to certify their products at the EU level. Even though created on the regional level, the NEREA is important to the establishment of broader co-operations at both national and international level, through bilateral-multilateral agreements with parallel, specialised consortia-institutions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cuppini2006,
      author = {Cuppini, Giampiero},
      title = {Advanced technologies focused to the evaluation of the state of preservation and related restoration actions of the monumental historical heritage},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {1},
      pages = {67-68},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_1/AM-2006-1-GC.pdf}
    }
    
    Czajlik
    Czajlik, Zoltán
    A fémnyersanyagok ?skori kohósításának nyomai a Kárpát-medencében / Traces of prehistoric smelting workshops in the Carpathian Basin 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(2), pp. 97-104 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Due to various reasons which can be explained by the history of research only, the analysis of the use of
    Prehistoric metal raw materials concentrated mainly on the analytical study of the elements until the 1990s. The
    aim of our research is not only the use of methods mentioned beforehand (geoarchaeological research ? Czajlik
    1993, typological classification of semi-products ? Czajlik 1996, 2006) but the minute processing of
    archaeological data and the presentation of the direct proofs of Prehistoric ore smelting. It is also among our
    goal to publish the synthesis of the mountain-archaeological research: the result of studying materials which are
    significantly different in all aspects (gold, copper, iron). Thus, all the data on the Carpathian basin
    metalworking ? which was not accessible in this form before ? would be available in a uniform description for
    further study.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Czajlik2012_2,
      author = {Czajlik, Zoltán},
      title = {A fémnyersanyagok ?skori kohósításának nyomai a Kárpát-medencében / Traces of prehistoric smelting workshops in the Carpathian Basin},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {2},
      pages = {97-104},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_2/AM-12-02-CZ.pdf}
    }
    
    Czajlik
    Czajlik, Zoltán
    Aerial archaeological prospection and documentation. The Aerial Archaeological Archive of the Institute of Archaeological Sciences at the Eötvös Loránd University of Budapest. (Summary of the activity in 1993-2005) 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(3), pp. 01-10 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The Aerial Archaeological Archive of the Institute for Archaeological Sciences of the Eötvös Loránd University of
    Budapest has been created in 1993. It?s activity is characterised by four important programs:
    - 13 years of aerial archaeological research (until 2000 in the cadre of the Hungarian-French archaeological cooperation).
    - Exploration and mapping of aerial archaeological sites, which has been done parallel to the other activities.
    - Processing of the data obtained from the 768 aerial archaeological sites discovered until 2006. The processing of the
    systematised archive has begun in two directions: we make the interpretations for the important sites and we prepare
    the geographical transformations of the aerial photos (if possible) and ? principally in the case of settlements - we
    conduct intensive field surveys to control them.
    - Cataloguing of earthwork fortifications, tell settlements and tumuli, which has been greatly supported by
    photographical surveys. This surveys can reveal new sites as well as new information about already known sites.
    The research activity of 13 years makes it possible to draw some general conclusions concerning the best choice of
    geographical areas (Northern and Eastern Transdanubia) and periods (the 2nd and 3rd weeks of June) for the most
    fruitful research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Czajlik2007,
      author = {Czajlik, Zoltán},
      title = {Aerial archaeological prospection and documentation. The Aerial Archaeological Archive of the Institute of Archaeological Sciences at the Eötvös Loránd University of Budapest. (Summary of the activity in 1993-2005)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {3},
      pages = {01-10},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_3/AM-07-03-CZ.pdf}
    }
    
    Czajlik et al.
    Czajlik, Zoltán; BödHo)cs, András & Szilvia, Bartus-SzöllHo)si
    Az Aerial Archaeology Research Group (AARG) nemzetközi konferenciája 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(1), pp. 93-94 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Czajlik2013_1,
      author = {Czajlik, Zoltán and BödHo)cs, András and Bartus-SzöllHo)si Szilvia},
      title = {Az Aerial Archaeology Research Group (AARG) nemzetközi konferenciája},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1},
      pages = {93-94},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_1/AM-13-01-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Czifra et al.
    Czifra, Szabolcs; Kreiter, Attila; Széles, Éva; Tóth, Mária & Viktorik, Orsolya
    Kora vaskori korongolt kerámia a Kárpát-medencében / Early Iron Age Wheel-Turned Pottery in the Carpathian Basin 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(3), pp. 235?250 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Along the M31 Motorway at Nagytarcsa-Urasági-dűlő, amongst other periods, an Early Iron Age settlement
    section was excavated. Wheel-made wares, represented amongst the finds from the Scythian period of the
    settlement, directed our attention to the problems concerning Early Iron Age wheel-made pottery. Forty-four
    sherds were selected from the ceramic material of the settlement, which were examined by the usual typological
    methods of archaeology and were also submitted for petrographic microscopy analysis. Ceramic analyses were
    also supplemented by petrographic analysis of sediments, which were collected at the site. Three sherds,
    characteristic of the Vekerzug group (a wheel-made biconical pot or plate; a hand-built bowl with inverted rim;
    and a hand-built barrel-shaped pot), were examined by LA-ICP-MS and XRD analyses to identify possible
    connections and variations between the raw materials and tempers in the different ceramic types. One of the
    aims of our analyses was to determine the provenance of the ceramics and to assess whether the technological
    characteristics postulate the former existence of specialized workshop at the site, since wheel-made wares
    required distinctive technological knowledge.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Czifra2011_3,
      author = {Czifra, Szabolcs and Kreiter, Attila and Széles, Éva and Tóth, Mária and Viktorik, Orsolya},
      title = {Kora vaskori korongolt kerámia a Kárpát-medencében / Early Iron Age Wheel-Turned Pottery in the Carpathian Basin},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {3},
      pages = {235?250},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_3/AM-11-03-CSZ.pdf}
    }
    
    Dezső et al.
    Dezső, József; Bertók, Gábor; Bognár, Anna; Kaposvári, Ferenc; Darányi, Viktória; Pethe, Mihály; Csabai, Zoltán; Páll-Gergely, Barna & Sipos, György
    Pedológiai-szedimentológiai vizsgálatok lösszel borított területeken, Szemely-Hegyes későneolitikus körárokrendszer példáján 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(3), pp. 57-72 
    article URL 
    Abstract: According to the geopedologic protocol, the characteristics of soils, infillings and different sediments were
    analysed in the archaeological excavation. Beside experimental observations, textural (granulometric) analyses,
    measurements of carbonate and humus content are used in general. This paper presents results of geopedologic
    analyses, micromorphological observations, and OSL data of Szemely-Hegyes annulus. The filling sediments of
    the archaeological objects are generally identical on loess covered terrain. The aim of this study to show that;
    how laboratory analyses support the experimental observations. Reconstruct the surface process, statistical
    interpretation of laboratory analyses is needed. The sediments of the excavation are differing in their humus and
    carbonate content, and texture. We proved this in the latter case, which their genetics the traditional
    granulometric categories (clay, silt), better characteristic parameters initiation justified. These are the
    m%The filling sediment of the annulus can be divided three units. The first unit is a filling of loess mingling with
    pale-brown soil. The second unit is a filling of pale-grayish yellow anthropogeneous sediment consist of
    charcoal which was a groin. The third unit is a filling of reddish-brown relict soil. The different parameters of
    samples were changed a bit by anthropogeneous impact. The first burial of the annulus was happened 4.91?0.57
    ka (BP) as determined by OSL measurement, and with two different sediments, lasted about 4.11?0.45 ka (BP).
    In the process of backfill, in the second burial cycle reddish-brown soil was deposited into the ditch from
    2.64?0.25 ka. The backfill process lasted until the Middle Ages. Currently eroded pale-brown soil covers the
    arable land in the area.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DezsoETAL2009_3,
      author = {Dezső, József and Bertók, Gábor and Bognár, Anna and Kaposvári, Ferenc and Darányi, Viktória and Pethe, Mihály and Csabai, Zoltán and Páll-Gergely, Barna and Sipos, György},
      title = {Pedológiai-szedimentológiai vizsgálatok lösszel borított területeken, Szemely-Hegyes későneolitikus körárokrendszer példáján},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {3},
      pages = {57-72},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_3/AM-09-03-DJ.pdf}
    }
    
    Dias
    Dias, M. Isabel
    Non-invasive nuclear techniques applied to stone idols from pre-historical Perdig?es site: a contribution to understand interaction networks / Roncsolásmentes nukleáris technika alkalmazása Perdig?es őskori lelőhelyről származó kő idolokon 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(4), pp. 249-254 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Perdig?es is a large ditched enclosure dated from the Late Neolithic to the Late Chalcolithic/Early Bronze Age (cal BC 3400-2100), located in Reguengos de Monsaraz municipality (Évora district, South Portugal). Hexogen raw materials as ivory, variscite, cinnabar were recorded and several objects made of locally available raw materials show stylistic criteria that seem to reveal external provenances.
    This paper will address a specific assemblage of objects: stone idols and stone recipients recorded in funerary contexts. This assemblage presents different typologies and raw materials, apparently marble or limestone, suggesting different origins for these artefacts, since both rocks do not occur locally, but regionally or even longer distance.

    One of the main goals of this work is to determine the nature of the used raw materials, by studying the composition of a set of stone idols and ritual stone vessels, together with geological samples (marbles and limestones), trying to evaluate the degree of compositional homogeneity between items and possible areas of origin, thus contributing to understand the interaction network in which Perdig?es was involved. Another important achievement of the study was to determine whether Prompt Gamma Activation Analyses (PGAA) could be successfully used to trace the source(s) of those artefacts made of carbonate rich raw materials.
    The analysis of obtained results, particularly the statistical results obtained by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and clustering methods applied on the chemical contents, clearly detach five groups between the stone idols, while the vase sample analyzed has also a different chemical behaviour. The analyzed stone artefacts from Perdig?es show signs of both nearby and long distance procurement, as well as of unknown attribution.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Dias2015_4,
      author = {Dias, M. Isabel},
      title = {Non-invasive nuclear techniques applied to stone idols from pre-historical Perdig?es site: a contribution to understand interaction networks / Roncsolásmentes nukleáris technika alkalmazása Perdig?es őskori lelőhelyről származó kő idolokon},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {4},
      pages = {249-254},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_4/AM-2015-4-ID.pdf}
    }
    
    Djindjian
    Djindjian, François
    Approvisionnement en mati?res premi?res dans le paléolithique supérieur d'Europe Occidentale: Méthodes et résultats / Raw Material Procurement in the Upper Palaeolithic of Western Europe. Methods and Results. 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(4), pp. 01-16 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The paper tries to deliver a synthesis concerning the methods used and the results obtained for the raw material procurement in Western Europe during Prehistory.
    The first chapter is a fast introduction defining the materials which are interesting for archaeologists, geologists and chemists. In the second chapter, the special case of flint is considered, because it shows particular difficulties for the characterization and the determination of the origins of flint. The third chapter is a formal design which is creating a general three steps method, detailing its potentialities and limits and describing the techniques of graphical visualization allowing to explicit and validate the conclusion of the studies. The fourth chapter is focusing on the considerable interest of raw material procurement, related to several other problematics and converging the reconstitution of a general cultural system. The fifth chapter is concerned with the acquired knowledge for the raw material procurement studies during the middle Palaeolithic, for which the procurement distance is about 20 kilometers from the dwelling, deducing important consequences about the restricted territory of about one hundred square kilometers, obliging the group to change its territory when the food resources (mainly gregarious herbivores) were exhausted.
    The sixth chapter, dedicated to the Upper Palaeolithic, is showing the results of the most recent researches, which are revealing circulations with longer distance (until 300 kilometers) than supposed before in Western Europe and equivalent to the distance known in Central Europe. Then, it appears that the raw material procurement is realized with a mobility inside a territory of about one hundred thousand square kilometers which is inducing a planned strategy for the occupation of the territory in time (annual cycle) and in space: seasonal dwellings, specialized butchering sites, hunting camps, distributed storage of materials, bladelet and blade light chipping.
    Different special cases are examined, as the origin of the Cretaceous flint in the Palaeolithic sites of Auvergne, the evidence of Pyrenean flint in the sites of Perigord and Quercy or the important role of the quartzite again in the maximum ice age sites (Lower Solutrean, Badegoulian).
    The seventh chapter, dedicated to the mollusc procurement, is concerning the question of the evidence of exchange mechanisms between groups, explaining the spreading over very large distances of about 500 kilometers of molluscs used for the fabrication of ornaments. In the conclusion, the fundamental role of the studies of raw material procurement is emphasized, as a key sub-system for the reconstitution of Palaeolithic hunter-gatherer societies.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Djindjian2005,
      author = {Djindjian, François},
      title = {Approvisionnement en mati?res premi?res dans le paléolithique supérieur d'Europe Occidentale: Méthodes et résultats / Raw Material Procurement in the Upper Palaeolithic of Western Europe. Methods and Results.},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {4},
      pages = {01-16},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_4/AM-2005-4-FD.pdf}
    }
    
    Dobosi
    Dobosi, Viola
    Kretzoi Miklós és a magyar paleolitkutatás / Miklós Kretzoi and the Hungarian Palaeolithic research 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(1), pp. 13-18 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Miklós Kretzoi, palaeontologist, geologist contributed essentially to the field of prehistoric research as well. The
    author gives a short summary on his most important contributions to Hungarian Palaeolithic studies, ranging
    from methodological issues till the investigation of world famous sites like Tata, Érd and Vértesszőlős.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dobosi2007,
      author = {Dobosi, Viola},
      title = {Kretzoi Miklós és a magyar paleolitkutatás / Miklós Kretzoi and the Hungarian Palaeolithic research},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {1},
      pages = {13-18},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_1/AM-2007-01-TDV.pdf}
    }
    
    Domboróczki
    Domboróczki, László
    A Körös-kultúra északi elterjedési határának problematikája a Tiszaszőlős-Domaháza-pusztán végzett ásatás eredményeinek fényében / The problem of the Northern extension of the Körös Culture in the light of excavation results from Tiszaszőlős-Domaháza. 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(2), pp. 05-15 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Until now almost every possible neolithisation scenario of the Great Hungarian Plain has been sketched. That
    is why the task of the future research can not be so much to conceive new theories as to test the older ones.
    These are differing mainly about the presumed role the Mesolithic aboriginals played in the process.
    According to the hitherto dominant view, the southern settlers of the Körös culture wandered up to the middle of
    the Great Hungarian Plain, where the local unfamiliar ecological endowments and the resistance of the
    aboriginals forced them to stop, leaving them the only possibility to detour to the east and colonise with smaller
    settlements the Upper Tisza and Szamos region. In the formation of the ALPC to the local Mesolithic inhabitants
    was attached decisive importance, who in the course of a long side by side living with the Körös culture and
    after a rapid acculturation process took over every aspects of the Neolithic novelties and finally even conquer
    the territory of the Körös culture.
    Recently, partly due to research done in Heves County, we have managed to paint more realistic picture on the
    ALPC. Since we have new results from the sphere of the Körös culture as well, thanks to the recent discovery
    and excavation of a Körös site at Tiszaszőlős–Domaháza-puszta, we can contribute to the discussion of the
    neolithisation in possession of rich comparative material. Based on these, we attribute much greater impact to
    the Körös culture in the development of the ALPC then before, so we can justify just those earlier opinions
    which ascribed only marginal role to the local Mesolithic population ? at least in this early phase of the
    process.
    In this paper we made a short report on the discovery and excavation of the Körös site at Tiszaszőlős escorted
    by some find-scattering maps and characteristic finds of the site and draw some preliminary conclusions on the
    so far analysed material.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Domboroczki2005,
      author = {Domboróczki, László},
      title = {A Körös-kultúra északi elterjedési határának problematikája a Tiszaszőlős-Domaháza-pusztán végzett ásatás eredményeinek fényében / The problem of the Northern extension of the Körös Culture in the light of excavation results from Tiszaszőlős-Domaháza.},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {2},
      pages = {05-15},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_2/AM-2005-2-DL.pdf}
    }
    
    Dombóvári
    Dombóvári, Judit
    In Memoriam T. Brúder Katalin 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(4), pp. 293 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dombovari2012_4,
      author = {Dombóvári, Judit},
      title = {In Memoriam T. Brúder Katalin},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {4},
      pages = {293},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_4/AM-12-04-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Domokos
    Domokos, Tamás
    A mezőberényi Laposi-kertek (Békés megye) régészeti feltárás (vonaldíszes-kultúra: szakálháti csoport) malakológiai anyaga és annak tanulságai / Holocene malacofauna and its teachings of the archeologically exposed Holocene age sediments of Laposi-Kertek 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(2), pp. 117-126 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The examination of the 7th Holocene exposure of the south-eastern part of the Great Hungarian Plain hasn?t
    served with surprising results. The aquatic malacological material is quite poor (15 taxa), but the terrestrial is
    more rich (25 taxa). According to the author, the age of the deposits (between 230 and 55 cms) are Boreal,
    Atlantic and Subboreal. It is first of all supported by the result of the grave goods. On the basis of the ecological
    demands of the mollusc species, a forest-steppe environment containing mosaic-like humid biotopes can be
    reconstructed. Proceeding upwards in the sequence, at first an increase in the rate and the number of the
    terrestrial species, then a decrease can be observed. Deposits covering the Middle Neolithic (Tiszapolgár
    culture, Szakálhát group) are lacustrine while the character of the lowermost layer is pluvial. The analysis of the
    exposed fauna shows, and in the knowledge of the Holocene sediments of Fehér-tó (Kardoskút), examined
    earlier, it can be ascertained that in contrast with the data given in the scientific literature, the disappearance of
    Vertigo substriata from the territory of the Great Hungarian Plain could happen during the Middle-Holocene
    age.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Domokos2011_2,
      author = {Domokos, Tamás},
      title = {A mezőberényi Laposi-kertek (Békés megye) régészeti feltárás (vonaldíszes-kultúra: szakálháti csoport) malakológiai anyaga és annak tanulságai / Holocene malacofauna and its teachings of the archeologically exposed Holocene age sediments of Laposi-Kertek},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {2},
      pages = {117-126},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_2/AM-11-02-DT.pdf}
    }
    
    Dági
    Dági, Marianna
    Attribúció, technika, archaeometria. Módszerek az ékszerkutatáshoz / Attribution, technique, archaeometry. Methods for the investigation of jewellery 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(1), pp. 53-60 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The possibility that ancient Greek jewellery, like vases, might be attributable to individual master-hands, was
    raised about twenty years ago by Dyfri Williams, who used the traditional style-based method of art historians to
    approach the problem. This article relates the results of a similar examination of Hellenistic bull's head hoop
    earrings in the Antiquities Collection of the Budapest Museum of Fine Arts. The method used, which involved
    exact observation of technical details, diverged quite sharply from traditional stylistic attribution. Comparative
    technical analysis of the Budapest earrings permits the conclusion that such details of a purely technical kind
    can in fact be decisive marks of attribution. Close technical examination of jewellery excavated in the region of
    ancient Macedonia, and now in the Museum of Thessaloniki, corroborates these results. Technical comparison
    has shown that the gold myrtle wreath from Tomb B at Derveni, and a single gold myrtle branch said to be a
    chance find and inventoried separately, are products of the same hand and originally belonged together.
    Platinum group element inclusions observed in few pieces of jewellery excavated in Derveni as well as in one
    earring from the Budapest Antiquities Collection can point to a connection between the pieces. Further
    archaeological and archaeometric research will be able to confirm or deny the results of observations made on
    the mentioned pieces until now. Future dialogue on these points between archaeology and archaeometry will
    help open new paths in the study of goldsmiths and workshops.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dagi2009,
      author = {Dági, Marianna},
      title = {Attribúció, technika, archaeometria. Módszerek az ékszerkutatáshoz / Attribution, technique, archaeometry. Methods for the investigation of jewellery},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {1},
      pages = {53-60},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_1/AM-09-01-DM.PDF}
    }
    
    Dúzs
    Dúzs, Krisztina
    Realisation of the planned "Black Boxes" in the Hungarian National Museum 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(1), pp. 07-20 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In the framework of the Ancient Charm Project (Analysis by Neutron resonant Capture Imaging and other
    Emerging Neutron Techniques: new Cultural Heritage and Archaeological Research Methods, http://ancientcharm.
    neutron-eu.net/ach), imaging potentials of non-destructive neutron analytical methods are evaluated for
    archaeological applications. Prior to working on real archaeological specimens, so-called 'black boxes' were
    constructed (and characterised) for tests of the various methods. This paper is about the construction of these
    test boxes as realised by the team of the Hungarian National Museum.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Duzs2008,
      author = {Dúzs, Krisztina},
      title = {Realisation of the planned "Black Boxes" in the Hungarian National Museum},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {1},
      pages = {07-20},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_1/AM-08-01-DK.pdf}
    }
    
    Dúzs and Lencz
    Dúzs, Kriszta & Lencz, Balázs
    Tárgy - Információ - Érték / Object - Information - Value 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(2), pp. 123-130 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The article presents the process of conservation/restoration, for material analysis experts working in the field of
    archaeometry, summarizing the most significant analysis techniques, which are already accepted in the practice
    of restoration. This overview might contribute to the appropriate, sequential planning of the different analytical
    methods, providing a more effective way of cooperation, by sharing and processing our results.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Duzs&Lencz2010_2,
      author = {Dúzs, Kriszta and Lencz, Balázs},
      title = {Tárgy - Információ - Érték / Object - Information - Value},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {2},
      pages = {123-130},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_2/AM-10-02-DK-LB.pdf}
    }
    
    Dúzs et al.
    Dúzs, Krisztina; Szathmári, Ildikó & T. Biró, Katalin
    Régészeti tárgyak endoszkópos vizsgálata / Investigation of archaeological objects by industrial endoscope 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(1), pp. 62-66 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In connection with the modernisation of the Conservation Department of the Hungarian National Museum, we
    had the possibility to test the applicability of an industrial endoscope in the study of archaeological objects. The
    equipment is supplied with camera and image analysing software. By the help of this tool, surfaces which
    cannot be directly investigated by macroscopic inspection or regular microscopy can be made visible.
    The pieces selected for analysis included bronze pins with hollow head, socketed bronze axe, spiral-tube bronze
    beads, pottery from Bronze Age and Copper Age and amber beads. The obtained visual information can be
    important in the assesment of the history, production technology, use and conservation of the artefacts.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DuzsETAL2005,
      author = {Dúzs, Krisztina and Szathmári, Ildikó and T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {Régészeti tárgyak endoszkópos vizsgálata / Investigation of archaeological objects by industrial endoscope},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {1},
      pages = {62-66},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_1/AM-2005-1-DK.pdf}
    }
    
    Farkas-Pet? and Horváth
    Farkas-Pet?, Anna & Horváth, Tünde
    Archaeometric database of archaeological stone tools (a suggestion for new data processing method) / Régészeti k?eszközök archeometriai adatbázisa (javaslat egy új típusú adatfeldolgozásra) 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(2), pp. 103-114 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Interdisciplinary approaches to archaeology allow the application of new scientific methods in the study of archaeological objects, and make it possible to examine a large number of artefacts including stone tools, with petrological-geochemical (archaeometrical) methods. However, as of today, a complex but easy-to-use, simply accessible register of the archaeometrical research results has not been developed yet. The project presented in this paper endeavours to fill this gap for archaeological stone tools.
    The experimental work proposed here is based on the comprehensive analysis of 1200 stone tools from the Middle Bronze Age Vatya Culture from sites all over the Central Carpathian Basin. The new type digital database (?Archaeometric Stone Tool Database?) has been developed on the basis of the results. This database is aimed to combine the archaeological and geological data of polished and ground stone tools studied by scientists in various archaeometric centres in the Carpathian Basin. The unified database includes data of diverse archaeological and geological analyses performed on polished stone tools.
    This integrated system is planned to be accessible via the Internet and hopefully it would facilitate a rapid flow of information, easy and quick data management, allow for new type data selection and statistical analysis, provide options for immediate database queries, groupings and clusterings. Parallelisms would be thus minimalised, while new extensions to the system could be added by professionals with specific access rights granted. For the realization of the defined objectives and the long-term viability of the system, a flexible and effective informatic background with constant updates and safe operation are required. For the operation of the proposed project, the system should gain the full acceptance, consent and approval of the research centres with further clarification of the operating conditions and requirements.
    BibTeX:
    @article{FARKAS_2014_2,
      author = {Farkas-Pet?, Anna and Horváth, Tünde},
      title = {Archaeometric database of archaeological stone tools (a suggestion for new data processing method) / Régészeti k?eszközök archeometriai adatbázisa (javaslat egy új típusú adatfeldolgozásra)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {2},
      pages = {103-114},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_2/AM-14-02-FPA.pdf}
    }
    
    Farkas-Szőke
    Farkas-Szőke, Szilvia
    Chopperek és chopping-toolok. Technológiai elemzés vértesszőlősi eszközökön / Choppers and chopping tools. Technological investigation of the Vértesszőlős stone implements 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(2), pp. 23-30 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The excavations at Vértesszőlős lasted for seven years, yielding 8890 artefacts. Tthere were 2145 choppers and
    chopping tools among them. In the distertation of the author (Szőke 2004), technological analysis of these
    choppers and chopping tools have been accomplished. In the course of the analysis the main question addressed
    was if there is any rule, or any order in how they made the choppers and the chopping tools? Considering that
    such rules were existing, what were these, exactly? I have summerised the results of my analysis below in a
    tabular form.
    BibTeX:
    @article{FarkasSzoke2008,
      author = {Farkas-Szőke, Szilvia},
      title = {Chopperek és chopping-toolok. Technológiai elemzés vértesszőlősi eszközökön / Choppers and chopping tools. Technological investigation of the Vértesszőlős stone implements},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {2},
      pages = {23-30},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_2/AM-08-02-FSZSZ.pdf}
    }
    
    Festa et al.
    Festa, G.; Andreani, C.; Filabozzi, A.; Malfitana, D. & Poblome, J.
    Neutron techniques in cultural heritage (Neutron alalpú analitikai technikák a kulturális örökség emlékeinek vizsgálatában) 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(2), pp. 32-36 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Roman marble fragments from the Villa Adriana at Tivoli (Rome) have been characterised by neutron
    diffraction. This study aimed at distinguishing between different marble types on the basis of the mineral phase
    compositions and the crystallographic textures. The texture information, along with other structure details, can
    be used as characterising feature to address questions of attribution and restoration of archaeological marble,
    ceramic or bronze objects.
    BibTeX:
    @article{FestaETAL2006,
      author = {Festa, G. and Andreani, C. and Filabozzi, A. and Malfitana, D. and Poblome, J.},
      title = {Neutron techniques in cultural heritage (Neutron alalpú analitikai technikák a kulturális örökség emlékeinek vizsgálatában)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {2},
      pages = {32-36},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_2/AM-2006-2-CA.pdf}
    }
    
    Festa et al.
    Festa, Giulia; Kockelmann, Winfried & Kirfel, Armin
    Appendix for Festa et al., Neutron Diffraction Analysis of ?Black Boxes? 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(1) 
    electronic URL 
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Festa2008_1-appendix,
      author = {Festa, Giulia and Kockelmann, Winfried and Kirfel, Armin},
      title = {Appendix for Festa et al., Neutron Diffraction Analysis of ?Black Boxes?},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {1},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_1/AM-08-01-Appendix.pdf}
    }
    
    Festa et al.
    Festa, G.; Kockelmann, W.; Kirfel, A. & the Ancient Charm collaboration
    Neutron Diffraction Analysis of "Black Boxes" 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(1), pp. 61-72 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The Ancient Charm project addresses several aspects of neutron analyses of archaeological materials, with the
    specific aim to developing neutron activation and neutron diffraction into imaging methods. One of the central
    techniques is element determination by Neutron Resonant Capture Analysis (NRCA), besides the more
    established Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA). Neutron diffraction is another technique employed in
    this project, for mapping the spatial distribution of crystallographic phases in a sample. Ancient Charm provides
    the prospect of combining several of these analytical neutron methods with neutron radiography in order to
    obtain a comprehensive characterisation of the interior of an artefact. This paper reports on neutron diffraction
    results on 17 of so-called ?Black Boxes?, closed cubes containing geometrical arrangements of materials such as
    metals, minerals, ceramics, and organic matter. The measurements were carried out at the pulse neutron source
    ISIS at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the United Kingdom. The aim of this ?Black Box? study was to
    identify strengths and weaknesses of neutron diffraction for analysing archaeological objects and to develop a
    best practice for a combined use of analysis methods for different combinations of materials.
    BibTeX:
    @article{FestaETAL2008,
      author = {Festa, G. and Kockelmann, W. and Kirfel, A. and the Ancient Charm collaboration,},
      title = {Neutron Diffraction Analysis of "Black Boxes"},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {1},
      pages = {61-72},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_1/AM-08-01-GF.pdf}
    }
    
    FitzGerald
    FitzGerald, Simon
    Non-destructive micro-analysis of historical artefacts using micro-XRF / Műtárgyak roncsonásmentes vizsgálata mikro-XRF segítségével 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(3), pp. 75-80 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The technique of micro X-ray fluorescence provides a fast, non-destructive analytical method for the analysis of
    elemental composition in a wide range of samples, with microscopic spatial resolution. Within archaeometry this
    technique is used to characterise a wide range of materials. A number of applications in this field are presented
    in this overview article, demonstrating the power of this technique for archaeologists and museum scientists.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fitzgerald2008,
      author = {FitzGerald, Simon},
      title = {Non-destructive micro-analysis of historical artefacts using micro-XRF / Műtárgyak roncsonásmentes vizsgálata mikro-XRF segítségével},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {3},
      pages = {75-80},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_3/AM-08-03-SF.pdf}
    }
    
    Friedel et al.
    Friedel, Orsolya; Bradák, Balázs; Szakmány, György; Szilágyi, Veronika & T. Biró, Katalin
    Az Ebenhöch csiszolt k?eszköz gy?jtemény archeometriai vizsgálatának eredményei / Archaeometrical processing of polished stone artefacts of the Ebenhöch-collection (Hungarian National Museum, Budapest, Hungary) 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(3), pp. 1-12 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The polished stone tool collection of Ferenc Ebenhöch, abbot-canon in Győr comprise today nearly
    700 items in the Hungarian National Museum. It is of special importance due to the large quantity as
    well as the exquisite quality of the objects. The collection was acquired by the HNM in the late
    decades of the 19th century. The authors performed a complete petroarchaeological investigation
    project on this collection. All items were described and documented macroscopically. The main raw
    material groups were ascertained. All of the important groups were sampled and further investigated
    by petrographic, physical and geochemical methods. Thin sections were made with standard
    petrographic description. Magnetic susceptibility of viable pieces were measured. Non-destructive
    chemical analysis (Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis) was performed on selected pieces and
    electron microprobe analyses was done on a part of the thin sections. The dominant raw material
    types of the polished stone tools are different types of metabasite (greenschist-amphibolite types),
    serpentinite, basalt and in minor quantities, other volcanites, metamagmatites like metagabbro and occasionally
    hornfels, HP metamorphic rocks (eclogitic rocks) and sandstone.
    BibTeX:
    @article{FriedelETAL2008,
      author = {Friedel, Orsolya and Bradák, Balázs and Szakmány, György and Szilágyi, Veronika and T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {Az Ebenhöch csiszolt k?eszköz gy?jtemény archeometriai vizsgálatának eredményei / Archaeometrical processing of polished stone artefacts of the Ebenhöch-collection (Hungarian National Museum, Budapest, Hungary)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {3},
      pages = {1-12},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_3/AM-08-03-FO.pdf}
    }
    
    Füköh
    Füköh, Levente
    Nekrológ-nyersanyag - arckép írásban / Raw material for an obituary. Self-portrait in writing 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(1), pp. 01-6 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Dr. Miklós Kretzói, known to his students and followers as Miklós bácsi compiled his own biography in his last
    year as a 'necrology resource', in order to supply us with the necessary facts. We think it is most useful to
    publish this short communication without any changes.
    The autobiography of Dr. Miklós Kretzoi is a brief summary of his activities during his long life for Hungarian
    and international research of geosciences in the widest sense. He closed his thoughts in a characteristic
    manner: 'I left out of this summary committees, board memberships at home and internationally, honours,
    awards (among them, the highest Hungarian scientific award called Széchenyi-prize) - the biography should tell
    you what I did and not how it was received'.
    The manuscript was arranged by Levente Fűköh (Mátra Museum, Gyöngyös)
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fukoh2007a,
      author = {Füköh, Levente},
      title = {Nekrológ-nyersanyag - arckép írásban / Raw material for an obituary. Self-portrait in writing},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {1},
      pages = {01-6},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_1/AM-2007-01-FL1.pdf}
    }
    
    Füköh
    Füköh, Levente
    Mészvázba zárt információk / Information coded in calcareous shell 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(1), pp. 07-12 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This paper focussed on a relatively young discipline looking back over a few decades, i.e., Holocene
    malacology, with special regard on its applicability to archaeology. Some case studies are presented to illustrate
    the subject. The selection of the topic is mainly chosen because both Hungarian and international technical
    literature seems to use this method frequently and therefore it seems useful to present some classical examples
    for the benefit of the younger generation of archaeologists; probably, that can lead to even more frequent use of
    this simple but powerful interdisciplinary methodology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fukoh2007b,
      author = {Füköh, Levente},
      title = {Mészvázba zárt információk / Information coded in calcareous shell},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {1},
      pages = {07-12},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_1/AM-2007-01-FL2.pdf}
    }
    
    Gherdán
    Gherdán, Katalin
    Nano léptékben az archeometriában: új lehetőség Magyarországon a kulturális örökség tárgyainak vizsgálatában: FIB/SEM (fókuszált ionsugaras mikroszkóp/szkenning elektronmikroszkóp) kétsugaras készülék az ELTE-n / FIB/SEM at Eötvös Loránd University 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(2), pp. 157-160 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In the framework of TAMOP 4.2.1. grant programme Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest has come into
    possession of a FEI Quanta 3D FIB/SEM microscope. The instrument provides outstanding opportunity for high
    resolution, nanoscale material research. During the current project phase (2010?2012) analysis of cultural
    heritage materials will also be possible.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gherdan2010_2,
      author = {Gherdán, Katalin},
      title = {Nano léptékben az archeometriában: új lehetőség Magyarországon a kulturális örökség tárgyainak vizsgálatában: FIB/SEM (fókuszált ionsugaras mikroszkóp/szkenning elektronmikroszkóp) kétsugaras készülék az ELTE-n / FIB/SEM at Eötvös Loránd University},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {2},
      pages = {157-160},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_2/AM-10-02-GHK.pdf}
    }
    
    Gherdán
    Gherdán, Katalin
    7000 év kerámiái ? Vörs, Máriaasszony-sziget őskori kerámialeleteinek archeometriai összehasonlító vizsgálata területi kitekintéssel / Pottery sequence of 7000 years: archaeometrical study of pottery finds from Vörs, Máriaasszony-sziget 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(4), pp. 31-36 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This short communication is presenting the results of a PhD research done on ancient pottery, as part of an
    interdisciplinary project to establish the diachronic study of a multi-period habitation site, Vörs, Máriaasszonysziget.
    The approach combines traditional archaeology and archaeometry. The site lies in Southwest Hungary,
    near Lake Balaton, where the exceptionally favourable environmental endowments of the territory offered an
    ideal setting for habitation: 8 distinct chronological periods are separated on the basis of traditional
    archaeological methods. From these 105 pottery samples from 6 periods were selected for archaeometrical
    study. 31 samples from coeval nearby sites together with local sediments were also analysed for comparison.
    The aim of the research was to answer the questions of what? how? and where? in connection with the pottery
    assemblage, that is to obtain information on what kind of raw materials were used by ancient potters, how did
    pottery making recipes change throughout the 7000 thousand years of the site, what is the provenance of the
    pottery finds/raw materials.
    The analytical programme was based on thin section petrography (fabric and temper analysis), comparative
    geochemical and statistical analysis of the pottery finds.
    Petrographic investigation revealed that in the assemblage from Máriaasszony-sziget there is a pottery group
    which can be described with uniform fabric and non-plastic inclusions (made of aleuritic, fine sandy clay raw
    material) being present in all the examined cultures/periods. Geochemical analysis strengthened the hypothesis
    that this type of pottery represents local (near-site) ?basic? raw material that was used and tempered differently
    during the 7000-year-long life of the settlement. In one case the archaeological assumption of an import Early
    Bronze Age pottery was proved. In some other cases, based on petrographic and geochemical and statistical
    analysis non-local origin of the finds was suggested. Comparison with local raw materials revealed that ancient
    potters did not obtain their raw material at the site itself, but most probably used a nearby clayey material
    having a similar geochemical composition to that of the Upper Pannonian clay at Battyánpuszta, although it is
    non-calcareous.
    Technological investigation of Late Copper Age and Early Bronze Age incrusted ware showed that the
    incrustation material of the examined Kostolac ceramics was made of bone, while the incrustation material of
    one Early Bronze Age pottery was calcite.
    The results of the research of pottery from Vörs, Máriaasszony-sziget and local sediments maybe used as
    reference material for future analysis of Transdanubian prehistoric pottery.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gherdan2009_4,
      author = {Gherdán, Katalin},
      title = {7000 év kerámiái ? Vörs, Máriaasszony-sziget őskori kerámialeleteinek archeometriai összehasonlító vizsgálata területi kitekintéssel / Pottery sequence of 7000 years: archaeometrical study of pottery finds from Vörs, Máriaasszony-sziget},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {4},
      pages = {31-36},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_4/AM-09-04-GHK.pdf}
    }
    
    Gherdán et al.
    Gherdán, K.; Szakmány, Gy.; Tóth, M. & T. Biró, K.
    Archaeometric studies on Early Bronze Age pottery from Vörs-Máriaasszony-sziget / Archeometriai vizsgálatok korabronzkori kerámián, Vörs-Máriaasszony-sziget Supplement 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(2), pp. 21-32 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This study presents the results of the petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical analysis of Kisapostag Culture
    (Early Bronze Age) pottery (jars or urns/amphorae) from Vörs-Máriaasszony-sziget. This study forms a part of a major
    project on pottery analysis at a multi-period archaeological site. Pottery samples were chosen through macroscopic
    examination of fabric and form and the investigations were based on thin section petrography, X-ray Powder
    Diffraction (XRPD), X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF) and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). For
    comparison, coeval samples from a nearby settlement site ? Vörs-Tótok dombja ? were examined. The petrographic,
    mineralogical and geochemical properties of the sherds were compared to potential raw materials, obtained from
    closed archaeological units at Vörs-Máriaasszony-sziget (soil samples), from shallow boreholes drilled on
    Máriaasszony-sziget (sand samples), and from a nearby clay mine in Vörs-Battyánpuszta, 2 km north-east of the site
    (clay samples). The petrographic and geochemical characteristics of Kisapostag ceramics were also compared to that
    of the earliest ceramics of the site of Starčevo culture.
    It was found that most of the ceramics both from Máriaaszony-sziget and Tótok dombja were tempered with grog, while
    in the case of two sherds from Máriaasszony-sziget carbonate sand was used as temper. That clearly reflects the use of
    two distinct pottery making recipes. Mineralogical composition of the ceramics and the potential raw materials are
    very similar, however, there are differences in geochemical composition, concerning both major and trace elements.
    The results of the petrographic analysis of sandy sediments of the site and clays from Battyánpuszta suggest that the
    raw material source of the majority of the ceramics was most probably in the closest vicinity of Máriaasszony-sziget.
    The petrographic and geochemical composition of the two carbonate sand tempered sherds might reflect either the use
    of a different raw material source or the treatment of the extensively used natural sediment.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GherdanETAL2007,
      author = {Gherdán, K. and Szakmány, Gy. and Tóth, M. and T. Biró, K.},
      title = {Archaeometric studies on Early Bronze Age pottery from Vörs-Máriaasszony-sziget / Archeometriai vizsgálatok korabronzkori kerámián, Vörs-Máriaasszony-sziget Supplement},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {2},
      pages = {21-32},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_2/AM-2007-02-GHK.pdf}
    }
    
    Gherdán et al.
    Gherdán, Katalin; Tóth, Mária; Herbich, Katalin; Hajnalová, Mária; Hloľek, Martin; Prokeą, Lubomír; Mihály, Judit & Tünde, Horváth
    Természettudományos megfigyelések a középső és késő rézkori kultúrák fazekasáruin Balatonőszöd?Temetői dűlő lelőhelyen / Analytical data on Middle and Late Copper Age pottery production at Balatonőszöd-Temetői dűlő 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(1), pp. 83-104 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The lifestyle of the large Balaton-Lasinja/Furchenstich and Boleráz/Baden settlement of Balatonőszöd-Temetői
    dűlő was investigated in respect of possible common ceramic forms, technology, tradition, food-products and
    consumption in the period of Middle and Late Copper Age (Balaton-Lasinja/Furchenstich, Boleráz, Baden
    cultures) with the help of natural sciences, adding to the archaeological investigations (see Horváth, in this
    volume).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gherdán2010_1,
      author = {Gherdán, Katalin and Tóth, Mária and Herbich, Katalin and Mária Hajnalová and Martin Hloľek and Lubomír Prokeą and Mihály, Judit and Horváth Tünde},
      title = {Természettudományos megfigyelések a középső és késő rézkori kultúrák fazekasáruin Balatonőszöd?Temetői dűlő lelőhelyen / Analytical data on Middle and Late Copper Age pottery production at Balatonőszöd-Temetői dűlő},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {1},
      pages = {83-104},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_1/AM-10-01-GHK.pdf}
    }
    
    Grynaeus and Ilon
    Grynaeus, András & Ilon, Gábor
    Késő középkori híd a Pinka mellékvizén (Pinkamindszent ? Mindszent-Patak, Vas megye, Nyugat-Magyarország) / Late Mediaeval bridge on the tributary of the Pinka river (Pinkamindszent ? Mindszent-stream, Vas County, W Hungary) 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(4), pp. 267-272 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In the spring of 2004, remains of a wooden bridge were located in the vicinity of Pinkamindszent on the Mindszent-stream, during fieldwork preceding the construction of a new road, just under the current bridge. The documentation of the remains and their sampling for dendrochronological studies took place on 10th of June of the same year. Xylotomical investigations stated that the quadrangular poles were made of different varieties of oak (Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea (Mattuscka) Lieblein. while the round sectioned poles were made of larch (Larix decidua Mill.).
    No bark remains were found on the poles but remains of sapwood could be observed on the oak pole Nr. 10. The existing chronological schemes of the region (Vienna Basin, Western Hungary, Hungarian Mean Chronology: Grynaeus 2015, 88?89, 48. kép) the data sequences for oak did not prove adequate for absolute dating. Unfortunately, the Vienna colleagues also could not establish absolute dates from the larch samples; therefore we could rely on the series of the oak poles dated of the bridge with adequate absolute chronological series from Ikervár. This series showed a good agreement with the series of tree rings observed on pole Nr. 1. On the basis of these data we can say that the youngest growth-ring found on pole Nr. 1 from Pinkamindszent was formed in 1673. Calculating the minimum thickness of the sapwood and supposing that all the oak poles were stroke down at the same time, the construction period of the oaken bridge can be dated after 1685.
    Our analyses proved that at least two different construction periods should be hypothesed, using oak and larch poles, respectively and that the timber used for the construction was not felled locally but purchased on the market.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Grynaeus&Ilon_2016_4,
      author = {Grynaeus, András and Ilon, Gábor},
      title = {Késő középkori híd a Pinka mellékvizén (Pinkamindszent ? Mindszent-Patak, Vas megye, Nyugat-Magyarország) / Late Mediaeval bridge on the tributary of the Pinka river (Pinkamindszent ? Mindszent-stream, Vas County, W Hungary)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {4},
      pages = {267-272},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_4/AM-2016-4-GA-IG.pdf}
    }
    
    Gucsi
    Gucsi, László
    A mészbetétes díszű kerámiák ábrázolásásnak nehézségei és lehetőségei. / The Difficulties and the Possibilities of Illustrating Encrusted Ceramics 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(3), pp. 269?282 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In this paper I define the useful drawing methods and techniques for encrusted archaeological pots. For this,
    first I made a review of drawing methods of previous studies. I also using my experience what I get from drawn
    of finds of a few biggest Hungarian prehistoric cemeteries. In my study I am following the important visual rules
    of these works and at the same time I am trying to combine with contemporary technical aspects.
    The main goal of this study is to show a good way of making illustrations of encrusted pots, which are in this
    way, still can hold the original prehistoric ?messages? visually. I pointing on that, the roots of the mistakes of
    visual communication is mostly occurring because archaeological studies often based on a kind of drawing
    tradition which where determined by poor technological conditions of typography and the poor quality of
    reachable paper in the past. This tradition is related about to use pen sketch. Even if in most cases, there is no
    any issues about that, in the case of illustrating encrusted ceramics there are more disadvantage then benefit.
    This can be, because the patterns are so reach. For example if we want to illustrate exactly a pot shard,
    decorated with tiny parallel lines, we will find the difficulties about to show 14 lines in 1 centimetre in original
    size, which means in 1:2 scale, the 14 lines should have seen nicely on 0,5 centimetre wild place (Fig. 1. ) Using
    ink pen for making line-drawing has another consequence, too. In a metaphor, this is the same when drawing a
    chess board with lines, so we will have finally a grid. In this process we wipe out the possibilities of
    understanding the whole game and the symbolic meaning behind it. So I found, to use graphics is more effective
    in illustrating encrusted ceramics.
    The other main deception visually is to avoid the contrast of the original patterns. (Fig. 4.) It is mostly
    happening probably, because the drawer or the archaeologist wants to show the imprints of tools, which are
    used to make the bed of the encrustation. The imprints are surely very important signs to make difference
    between chronological and cultural questions, but if we will focusing only on this patterns and illustrating them,
    instead of the original encrusted white decorations, we will loose the original symbolic meaning with a big
    chance. Therefore a better solution is to make a side draw or a macro photo (Fig. 7. ) to show those details and
    to leave the pot or shard without any interruption, using (or restore) the original pair of contrast. For drawing
    encrusted ceramics is very helpful to use the shading technique (Figs. 8-12). This is a quick and accurate
    method. Only when the ceramic have uneven surface is not really effective.
    I dedicated one chapter to mention the very basics of communication theory. Firstly, because it can highlight the
    importance of an illustration in the communication chain in archaeology. Secondly, to present how the ?noise?
    can distort the original information. Based on the assumption that ?noise? is not relevant to information, I
    attempted to create graphics without it. In this kind of illustration I tried to catch the very essential and
    ?perfect? forms of the patterns. (Figs. 5., 7., 13.
    During that time when I worked on encrusted ceramics I noticed, there are a few interesting cases when a
    special kind of pattern can be recognised. Usually the motives were created by the potters with many different
    tools, making imprints in the soft surface of a pot. After firing, these imprints were filled in with white
    encrustation. In some cases, though, the motives were created using the material of the pot, surrounded by
    encrustation. For this special kind of decoration I suggest the name ?inverse motives?.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gucsi2011_3,
      author = {Gucsi, László},
      title = {A mészbetétes díszű kerámiák ábrázolásásnak nehézségei és lehetőségei. / The Difficulties and the Possibilities of Illustrating Encrusted Ceramics},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {3},
      pages = {269?282},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_3/AM-11-03-GL.pdf}
    }
    
    Gunneweg et al.
    Gunneweg, J.; Balla, M.; Pantos, M.; Poolton, N.; Mueller, M.; Burghammer, M. & Snigieva, I.
    Pompei tálak. Eredethatározás neutron aktivációs analízissel és a nyersanyag vizsgálata szinkrotron módszerekkel 2004 Archeometriai Műhely
    1(1), pp. 32-33 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Pompeian Red Ware consists of shallow plates or pans with a shiny burnished slip at the inside of the vessel. Their diameter varies from 16 cm to as large as 46 cm. and larger. The majority of these plates have a series of 5-10 concentric circles cut into the bottom of the plate. The circles are about 0. 2-0. 5 mm apart. A great number of them are signed by a potter (D) MAR(I).
    The plate, considered a good time marker, is dated to the 1st century AD and found in a great variety of sites, such as at Colchester, in England, Halteren and Oberaden in Germany, Tschandarli in Turkey, Ampurias in Spain, and Samaria and Avdat (Oboda) in Israel.
    The goal of this research was threefold: 1) to check whether the various shades of the color of the slip and the fabric depend on firing conditions in the kiln, 2) to determine the provenance of the plates by neutron activation analysis (hence NAA) compared to earlier inconclusive results and 3) whether there was a global recipe to manufacture these plates locally at various sites simultaneously or were they items of trade from a few production centers. A parallel study has been undertaken on the slip of these potsherds using SR OD-XAS, powder XRD, micro-XRD and micro-XRF.
    Our research showed that we may have to reconsider the provenance of the plates in light of newly obtained NAA results and at the same time refute archaeological conclusions that have circulated over the past fifty years.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GunnewegETAL2004,
      author = {J. Gunneweg and M. Balla and M. Pantos and N. Poolton and M. Mueller and M. Burghammer and I. Snigieva},
      title = {Pompei tálak. Eredethatározás neutron aktivációs analízissel és a nyersanyag vizsgálata szinkrotron módszerekkel},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {1},
      number = {1},
      pages = {32-33},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2004_1/AM-2004-BM.pdf}
    }
    
    Györke et al.
    Györke, Réka; Fintor, Krisztián; Bozsó, Gábor & Szabó, Máté
    Bátaszék-Nagyorros avar kori kohótelep érc- és salakanyagának archeometriai elemzése / Archaeometrical investigation of finds found in the Late Avar Age bloomery workshops at Bátaszék-Nagyorros (Country Tolna, Hungary) 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(1), pp. 61-70 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    In Bátaszék some Avar age bloomery workshops were excaveted by Attila Czövek in 2008. Based on the 4 subtypes of the 25 bloomeries of the multi period iron production site, the differing number of bloomeries per working pit and the lack of other remains which can be related to metallurgical work (ore roasting heart, remains of charcoal piles or forge), this site might be one of the missing links between the workshops in the late avar age and the period of the Hungarian Conquest. Based on the result of the chemical, metallographical and mineralogical examination the process of the bloomery iron production was carried out the same way as in the site of similar age. Basicly the ore samples analyzed are of bog iron origin. The slag samples are low basicity fayalit dominant types. Occurence of hight-calcit fayalite in the slags and occurence of several ragstone fragments at the site indicate potential ragstone dosage into the furnace.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gyorkeetal2014_1,
      author = {Györke, Réka and Fintor, Krisztián and Bozsó, Gábor and Szabó, Máté},
      title = {Bátaszék-Nagyorros avar kori kohótelep érc- és salakanyagának archeometriai elemzése / Archaeometrical investigation of finds found in the Late Avar Age bloomery workshops at Bátaszék-Nagyorros (Country Tolna, Hungary)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {1},
      pages = {61-70},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_1/AM-14-01-GYR.pdf}
    }
    
    Gál
    Gál, Erika
    Könyvismertetés / Book review: Zbigniew M. Bocheński & Teresa Tomek (2009): A key for the identification of domestic bird bones in Europe: Preliminary determination. Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(4), pp. 71-72 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gal2009_4,
      author = {Gál, Erika},
      title = {Könyvismertetés / Book review: Zbigniew M. Bocheński & Teresa Tomek (2009): A key for the identification of domestic bird bones in Europe: Preliminary determination. Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {4},
      pages = {71-72},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_4/AM-09-04-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Götze
    Götze, Jens
    Origin, mineralogy, nomenclature and provenance of silica and SiO2 rocks / A kovakőzetek eredete, terminológiája és származási helye 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(3), pp. 163-176 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The various modifications of silica, especially quartz, play a central role in the composition of geological
    materials. Owing to their abundance and properties, SiO2 minerals and rocks have been used since the
    beginning of human being in different applications such as tools, weaponries, jewelleries or building materials.
    The occurrence of different silica minerals within SiO2 rocks and the similarity in mineral composition of those
    stones require a clear terminology and nomenclature of both the silica polymorphs and varieties as well as the
    different types of SiO2 rocks and their genesis. Because of the often monotonous composition of these rocks, they
    only differ in texture, grain size, kind and content of binding agents and thus, are hardly to be classified in a
    hand specimen or by routine polarizing microscopy. Therefore, an integrated mineralogical and geochemical
    analysis is necessary for a detailed characterization. The present review gives an overview concerning the state
    of the art of the mineralogical and petrographical nomenclature of silica and SiO2 rocks and the analytical
    approach for the identification and classification of these materials.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Goetze2010_3,
      author = {Götze, Jens},
      title = {Origin, mineralogy, nomenclature and provenance of silica and SiO2 rocks / A kovakőzetek eredete, terminológiája és származási helye},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {3},
      pages = {163-176},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_3/AM-10-03-JG.pdf}
    }
    
    Hajnal
    Hajnal, Zsuzsa
    Test objects for developing 3D material analysis on Cultural Heritage objects: Plans for the "black boxes" to be analysed in the Ancient Charm Project 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(1), pp. 03-6 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In the framework of the Ancient Charm Project (Analysis by Neutron resonant Capture Imaging and other
    Emerging Neutron Techniques: new Cultural Heritage and Archaeological Research Methods, http://ancientcharm.
    neutron-eu.net/ach), imaging potentials of non-destructive neutron analytical methods are evaluated for
    archaeological applications. Prior to working on real archaeological specimens, so-called 'black boxes' were
    constructed (and characterised) for tests of the various methods. This paper is about the planning of the test boxes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hajnal2008,
      author = {Hajnal, Zsuzsa},
      title = {Test objects for developing 3D material analysis on Cultural Heritage objects: Plans for the "black boxes" to be analysed in the Ancient Charm Project},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {1},
      pages = {03-6},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_1/AM-08-01-HZS.pdf}
    }
    
    Halamić and ©oąić-Klindľić
    Halamić, Josip & ©oąić-Klindľić, Rajna
    Radiolarites and radiolarian cherts in Northern Croatia - possible sources for the production of artifacts / Radiolarit és radioláriás tűzkő Észak-Horvátországban - lehetséges kőeszköz nyersanyagforrások 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(3), pp. 19-24 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Rhythmic bedding of alternating nonsiliceous and siliceous layers is one of the most prominent features of
    biogenic siliceous sediments. One of the best examples of rhythmites are Mesozoic ribbon radiolarites.
    In Northern Croatia, the deposits of radiolarian cherts and radiolarites, partially associated with magmatic
    rocks are located in county Banovina (Zrinska Mt), ®umberak, Medvednica, Ivanąčica and Kalnik Mts. These
    rocks are constituents of Late Jurassic subduction complex (tectonic melánge). Palaeontological investigations
    revealed their Triassic (Ladinian-Carnian) and Jurassic (latest Bajocian-early Callovian) age.
    Macroscopical and microscopical examinations of samples reveal its low quality for stone tools production, but
    also its feasibility for local ad-hoc production. The radiolarites and radiolarian cherts near Lasinja in the
    northern Banovina are the possible sources for production of artifacts during (at least) the Lasinja culture
    period on wider territory of continental Croatia.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Halamic&Sosic2009_3,
      author = {Halamić, Josip and ©oąić-Klindľić, Rajna},
      title = {Radiolarites and radiolarian cherts in Northern Croatia - possible sources for the production of artifacts / Radiolarit és radioláriás tűzkő Észak-Horvátországban - lehetséges kőeszköz nyersanyagforrások},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {3},
      pages = {19-24},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_3/AM-09-03-JH.pdf}
    }
    
    Halbrucker et al.
    Halbrucker, Éva; Fintor, Krisztián; Bozsó, Gábor & Raucsik, Béla
    Szeged-Tápé-Lebőről származó régészeti kovakő-eszközök vizsgálata archeometriai módszerekkel / Archaeometrical investigation of flint archaeological artefacts from Szeged-Tápé-Lebő 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(1), pp. 47-60 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    Our research is aimed primarily at the study of chipped stone tools from a systematic field survey at Szeged-Tápé-Lebő, SE Hungary. The aim of this paper is to present the results of investigations with special attention to identification of potential geological sources of the artefacts made of flint/chert using reference geological samples from the Mecsek, Bakony and Tokaj Mountains. We have carried out the microscopic analysis of the lithic raw materials, furthermore phase analyses and main and trace elements analyses. 19 pieces from the archaeological artefacts were made of radiolarite and 4 were made of hydro- limnoquartzite. The geological samples from Mecsek and Bakony were radiolarites, except a spongiolite and two cherts from the Bakony Mountains. Samples from Erdőhorváti and Hejce were hydro- and limnoquartzite, respectively. The samples from Mecsek have higher CaO content, possibly due to higher carbonate content. We analysed statistically the chemical composition data with the use of multiple discriminant analysis. Based on the results we could separate the samples from the Bakony Mountains, the samples from the Mecsek Mountains and the hydro- and limno- quartzites in 90% positivity. We also analysed five archaeological samples. One was made of hydro-, limnoquartzite, four were of Mecsek radiolarites. The results are in conformity with previously archaeological hypotheses.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Halbruckeretal2014_1,
      author = {Halbrucker, Éva and Fintor, Krisztián and Bozsó, Gábor and Raucsik, Béla},
      title = {Szeged-Tápé-Lebőről származó régészeti kovakő-eszközök vizsgálata archeometriai módszerekkel / Archaeometrical investigation of flint archaeological artefacts from Szeged-Tápé-Lebő},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {1},
      pages = {47-60},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_1/AM-14-01-HE.pdf}
    }
    
    Havancsak et al.
    Havancsak, Izabella; Bajnóczi, Bernadett; Tóth, Mária; Kreiter, Attila & Szöllősi, Szilvia
    Melléklet Havancsák et al. "Kelta grafitos kerámia: elmélet és gyakorlat dunaszentgyörgyi kerámiák ásványtani, petrográfiai és geokémiai vizsgálatának tükrében" c. cikkéhez 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(1) 
    electronic URL 
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Havancsak2009_1-appendix,
      author = {Havancsak, Izabella and Bajnóczi, Bernadett and Tóth, Mária and Kreiter, Attila and Szöllősi, Szilvia},
      title = {Melléklet Havancsák et al. "Kelta grafitos kerámia: elmélet és gyakorlat dunaszentgyörgyi kerámiák ásványtani, petrográfiai és geokémiai vizsgálatának tükrében" c. cikkéhez},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {1},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_1/AM-09-01-Appendix.pdf}
    }
    
    Havancsák et al.
    Havancsák, Izabella; Bajnóczi, Bernadett; Szakmány, György; Kreiter, Attila; Szöllősi, Szilvia & Gáti, Csilla
    A petrográfiai vizsgálatok jelentősége a kelta kerámiák grafitos soványítóanyagának proveniencia meghatározásában / Significance of petrographic investigations in the determination of provenance of graphitic temper in Celtic ceramics 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(4), pp. 01-14 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Graphite-tempered ceramics were commonly used by the Celts from Southern Germany to Transylvania and
    from Bohemia to Northern Balkans in the La T?ne period. One of the major scientific questions related to these
    ceramics is the origin of the graphitic temper added to the clay, as such ceramics have been found on
    archaeological sites distant from known geological sources of graphitic rocks. Thus, the first phase of the
    archaeometric research should focus on the petrographic investigation of graphitic rock fragments of ceramics
    as it may provide information on the geological origin of the graphitic temper.
    Current work includes petrographic (polarizing and cathodoluminescence microscopy) study of Celtic graphitic
    ceramics from Bátaszék-Körtvélyes dűlő, Szűr and Szajk archaeological sites and aims to answer the question
    whether the graphitic temper used by different settlements was originated from similar geological regions.
    Graphitic rock fragments in the ceramics are similar at all three archaeological sites and consist of graphite,
    quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, mica (muscovite, biotite), kyanite, sillimanite, occasionally calcite, tourmaline
    and amphibole. The rock used as temper is medium to high grade metamorphic (amphibolite facies) graphitic
    gneiss containing sillimanite and kyanite index minerals. Formerly studied graphitic ceramics from
    Dunaszentgyörgy show similar mineralogical composition. Ceramics from Szajk contain higher amount of
    calcite in the graphitic rock fragments, presumably marbly graphitic gneiss was used for temper.
    Graphitic rock can be originated from several possible source regions; one of them is the Kropfmühl region in
    Southern Germany. Comparative petrographic study has been carried out on graphitic rock samples from three
    deposits of the region (Kropfmühl graphite mine, Steinbruch Grögöd, Erlau). Considering the mineralogical
    composition of the rock samples and the metamorphic evolution of the region, in the case of the studied
    archaeological artefacts the Kropfmühl region can be safely excluded as potential source area of graphite.
    Based on the metamorphic grade and mineralogical composition, the most probable source region of the
    graphitic rock fragments added to the pottery is the Variegated Unit located in the Southern Czech Republic, in
    the Moldanubian zone of the Bohemian Massif.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HavancsakETAL2009_4,
      author = {Havancsák, Izabella and Bajnóczi, Bernadett and Szakmány, György and Kreiter, Attila and Szöllősi, Szilvia and Gáti, Csilla},
      title = {A petrográfiai vizsgálatok jelentősége a kelta kerámiák grafitos soványítóanyagának proveniencia meghatározásában / Significance of petrographic investigations in the determination of provenance of graphitic temper in Celtic ceramics},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {4},
      pages = {01-14},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_4/AM-09-04-HI.pdf}
    }
    
    Havancsák et al.
    Havancsák, Izabella; Bajnóczi, Bernadett; Tóth, Mária; Kreiter, Attila & Szöllősi, Szilvia
    Kelta grafitos kerámia: elmélet és gyakorlat dunaszentgyörgyi kerámiák ásványtani, petrográfia és geokémiai vizsgálatának tükrében / Celtic graphitic pottery: theory and practice in the light of mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical study of ceramics from Dunaszentgyörgy (S-Hungary) 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(1), pp. 39-52 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The Celtic graphitic ceramics are a distinctive type of pottery, known from most part of the Central European
    Celtic world. In the territory of Hungary graphitic situla-like pots were produced in great numbers from the
    middle La T?ne period (LT B2) until the decline of the Celtic dominion (1st cent. A.D.). Widespread occurrence
    of graphitic (i.e. graphite-bearing) ceramics, not only around the graphite sources, suggests their extended
    trade. The provenance and the main distribution form (raw material, graphitic clay or finished graphitic ware)
    of graphite are, however, still not clear.
    This study was performed on graphitic and non-graphitic sherds from Dunaszentgyörgy archaeological site
    located in South-Hungary (LT B2-C1). Both graphitic and non-graphitic ceramics contain similar non-plastic
    components, mainly quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, muscovite, calcareous fragments, as well as apatite and
    zircon inclusions in quartz and feldspar grains. In addition graphitic ceramics contain graphite in variable size
    (from some ?m to 5 mm) and amount (up to 40%). Graphite appears as opaque individual flakes in the matrix
    and also occurs in metamorphic lithoclasts consisting of quartz, K-feldspar, muscovite, sillimanite, kyanite,
    amphibole and tourmaline. Chemical compositions of graphitic and non-graphitic ceramics measured by X-ray
    fluorescence spectrometry are similar. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that most of the sherds lack hightemperature
    Ca-silicate minerals and the firing temperatures of both ceramics types were usually below 850?C,
    in some cases below 650°C.
    Raw materials of graphitic and non-graphitic wares seem to be very similar, and both types of ware were
    produced ?locally?. The raw material could have been fine-grained (clayey-sandy) sediments (e.g. alluvium,
    loess), which are available in the wide vicinity of Dunaszentgyörgy. Graphite was imported and intentionally
    added to the raw material to produce a special type of ware. Graphite is derived from a medium to high grade
    metamorphic rock (graphitic paragneiss), which can be found nearest in the Moldanubicum zone of the
    Bohemian Massif. Comparing the mineralogical composition of graphitic lithoclasts with the published
    petrological data, the potential source for graphite is presumably located in the Variegated Series, in the area of
    the Southern Czech Republic. Our results support recent archaeological assumptions according to which the
    trade of raw graphite (together with the host rock), sometimes over long distances, is predominant in the La
    T?ne period.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HavancsakETAL2009,
      author = {Havancsák, Izabella and Bajnóczi, Bernadett and Tóth, Mária and Kreiter, Attila and Szöllősi, Szilvia},
      title = {Kelta grafitos kerámia: elmélet és gyakorlat dunaszentgyörgyi kerámiák ásványtani, petrográfia és geokémiai vizsgálatának tükrében / Celtic graphitic pottery: theory and practice in the light of mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical study of ceramics from Dunaszentgyörgy (S-Hungary)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {1},
      pages = {39-52},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_1/AM-09-01-HI.PDF}
    }
    
    Havancsák et al.
    Havancsák, Károly; Baris, Adrienn & Kalácska, Szilvia
    Az ELTE TTK kétsugaras pásztázó elektronmikroszkópja / Dual beam scanning electronmicroscope at Eötvös Loránd University 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(2), pp. 95-102 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    There are only a few device types available for today's researchers which are as useful and manifolded as the
    dual-beam scanning electron microscope working at the Eötvös Loránd University. It is important to understand
    the operation and the possibilities offered by this instrument because of its utility in several science subjects and
    research areas. Therefore in the present article we summarize the relevant basic interactions between the
    componentsof the material as seen in the microscope and the applications of the main detectors, mentioning the
    latest research works in the institute. We can discover new perspectives in the precise and high resolution
    facilitiesof this instrument in the examinations of sensitive archaeological samples.
    Kivonat
    Kevés olyan hasznos és sokszínű eszköztípus áll a mai kutatók rendelkezésére, mint az ELTÉ-n is működő
    kétsugaras pásztázó elektronmikroszkóp. A számos tudományterületen és kutatási témában való
    felhasználhatóság miatt fontos megérteni ennek a modern eszköznek a működését és a készülékben rejlő
    lehetőségeket. Cikkünkben ezért az alapvető kölcsönhatások magyarázatán túl kitérünk a mikroszkóp felépítésére
    és a legfontosabb detektorok alkalmazhatóságára, megemlítve az intézetben folyó legfrissebb kutatásokat. A
    pontos, nagy felbontást igénylő régészeti minták vizsgálatában is új távlatokat nyit a készülék használata.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HavancsákETAL-2013_2,
      author = {Havancsák, Károly and Baris, Adrienn and Kalácska, Szilvia},
      title = {Az ELTE TTK kétsugaras pásztázó elektronmikroszkópja / Dual beam scanning electronmicroscope at Eötvös Loránd University},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {2},
      pages = {95-102},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_2/AM-13-02-HK.pdf}
    }
    
    Havasi
    Havasi, Krisztina
    1200 körüli kisarchitektúra a középkori egri székesegyházból. Művészettörténeti kérdések és természettudományos vizsgálatok / Fragmenst from the Eger Medieval Cathedral around 1200. Art historical questions and archaeometrical examinations 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(4), pp. 65-70 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Remains from the rebuilding of Eger Medieval Cathedral at the turn of 12-13 century included numerous
    fragments of small architecture structured by niches and accompanied by incrustations and decorative floor.
    Carvings of the small architecture works around 1200 had two basic stone materials: red coloured andesite
    (used only in superstructures), while details of the small architecture, decorative floor, covers and ornamental
    carvings were made of white greyish and pinkish ? marble? (crystalline limestone). This white ?marble? was
    kept in evidence by former researches as an import. Sources from the 18th century - archives and the use of this
    material in a large scale on the buildings of the cathedrals around 1200 turned attention to the possibility of a
    quarry in the neighbourhood. Results of the research started by the Institute for Geochemical Research of HAS
    seem to support this. Testing gave adherent answer to the question that the similar "marble" material of the socalled
    Diósgyőri Madonna (Giovanni Dalmata, around 1490) could be made of the same material as the Eger
    small architecture works around 1200 and the Renaissance works as well. Hopefully, with help of the current
    archaeometry testing many other art historical questions can be clarified.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Havasi2009_4,
      author = {Havasi, Krisztina},
      title = {1200 körüli kisarchitektúra a középkori egri székesegyházból. Művészettörténeti kérdések és természettudományos vizsgálatok / Fragmenst from the Eger Medieval Cathedral around 1200. Art historical questions and archaeometrical examinations},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {4},
      pages = {65-70},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_4/AM-09-04-HK.pdf}
    }
    
    Honti and Horváth
    Honti, Szabolcs & Horváth, Tünde
    Ismertetés: Balatonőszöd?Temetői dűlő (M7/S-10) lelőhely őskori településrészei / The prehistoric settlement parts of Balatonőszöd?Temetői dűlő 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(2), pp. 177 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Honti&Horváth2013_2,
      author = {Honti, Szabolcs and Horváth, Tünde},
      title = {Ismertetés: Balatonőszöd?Temetői dűlő (M7/S-10) lelőhely őskori településrészei / The prehistoric settlement parts of Balatonőszöd?Temetői dűlő},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {2},
      pages = {177},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_2/AM-13-02-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Horváth and Bendő
    Horváth, Eszter & Bendő, Zsolt
    Provenance study on a collection of loose garnets from a Gepidic period grave in Northeast Hungary / Egy gepida kori sírból származó gránátlelet proveniencia vizsgálata 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(1), pp. 17-32 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Red gemstones identified mostly as garnets generally occurred in the 5th-6th-century Europe as inlay decoration
    of fine metalwork. Their majority are known in cut and mounted form ? loose, unmounted pieces are very rarely
    found. For that reason, it is of great importance that a few years ago seventeen such loose red gemstones were
    unearthed at a rescue excavation at Hajdúnánás-Fürj-Halom-dűlő (Hajdú-Bihar County). These gemstones are
    considered as remains in a robbed grave of a late 5th-century cemetery, i.e. dated to the Gepidic period. The
    lack of any related goldsmith artefact and the visible different phases of the gem-cutting process allow us to
    interpret them as independent pieces in a collection. While mounts and cell walls usually make the accurate
    observation difficult, the loose character of these pieces permitted to perform an extensive investigation in order
    to identify the mineral species and to determine their possible geological-geographical origin. The results of the
    gemmological-mineralogical and geochemical analyses revealed that the red gemstones are Fe-rich as well as
    Fe-Mg-rich garnets, i.e. almandine and intermediate varieties between pyrope and almandine. Concerning the
    garnet paragenesis, the raw material has experienced medium- to high-grade metamorphism, for the most part
    at medium pressure and has formed in metapelite source rocks. The comparative analysis of the mineral
    inclusions and the concentration of the major constituents pointed out that they may have been exploited from
    alluvial deposits most likely in South India and Sri Lanka.
    An increasing number of archaeometrical investigations are being worldwide performed in order to deepen our
    knowledge about the used raw material sources and trade links in the Early Middle Ages, when garnet inlaid
    jewellery had an unprecedented spread. Nevertheless, interpretation of the results presented in this paper can be
    considered as the first provenance study related to early medieval garnets found in the present Hungary.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HorvathE2011_1,
      author = {Horváth, Eszter and Bendő, Zsolt},
      title = {Provenance study on a collection of loose garnets from a Gepidic period grave in Northeast Hungary / Egy gepida kori sírból származó gránátlelet proveniencia vizsgálata},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {1},
      pages = {17-32},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_1/AM-11-01-HE.pdf}
    }
    
    Horváth et al.
    Horváth, Eszter; May, Zoltán; S. Kovács, Judit & Tóth, Mária
    An early medieval buckle with cloisonné decoration. The localization of workshop area by archaeometrical investigation / Egy kora középkori cloisonné díszes övcsat. A műhelykörzet lokalizálása archeometriai módszerekkel 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(4), pp. 15-30 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{HorvathEETAL2009_4,
      author = {Horváth, Eszter and May, Zoltán and S. Kovács, Judit and Tóth, Mária},
      title = {An early medieval buckle with cloisonné decoration. The localization of workshop area by archaeometrical investigation / Egy kora középkori cloisonné díszes övcsat. A műhelykörzet lokalizálása archeometriai módszerekkel},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {4},
      pages = {15-30},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_4/AM-09-04-HE.pdf}
    }
    
    Horváth
    Horváth, Tünde
    Budakalász M0/12. kora bronzkori lelőhely kőanyaga / Stone implements of the Bell Beaker cemetery from Budakalász, M0/12 site 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(2), pp. 141-176 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    In this article I investigate the stone finds of the Bell Beaker cemetery of Budakalász in archaeological and
    petrographical point of view. First time in Hungary I describe the finds in the term of the international tipology,
    and compare the inventar with other published Hungarian and European sites.
    Kivonat
    A tanulmányban a budakalászi harangedényes temető kőből készült leleteit tanulmányozom régészeti és
    petrográfiai szempontból. Magyarországon elsőként használom a harangedényes kőleletekre (csuklóvédő,
    pattintott kőeszközök) kidolgozott nemzetközi terminológiát, átültetve a magyar leletanyagra, és összehasonlítva
    más magyar és határon túli harangedényes lelőhelyekkel.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Horváth2013_2,
      author = {Horváth, Tünde},
      title = {Budakalász M0/12. kora bronzkori lelőhely kőanyaga / Stone implements of the Bell Beaker cemetery from Budakalász, M0/12 site},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {2},
      pages = {141-176},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_2/AM-13-02-HT.pdf}
    }
    
    Horváth
    Horváth, Tünde
    Megfigyelések a középső és késő rézkori kultúrák fazekasáruin Balatonőszöd?Temetői dűlő lelőhelyen. Készítéstechnikai vizsgálatok. / Archaeological contribution to the study of the Middle and Late Copper Age pottery 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(1), pp. 51-82 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In this paper the lifestyle of the large Balaton-Lasinja/Furchenstich and Boleráz/Baden settlement,
    Balatonőszöd-Temetői dűlő was investigated, in the respect of possible common ceramic forms, technology,
    tradition, food-products and consumption in the period of Middle and Late Copper Age. Archaeometrical
    investigation of the same subject is presented below in the article of Gherdán et al., same volume.
    On the base of the excavation data, the water?logged settlement of Balatonőszöd?Temetői dűlő first time was
    dated in the Middle Copper Age, Balaton?Lasinja/Furchenastich period. In the pottery we can find many
    similarities to the Late Copper Age Boleráz/Baden period (e.g. the same clay?mine used, pottery tempered with
    grog, same burning method, polished pottery surface, dark color, dotted and channeled decoration, birch?bark
    tar using on the inner or outer surface, handles fixed by joint, appaerance liquid?storage vessels with handle:
    e.g. jugs, amphorae). We can notice some differences also: in the Middle Copper Age the potters built the
    pottery from bands, in the Late Copper Age the potters worked also with patches. There are differences in the
    fixing of the bottom to the vessel?side. Because of the closest analogies among the vessel?forms and building
    technique, and the mixed features and finds on the same site we suggest the interaction of this two periods. The
    possible synchronism happened around 3700-3500 cal BC.
    The practice to make pots in the Boleráz and the Baden periods was the same, but among the forms we can find
    many differences. Both population used the same clay pits, technology and vegetal decoration system. The
    organic residues on the pots indicated fixed, common or familiar / household cooking places and culture: food
    prepared mainly from animal products. Both cultures were basically stock?breeding communities, and they lived
    on extensive, sparse settlements. The Boleráz and the Baden independent folk fused at the site among 3300-3100
    cal BC.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Horváth2010_1,
      author = {Horváth, Tünde},
      title = {Megfigyelések a középső és késő rézkori kultúrák fazekasáruin Balatonőszöd?Temetői dűlő lelőhelyen. Készítéstechnikai vizsgálatok. / Archaeological contribution to the study of the Middle and Late Copper Age pottery},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {1},
      pages = {51-82},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_1/AM-10-01-HT.pdf}
    }
    
    Horváth et al.
    Horváth, Tünde; S. Svingor, Éva & Molnár, Mihály
    Újabb adatok a baden-péceli kultúra keltezéséhez 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(3), pp. 19-30 
    article URL 
    Abstract: During 2001-2002 we carried out rescue excavations at Balatonőszöd-Temetői dűlő. The excavation area,
    covered 100,000 m2, containing 2800 pits, 320 ovens. Above the features a coherent, thick stratum (cultural
    layer) was observed, yielding abundant find material. The settlement of the Baden Culture represents the
    pottery finds IB-IC-IIA-IIB-III. phases in the typological system of N?mejcova-Pavúková. There are more than
    100 pits containing human - and animal - skeletons (ritual pits). Among them, there were 20 pits, from which we
    took samples, and obtained 14C-dates.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HorvathETAL2006,
      author = {Horváth, Tünde and S. Svingor, Éva and Molnár, Mihály},
      title = {Újabb adatok a baden-péceli kultúra keltezéséhez},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {3},
      pages = {19-30},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_3/AM-2006-3-HT.pdf}
    }
    
    Horváth
    Horváth, Zoltán
    Geo-archeopedológus munkája a kulturális örökségvédelmi szakszolgálatban - a földtani talajtani protokoll (GPP) alkalmazása és esettanulmányok / Geo-pedological work at the Field Service for Cultural Heritage 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(2), pp. 01-13 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The present paper is the theme of my presentation which had been written for the Discussion Meeting of the
    Archeoemetry Workshop which was staged at the Hungarian National Museum in March 2009. The presentation
    was about the works of the geo-pedologist who assists archeological research and about some ideas and results
    related to these tasks.
    I illustrate in this study, summarizing my experiences, that geological and pedological observations giving
    environmental information could greatly support archeologists in the reconstruction of the interaction between
    human and natural conditions. However, these types of research also facilitate the planning of archeological
    works before the excavation (preventive research) and when underway.
    These studies could establish databases which are suitable for the interpretation of the data from different points
    of view. These researches require cooperation between natural scientists and archeologists.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Horvath2009,
      author = {Horváth, Zoltán,},
      title = {Geo-archeopedológus munkája a kulturális örökségvédelmi szakszolgálatban - a földtani talajtani protokoll (GPP) alkalmazása és esettanulmányok / Geo-pedological work at the Field Service for Cultural Heritage},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {2},
      pages = {01-13},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_2/AM-09-02-HZ.pdf}
    }
    
    Hupuczi and Sümegi
    Hupuczi, Júlia & Sümegi, Pál
    A madarasi téglagyári löszszelvény legújabb malakológiai vizsgálatának eredményei / Latest malacological results of the loess section at Madaras brickyard 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(2), pp. 157-162 
    article URL 
    Abstract: 36 species and 110 506 specimens of molluscs were collected and identified from 250 samples of the loess
    profile at Madaras, South Hungary. According to changes in the mollusc fauna, six malacological?
    palaeoecological zones can be identified in this profile. The Quaternary malacological data from the Madaras
    loess section suggest that the Middle and Late Pleniglacial development of the mollusc fauna, and local climatic
    and environmental conditions in this area differed from other loess regions in Europe.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hupuczi2011_2,
      author = {Hupuczi, Júlia and Sümegi, Pál},
      title = {A madarasi téglagyári löszszelvény legújabb malakológiai vizsgálatának eredményei / Latest malacological results of the loess section at Madaras brickyard},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {2},
      pages = {157-162},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_2/AM-11-02-HJ.pdf}
    }
    
    Hír and Venczel
    Hír, J. & Venczel, M.
    Előzetes beszámoló a litkei Krétabánya -völgy középső miocén gerinces maradványairól / Preliminary report on the Middle Miocene vertebrate remains from Litke, Krétabánya -valley 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(1), pp. 59-66 
    article URL 
    Abstract: A preliminary report on the results of the paleontological excavations in the Krétabánya Valley at Litke
    A freshwater ?continental series was described South to Litke in the Krétabánya Valley (= ?Valley of the Chalk
    Mine?) (Fig. 1) in the begining of the 20th century. The fine white diatomite was intensively mined here during
    the thirties and the forties. The intercyclic lithostratigraphical position of the freshwater series between the
    Karpatian and Badenian marine cycles was first realized by BARTKÓ (1949). The mollusc fauna was studied by
    CSEPREGHY ?MEZNERICS (1950). She described the Lymnaeus pachygaster nogradensis n. ssp., Planorbarius
    cornu mantelli, Planorbarius cornu var. However these taxa were not adequate for exact biostratigraphic
    classification. In the Hungarian geological literature the geochronological position of the freshwater series of
    Litke was uncertain. It was described as Karpatian by a group of the authors (e.g. HÁMOR 1985) and it was
    regarded as Badenian by another group (e.g. BALOGH 1966).
    In 2001 a new period of the field activity was initiated by the author and Dr. Péter Prakfalvi. The
    paleovertebrate locality (GPS: N: 47° 49,727? E: 19°40, 668?) was found by the author and Mr. Tibor Brunda
    in 2004. 2 metric tones of sediment was collected from the bone bearing diatomaceous clay (Fig. 2) in 2005. A
    sieve with 0.5 mm mesh was applied for the flotation of the sediment. Up to the present we found the following
    taxa.
    Prolagus oeningensis (König, 1825)
    Characteristic lower premolars of the species were found (Fig. 9.).
    Miodyromys sp.
    The extremely small dimensions of the molars are remarkable (Fig. 10.).
    Keramidomys sp.
    The material is not enough for an exact determination (Fig. 11), but the species K. reductus and K. pertesunatoi
    can be excluded.
    Cricetodon sp.
    The dimensions are similar to C. meini, but some morphological characters (e. g. the well developed posterior
    ectoloph of the labial cusp of the anteroconus is similar to C. aureus (Figs. 3.-8.,Fig. 13.).
    Democricetodon mutilus FAHLBUSCH, 1964
    One m1 molar was found (Fig. 12.). In Hungary the species was found in Mátraszőlős 2. (HÍR & KÓKAY 2004).
    Megacricetodon sp.
    The morphology is similar to M. minor on the whole (Fig. 16.), but one M1 (Figs. 14-15.) has a rare
    morphotype because of the presence of long anteromesoloph and long mesoloph.
    As a preliminary conclusion we can classify the biochronological position of the fauna as early MN6 which is
    referable to the early Badenian. The field activity and the elaboration is going on.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HirVenczel2007,
      author = {Hír, J. and Venczel, M.},
      title = {Előzetes beszámoló a litkei Krétabánya -völgy középső miocén gerinces maradványairól / Preliminary report on the Middle Miocene vertebrate remains from Litke, Krétabánya -valley},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {1},
      pages = {59-66},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_1/AM-2007-01-HJ.pdf}
    }
    
    Iakovleva
    Iakovleva, Lioudmila
    Les parures en coquillages au paléolithique supérieur recent dans les territoires de peuplement du Bassin du Dniepr / Ornaments made of molluscs in the Late Upper Palaeolithic on the habitation areas of the Dniepr Basin 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(4), pp. 26-37 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The sites owning to the techno-complex Mezinian (also named eastern Epigravettian), are well defined in space (upper and middle Dnepr basin) and time (15 000 -14 000 BP). They are showing the evidence of a body ornamentation with objects realised by four different raw material from local and distant origins (fossils, sea and river shells, ivory, animal teeth, amber). In such a symbolic system, the use of shells from different species has been very selective. The use of shells from the black sea is showing the link between north-eastern hunter-gatherer groups and the Mediterranean regions. The choice for certain species of shells and the variability of the assemblages of ornaments known in several sites are revealing the evidence of a symbolization of the social organization. The differential distribution of shell ornaments has been pointed out in the multi-occupation site of Semenivka (where there is no portable art), which is a halt site occupied during seasonal travels, due also to needs in procurement of distant shell. The association of the same types of shells with several other types of ornaments and portable art in other residential sites like Mezine, Mejiriche and Ioudinovo, is showing the major role of the residential sites as central place in charge of the cultural, spiritual and social code of the hunter-gatherer groups and of the intergroup relationships inside their territory.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Iakovleva2005,
      author = {Iakovleva, Lioudmila},
      title = {Les parures en coquillages au paléolithique supérieur recent dans les territoires de peuplement du Bassin du Dniepr / Ornaments made of molluscs in the Late Upper Palaeolithic on the habitation areas of the Dniepr Basin},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {4},
      pages = {26-37},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_4/AM-2005-4-LJ.pdf}
    }
    
    Ilon
    Ilon, Gábor
    Könyvismertetés: GRYNAEUS ANDRÁS: Miről mesélnek a régi fák évgyűrűi? Régészet, dendrokronológia, klímatörténet. Budapest, Archaeolingua, 2015. p. 243, 97 képmelléklettel 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(3), pp. 217-218 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ilon_2016_3,
      author = {Ilon, Gábor},
      title = {Könyvismertetés: GRYNAEUS ANDRÁS: Miről mesélnek a régi fák évgyűrűi? Régészet, dendrokronológia, klímatörténet. Budapest, Archaeolingua, 2015. p. 243, 97 képmelléklettel},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {3},
      pages = {217-218},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_3/AM-2016-3-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Ilon
    Ilon, Gábor
    Könyvismertetés: Bertók Gábor ? Gáti Csilla: Régi idők ? új módszerek. 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(1), pp. 51-52 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ilon2015_1,
      author = {Ilon, Gábor},
      title = {Könyvismertetés: Bertók Gábor ? Gáti Csilla: Régi idők ? új módszerek.},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {1},
      pages = {51-52},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_1/AM15-01-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Ilon
    Ilon, Gábor
    Rómer Flóris terepbejárásaitól napjainkig ? néhány példa a saját Veszprém és Vas megyei gyakorlatomból / From the surveys of Flóris Rómer till modern practice ? some examples of the author from counties Veszprém and Vas 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(2), pp. 53-66 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    On the occasion of the bicentenary anniversary of the birth of Flóris Rómer, pioneering personality of Hungarian archaeology, first the documents of the excavations at Százhalom (Hundred Mounds) of Bakonyszűcs are presented, than topographical research by the author are summarised for the territory of Veszprém County. Following this the surveys of Rómer in the environs of Kőszeg, Vas County are presented together with recent topographical work in Vas County.
    Altogether we can summarize that the preparatory work for an Archaeological Topography of Vas County was not really adequate in the last six decades. In the first phase (1959?1994) there were neither enough manpower nor material conditions (e.g. maps, vehicles) available. In the second phase (1994?2008) we made efforts to complement former deficiencies, but preventive excavations for large investments starting from 1999 (e.g., motorway constructions and other infrastructural investment projects, department stores and housing estates) took all the available capacities of the archaeologists and students involved. Field activities performed in the course of training technicians for archaeology at the Szombathely Highschool like systematical field surveys between 1994?2006 and collecting former data on the archaeology of the region were, however, published as far as possible flashed the possibility of creating a systematical topography. New methods like intensive field surveys (collecting over large areas in a 5 x 5 m network and evaluating the results) were tried and applied but even these efforts could not lead to a homogeneous set of observations. Basically it seems that creating a regional archaeological topography really needs dedicated personnel, discharged from other duties. They can work optimally in a central institution (e.g., like in the former Archaeological Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, collaborating with the ?local forces?). The eleven volumes of the Hungarian Archaeological Topography (MRT) are good examples for this.
    Kivonat
    A tanulmány bevezetéseként és emlékezve az ünnepeltre, Rómer Flórisnak a bakonyszűcsi Százhalom területén végzett feltárásainak dokumentumait villantom fel, majd Veszprém megyei topográfiai tevékenységemet foglalom össze. Ezt követően Rómer Flóris kőszegi (Vas m.) ?terepbejárását? mutatom be, majd térek rá írásom lényegi részére: azaz a vas megyei topográfiai jellegű kutatások summázatára.
    Összegzésként sajnos csak az állapítható meg, hogy a Magyarország Régészeti Topográfiája Vas megyei köteteivel kapcsolatos előmunkálatoknak, illetve ezek kéziratai elkészítésének az elmúlt 6 évtized nem igazán kedvezett. A topográfiai munkálatok I. szakaszában (1959?1994) ugyanis sem megfelelő számú szakember, sem a szükséges objektív feltételek (pl. térképek, autók) nem álltak rendelkezésre. A kutatás II. szakaszában (1994?2008) pedig az ? az előző szakasz hiányosságainak részbeni pótlása ellenére ? az 1999-től a megyében meginduló nagyberuházások (pl. útépítések, egyéb infrastrukturális beruházások, áruház- és lakópark építkezések) kötötték le a Régészeti osztály munkatársainak és a régésztechnikus képzés hallgatóinak kapacitását. A régésztechnikus képzés keretében végzett terepi tevékenységek (pl. szisztematikus bejárások 1994?2006 között) és a korábban begyűjtött információk feldolgozása és mindezek lehetőség szerinti publikálása csak a topográfia elkészítésének lehetőségét csillantották meg, illetve az új módszerek (5 x 5 m-es négyzethálós gyűjtés és értékelő feldolgozása) kipróbálását és rendszeres alkalmazását biztosították. Mindezek után úgy tűnik, hogy realitása csak ott volt és lehet egy megyei régészeti topográfia elkészítésének, ahol a napi régészeti teendők alól felmentett szakemberek koncentráltan csak ezzel foglalkozhatnak. Utóbbiak dolgozhatnak természetesen egy központi intézményben (MTA RI), s velük együtt kell, hogy tevékenykedjenek a ?helyi erők? is. Az eddig megjelent 11 topográfiai kötet ezt egyértelműen bizonyítja.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ilon2015_2,
      author = {Ilon, Gábor},
      title = {Rómer Flóris terepbejárásaitól napjainkig ? néhány példa a saját Veszprém és Vas megyei gyakorlatomból / From the surveys of Flóris Rómer till modern practice ? some examples of the author from counties Veszprém and Vas},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {2},
      pages = {53-66},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_2/AM-2015-02-IG.pdf}
    }
    
    Ilon
    Ilon, Gábor
    10 éves az Archeometriai Műhely (AM) / Ten years of Archaeometry Workshop (AM) 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(1), pp. 77-80 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    This short report summarizes antecedents of this periodical and results of the first decade of operation (2004?2013). Statistical elaboration of the products shows the main directions of Hungarian archaeometrical research with a marked focus on stone implements, their raw material, building stones and ceramics, basically in respect of Hungary and the Carpathian Basin. Most of the articles centre on prehistory, notably the Neolithic period. Thematical issues constitute the main ridge of the communications with numerous international collaboration programs and their results. Apart from a minimal number of printed copies the open-access electronic format renders the communications easily available for the international professional audience, as well as some important Hungarian databases. Search in AM is facilitated by a BibTex type query system. Recently the periodical is indexed by Scopus.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ilon2014_1,
      author = {Ilon, Gábor},
      title = {10 éves az Archeometriai Műhely (AM) / Ten years of Archaeometry Workshop (AM)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {1},
      pages = {77-80},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_1/AM-14-01-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Ilon
    Ilon, Gábor
    A velemi Szent Vid aranykincsének gömbszeleteir?l (Buckeln) / A brief report on the globule segments (Buckeln) of the treasure found on Szent Vid hill in Velem 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(2), pp. 123-132 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The archaeological excavation conducted by Kálmán Miske and Ferenc Tompa in Vas County in the initial days
    of September 1929 discovered a golden treasure that, safeguarded at the Savaria Museum in Szombathely, has
    been the subject of meticulous research ever since. Of the researchers? works, those completed by Amália
    Mozsolics (1950) and Gábor Bándi (1983) will be highlighted hereunder as these encompass fundamental data.
    The restoration and instrument aided analyses (SEM-EMA) of the golden treasure as well as the production of
    its replicas were carried out by a co-financing scheme in 2004-2006. Chief restorer Katalin Bruder directed the
    restoration and analyses project, whilst physicist Attila Tóth managed the consummation of the replicas.
    This brief report is to focus on two particular objects of the golden treasure that weighs 82.07 grams in total.
    The restoration project identified that, according to their contemporary inventory numbering, No. I ?pair of
    discs? (disc no. 1 and 4) are (i) globule segments (Buckeln) and (ii) their deviation in color from the rest of the
    objects in the treasure was caused by contamination. The SEM-EMA analyses revealed that (i) all of the objects
    in the treasure are gold alloys, hence is the pair of globule segments (Sample V1, V4) presented herein; and (ii)
    their silver content is cca. 16% and their copper content is cca. 3% (fig. 3) in addition to their gold content of
    cca. 80%; and (iii) the content of the globule segments, contrary to Amália Mozsolics? theory grounded on the
    color of the objects, is the closest to the diadem, practically identical with that; and (iv) according to the
    analyses of the diadem and the samples of globule segments no. 1 and 4, the plates formerly covered with gold
    tinsel were significantly corroded and did not contain a metal core. A copper (Cu) content of cca. 12%, a tin
    (Sn) content of 66% and a lead (Pb) content of 19% could be detected in the corroded 3a coded sample of
    globule segment no. 1 (fig. 4). The corrosion effect is a bronze and copper and tin alloy, in which lead can be
    considered as a contaminating agent that might refer to the type of the ore. High lead content is the result of its
    languid dissolvability, hence its accumulation at the point subject of measurement and analysis.
    Since the copper content ranges between 2 and 4%, the ?alloys? might originate equally in primary or
    secondary native gold sources (mined gold or that extracted from stream load), yet the lack of tin (Hartmann
    1970, 11) refers to the equivalent duality.
    Contingent upon its content, No. I pair of globule segments can most likely be associated with the Danube
    regional A1/N group according to the Axel Hartmann categorization rested on the Au, Ag and Cu ratios. To be
    noted that, in a minimum amount, tin was identified in the objects of this group (Hartmann 1970, 42?43, Tab.
    18). It is of relevance that this group encompasses the golden laminated jewellery of Óbuda (Mozsolics 1950, 14,
    Abb. 7) and of Rothengrub (Pittioni 1952) considered as the proper typological analogues of the globule
    segments.
    The objects of costumes (fig. 5) in the treasure of Velem were manufactured in the Late Bronze Age and were
    cached sometime in the corresponding period.
    The objects of the golden treasure and conjointly the globule segments described herein can be distinguished as
    the elements of decoration, ceremonial and/or ritual wear (David 2007, 437) in correlation with the sun cult
    and/or the farming calendar (Leitschuh-Weber 1994, 94; David 2010), yet to discuss this theme now was out of
    my objective.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ilon2012_2,
      author = {Ilon, Gábor},
      title = {A velemi Szent Vid aranykincsének gömbszeleteir?l (Buckeln) / A brief report on the globule segments (Buckeln) of the treasure found on Szent Vid hill in Velem},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {2},
      pages = {123-132},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_2/AM-12-02-IG.pdf}
    }
    
    Ilon and Kasztovszky
    Ilon, Gábor & Kasztovszky, Zsolt
    Untersuchung spätbronzezeitlicher Glasperlen aus West-Ungarn / Analysis of late Bronze Age glass beads from Western Hungary / Nyugat-Magyarországi késő bronzkori üveggyöngyök vizsgálata 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(1), pp. 55-68 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The previous semi-quantitative analysis of the chemical composition of Late Bronze Age glass beads from various
    sites in the Bakony Hills identified these artefacts as made of soda-glass, comparable to alkaline glasses in Western
    Europe on the basis of their high potassium content. The beads represented the Late Tumulus?Early Urnfield
    culture (Bz C2?Ha A1) at the sites of Bakonyjákó (1988), Németbánya, and Ugod (1994). In the present paper
    glass beads from the same burials were subjected to Prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis (PGAA; Figs. 1?2)
    but beads from the tumulus at Jánosháza (Vas County) have also been included. Measurements were taken at the
    the Budapest Neutron Centre.
    It is noteworthy that the Na2O (18.3 m/m% and 19.8 m/m%) and K2O (2.8 m/m% and 3.3m/m%) contents of beads
    recovered in the Bakony Hills are similar to glass found in Mycene (Na2O: 9.98?18.3 m/m%, K2O: 1.20?3.58
    m/m%). Henderson et. al studied Late Helladic IIIB-C from Elateia and Thebes whose Na2O contents was also
    comparable (17.6?20.9 m/m%). That is, both the Na2O and K2O contents of the Bakony glass beads are similar to
    those from Egypt (K2O: 0.6?2.64 m/m%; Na2O: 16.74-?18.3 m/m%) and Mesopotamia (K2O: 1.42?4.42 m/m%;
    Na2O: 14.17?18.38 m/m%). This means that as may have been expected, alkaline content in itself is insufficient in
    identifying the place of origins.
    PGAA measurements carried out on the Bakony glass beads and control samples showed that on the basis of their
    main components (Na2O, K2O, MgO) the Bakony beads are made of HMG glass, very similar to those found in Mycene.
    Trace elements (B, Cl) on the other hand show that they are unlikely to have originated from the same source
    as their Mycenean counterparts (Fig. 3). Theoretically it is possible that the raw material originated from different
    areas within the same geographical region. Meanwhile glass beads of Egyptian and Mesopotamian origins have
    been identified among finds from Denmark. Thus it is possible that such high status items imported to Mycene from
    the Eastern Mediterranean (e.g. Uluburun) strayed into transit areas such as the East Alpine Foreland along the
    Amber Route. They may also have ended up in the hands of the wealthy in this area as war bouty or the spoils of
    robbery (Fig. 5).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ilon&Kasztovszky2016_1,
      author = {Ilon, Gábor and Kasztovszky, Zsolt},
      title = {Untersuchung spätbronzezeitlicher Glasperlen aus West-Ungarn / Analysis of late Bronze Age glass beads from Western Hungary / Nyugat-Magyarországi késő bronzkori üveggyöngyök vizsgálata},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {1},
      pages = {55-68},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_1/AM-2016-1-IG.pdf}
    }
    
    Ilon and Szakmány
    Ilon, Gábor & Szakmány, György szerk.
    Archeometriai Műhely 2016/1. szám 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(1), pp. 3-68 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{AM2016_1,
      author = {Ilon, Gábor and Szakmány, György szerk.},
      title = {Archeometriai Műhely 2016/1. szám},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3-68},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_1/2016_1_contents.html}
    }
    
    Jettmar
    Jettmar, Philipp
    Animal remains from the Late Medieval and Early Modern Age Castle of Grafendorf, Lower Austria - a preliminary report / A késő középkori és kora újkori Grafendorf Kastély (Alsó-Ausztria) állatmaradványai ? előzetes jelentés 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(3), pp. 193-200 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    Excavations at the castle of Grafendorf in Stockerau, Lower Austria, 20 km NW of Vienna, revealed 2561 animal
    bones. The remains were found in layers and structures ranging from the late 14th to the early 16th century in
    time. The archaeozoological analysis in conjunction with the archaeological and historical investigations shows
    evidence for the high social status of the castle?s owners or inhabitants on the basis of butchery marks and meat
    consumption habits, as well as the evidence for hunting. Further conclusions concerning the keeping and
    breeding of animals and the environment of the medieval castle are difficult to draw mainly due to the lack of
    statistically reliable quantities of data. Nevertheless hypotheses are formulated that should be subject to future
    investigations.
    Kivonat
    A stockeraui Grafendorf kastély (Alsó-Ausztria, Bécstől kb. 20 km északnyugatra) ásatása során 2561
    állatmaradványt hoztak felszínre. Ezek a XIV?XVI. század közötti időszakra keltezett rétegekből és
    objektumokból származnak. A régészeti és történeti kutatással párhuzamosan végzett régészeti állattani
    vizsgálatok a kastély egykori birtokosainak és lakóinak magas társadalmi állására utalnak a csontokon ejtett
    vágásnyomok, a húsfogyasztási szokások és a vadászat bizonyítékainak alapján. Statisztikailag megbízható
    mennyiségű adatok híján a kastély környezetében tartott és tenyésztett állatokra vonatkozó további
    következtetéseket egyelőre nehéz levonni. Az eddigi megfigyelések azonban alkalmasak a további kutatás
    számára hasznosítható munkahipotézisek felállítására.
    KEYWORDS: ARCHAEOZOOLOGY, LATE MIDDLE AGE, LOWER AUSTRIA, CASTLE
    KULCSSZAVAK: RÉGÉSZETI ÁLLATTAN, KÉSŐKÖZÉPKOR, ALSÓ-AUSZTRIA, KASTÉLY
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jettmar2013_3,
      author = {Jettmar, Philipp},
      title = {Animal remains from the Late Medieval and Early Modern Age Castle of Grafendorf, Lower Austria - a preliminary report / A késő középkori és kora újkori Grafendorf Kastély (Alsó-Ausztria) állatmaradványai ? előzetes jelentés},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {3},
      pages = {193-200},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_3/AM-13-03-PJ.pdf}
    }
    
    Jull and Burr
    Jull, T.A.J. & Burr, G. S.
    Some interesting applications of radiocarbon dating to Art and Archaeology / A radiokarbon kormeghatározás ne'hány e'rdekes alkalmazása 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(3), pp. 139-148 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    Radiocarbon dating is an important tool for the determination of the age of many samples and covers the time period of approximately the last 50,000 years. We can use radiocarbon dating to estimate the age of a wide variety of carbon-containing materials. Both organic or inorganic materials at the Earth's surface and in the oceans form in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon-14. This makes it an important tool for the understanding of processes during the time-scale of modern humans, from the last glacial-interglacial transition, to recent archaeological studies of art works. We present an overview of the technique, its advantages, assumptions and limitations. We also emphasize dating interesting objects. Radiocarbon has been applied to dating many historical artifacts and archaeological applications. Some specific examples including dating of famous artifacts of artistic, religious and scientific interest are discussed.
    A radiokarbon kormeghatározás az abszolút kronológiai adatok meghatározásának fontos eszköze, sokféle mintán alkalmazható és alkalmas az utolsó 50 000 év leleteinek datálására. A módszert sokféle, szenet tartalmazó anyag korának meghatározására használhatjuk. Szerves és szervetlen mintákat vizsgálhatunk a Föld felszínéről vagy az óceánok mélyérol, bárhonnan, ahol a C-14 izotóp mennyisége egyensúlyban volt a légköri szén izotóp összetétellel. Ennek következtében fontos eszköze a fejlődési folyamatok megismerésének a modern ember létezésének idején, az utolsó jégkorszakot megelőző interglaciális időszak végétől egészen napjainkig. A tanulmányban áttekintést adunk a kormeghatározási eljárásról, elonyeiről, feltételeiről és korlátairól. Esettanulmányokat mutatunk be érdekes műtárgyakon. A radiokarbon kormeghatározást számos történeti és régészeti tárgyon próbálták ki, amelyek között néhány különleges művészeti, vallási vagy tudományos értékkel is bír.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jull_Burr_2014_3,
      author = {Jull, T.A.J. and Burr, G. S.},
      title = {Some interesting applications of radiocarbon dating to Art and Archaeology / A radiokarbon kormeghatározás ne'hány e'rdekes alkalmazása},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {3},
      pages = {139-148},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_3/AM-14-03-TJ.pdf}
    }
    
    Józsa et al.
    Józsa, Sándor; Szakmány, György; Obbágy, Gabriella; Bendő, Zsolt & Taubald, Heinrich
    A faľanai (Isztria, Horvátország) Laecanius amphorák archeometriája / Archaeometry of Laecanian amphorae from Faľana, Istria 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(2), pp. 95-130 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The purpose of the archaeometric study of Istrian amphorae was twofold. The main goals were the recognition of the raw material of amphorae, the identification of the source rock types and the delimitation of purchasing sites of possible raw materials. In addition, we would like to get better knowledge about the technical conditions of amphora producing. Our results are presented in order of usage of different methods. During our research it became clear, that by the help of detailed and an in-depth comparative petrographic study the rock types forming the raw material of Istrian amphorae could be determined with great accuracy. The practical applicability of the possible raw materials and the practical conclusions could be drawn from their composition were determined by pottery experiments. The mixing rate of the components of the raw material could determined more precisely by micromineralogy and chemical analyses. The differe nt stages of textural and mineralogical changes of the groundmass of the amphorae during firing could best followed by electron microscopic method. Our research proved that the main component of the raw material of Faľana Dr. 6B amphorae was the Cenozoic flysch which is widespread in Middle-North Istria. This material was mixed with few terra rossa and recent sea shore sediment. Since we found muddy sediment with si milar composition on the sea shore of small bays (i.e. Piran bay) of Triest gulf, we suppose that this natural homogenous mixture was excavated and transported by ship as ballast material to Faľana. One part of these amphorae were manufactured purely from this natural mixture, for other part of them this mud was artificially mixed with small amount of local fine grained recent marine sand. At the end of the current paper, an English summary is given.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jozsa_etal2016,
      author = {Józsa, Sándor and Szakmány, György and Obbágy, Gabriella and Bendő, Zsolt and Taubald, Heinrich},
      title = {A faľanai (Isztria, Horvátország) Laecanius amphorák archeometriája / Archaeometry of Laecanian amphorae from Faľana, Istria},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {2},
      pages = {95-130},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_2/AM-2016-2-JS.pdf}
    }
    
    Józsa et al.
    Józsa, Sándor; Szakmány, György; Obbágy, Gabriella & Kürthy, Dóra
    Régészeti mikroásványtan - mikroásványok a régészeti kerámiákban, a módszer lehetőségei és korlátai / Micromineralogy in archaeological ceramics ? oppurtunities and constrains of analytical methods 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(3), pp. 173-190 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The most frequent archaeological artifacts are the ceramic remnants. Production of earthenware was common activity in the past. The raw materials for ceramics were continuously collected by potters. They travelled great distances for good quality material when it was necessary. Modest potteries were made usually of local, often lower quality materials. In favored situations the raw material was prepared from one kind of material, but in most of the cases two or more different originated materials were mixed, or if it was necessary temper was added to the clay. The latter identification of raw materials of archeological ceramic fragments only by traditional petrographic methods is not or only partly possible because of the finegrained nature of potteries. In this case the micromineralogy, or rather its branch the heavy mineral analysis can come into view. This discipline deals with the determination of so called accessory minerals, appearing usually in small quantity and size in many different rock types, and with disintegrated more dense rock forming minerals.
    In this work beside the introduction to the traditional micromineralogical sample preparation and investigation methods we try to present the modern mineral determination methods adopted in micromineralogy. We are highlighting the benefits, disadvantages and possible role of heavy mineral determination methods in ceramic archaeometry. The methods described are represented by two heavy mineral case studies, the first one is on Iron Age ceramics from south Hungary, the second one is on Roman age Istrian ceramic sample series.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jozsa&al_2016_3,
      author = {Józsa, Sándor and Szakmány, György and Obbágy, Gabriella and Kürthy, Dóra},
      title = {Régészeti mikroásványtan - mikroásványok a régészeti kerámiákban, a módszer lehetőségei és korlátai / Micromineralogy in archaeological ceramics ? oppurtunities and constrains of analytical methods},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {3},
      pages = {173-190},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_3/AM-2016-3-JS.pdf}
    }
    
    Kasztovszky
    Kasztovszky, Zsolt
    FÚj együttműködés kezdetei a Szöuli Egyetem és az MTA EK között / New collaboration possibilities between the Seoul University and the Centre for Energy Research of the HAS 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(2), pp. 143-144 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kasztovszky2016,
      author = {Kasztovszky, Zsolt},
      title = {FÚj együttműködés kezdetei a Szöuli Egyetem és az MTA EK között / New collaboration possibilities between the Seoul University and the Centre for Energy Research of the HAS},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {2},
      pages = {143-144},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_2/AM-2016-2-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Kasztovszky
    Kasztovszky, Zsolt
    Az Európai Közösség IPERION CH projektje ? Mit jelent a magyaroknak? 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(3), pp. 229-230 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kasztovszky2015_3,
      author = {Kasztovszky, Zsolt},
      title = {Az Európai Közösség IPERION CH projektje ? Mit jelent a magyaroknak?},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {3},
      pages = {229-230},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_3/AM-2015-3-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Kasztovszky
    Kasztovszky, Zsolt
    The IAEA technical cooperation projects on the applications of Nuclear Techniques for Cultural Heritage Research / A Nemzetközi Atomenergia Ügynökség egyttműködési programjai a nukleáris módszerek alkalmazásairól a kulturális örökség kutatásában 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(4), pp. 239-242 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The International Atomic Energy Agency was founded in 1957. Its mission was declared as to foster the safe and peaceful applications of the atomic energy and nuclear technologies. The four major fields of its activity are: 1, Nuclear and Radiation Safety, 2, Nuclear Energy, 3, Human Health and 4, Isotope and Radiation Technology Applications. Among the various applications of nuclear techniques, forensic and cultural heritage studies have become of more and more importance. In this paper, I give an overview of the Technical Cooperations on cultural heritage research, launched by the IAEA in the last decade.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kasztovszky2015_4,
      author = {Kasztovszky, Zsolt},
      title = {The IAEA technical cooperation projects on the applications of Nuclear Techniques for Cultural Heritage Research / A Nemzetközi Atomenergia Ügynökség egyttműködési programjai a nukleáris módszerek alkalmazásairól a kulturális örökség kutatásában},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {4},
      pages = {239-242},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_4/AM-2015-4-KZS.pdf}
    }
    
    Kasztovszky
    Kasztovszky, Zsolt
    Beszámoló a Synchrotron Radiation and Neutrons in Art and Archaeology 2014 (SR2A-2014) konferenciáról 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(3), pp. 177-178 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kasztovszky2014_3,
      author = {Kasztovszky, Zsolt},
      title = {Beszámoló a Synchrotron Radiation and Neutrons in Art and Archaeology 2014 (SR2A-2014) konferenciáról},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {3},
      pages = {177-178},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_3/AM-14-03-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Kasztovszky
    Kasztovszky, Zsolt
    Beszámoló a 'TECHNART 2009 - Non-destructive and Microanalytical Techniques in Art and Cultural Heritage' konferenciáról 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(2), pp. 61-62 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kasztovszky2009,
      author = {Kasztovszky, Zsolt},
      title = {Beszámoló a 'TECHNART 2009 - Non-destructive and Microanalytical Techniques in Art and Cultural Heritage' konferenciáról},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {2},
      pages = {61-62},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_2/AM-09-02-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Kasztovszky
    Kasztovszky, Zsolt
    Az Európai Unió CHARISMA projektje 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(3), pp. 73-74 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kasztovszky2009_3,
      author = {Kasztovszky, Zsolt},
      title = {Az Európai Unió CHARISMA projektje},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {3},
      pages = {73-74},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_3/AM-09-03-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Kasztovszky
    Kasztovszky, Zsolt
    Radiogén izotópos mérések tanfolyam Tübingenben 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(1), pp. 53 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kasztovszky2005,
      author = {Kasztovszky, Zsolt},
      title = {Radiogén izotópos mérések tanfolyam Tübingenben},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {1},
      pages = {53},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_2/AM-2005-2-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Kasztovszky and Belgya
    Kasztovszky, Zsolt & Belgya, Tamás
    Non-Destructive Investigations of Cultural Heritage Objects with Guided Neutrons: The Ancient Charm Collaboration 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(1), pp. 12-17 
    article URL 
    Abstract: When investigating valuable artistic objects, the first and foremost requirement is to preserve the integrity of the objects. Various kinds of physical processes can provide information about the material of the objects, without destroying them. Neutrons, elemental particles having zero electric charge can enter deep into the irradiated material, and they can undergo different nuclear interactions. Both the neutron capture-based methods (i. e. Neutron Tomography ? NT, Neutron Activation Analysis ? NAA, Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis ? PGAA and Neutron Resonance Capture Analysis ? NRCA) and the neutron scattering-based methods (i. e. Time of Flight Neutron Diffraction ? TOF-ND and Small Angle Neutron Scattering ? SANS) have been previously applied to archaeometric research. A new European Commission funded project with ten collaborators, called Ancient Charm, has been launched with the aim of combining the aforementioned methods to achieve 3-D imaging and elemental mapping of museum objects with complex structures.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KasztovszkyBelgya2006a,
      author = {Kasztovszky, Zsolt and Belgya, Tamás},
      title = {Non-Destructive Investigations of Cultural Heritage Objects with Guided Neutrons: The Ancient Charm Collaboration},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {1},
      pages = {12-17},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_1/AM-2006-1-KZS.pdf}
    }
    
    Kasztovszky and Kunicki-Goldfinger
    Kasztovszky, Zsolt & Kunicki-Goldfinger, Jerzy
    Újabb eredmények az üvegek archeometriai vizsgálatában prompt gamma aktivációs analízis segítségével / Applicability of Prompt Gamma Activation analysis to glass archaeometry 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(3), pp. 51-58 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Chemical (elemental and isotopic) analysis is a basic tool in provenance as well as conservation studies of
    historical glass. Besides the widely applied Electrone Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray Flourescence
    Analysis (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), less known Prompt Gamma
    Activation Analysis (PGAA) is a powerfool method to investigate whole glass objects or fragments. In 2004, we
    initiated a research project to investigate elemental composition of historical glass objects, unearthed in Poland
    with PGAA and EPMA. PGAA was applied for quantification of major components, as well as of some minor
    elements of glass. The non-destructive feature of PGAA, as well as its very low (0.3 ?g/g) detection limit for
    boron is highly capitalized on, as we discussed in Kasztovszky et al. (2005a). Boron concentration can provide
    important technological information in glass archaeometry. However, it is very difficult to analyze it by the use
    of traditional non-destructive methods. In this respect, PGAA seems to be a complementary tool for other
    analytical methods already well known and used in glass archaeometry.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KasztovszkyKunicki2008,
      author = {Kasztovszky, Zsolt and Kunicki-Goldfinger, Jerzy},
      title = {Újabb eredmények az üvegek archeometriai vizsgálatában prompt gamma aktivációs analízis segítségével / Applicability of Prompt Gamma Activation analysis to glass archaeometry},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {3},
      pages = {51-58},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_3/AM-08-03-KZS.pdf}
    }
    
    Kasztovszky et al.
    Kasztovszky, Zsolt; Kunicki-Goldfinger, Jerzy J.; Dzier?anowski, Piotr; Nawrolska, Gra?yna & Wawrzyniak, Piotr
    Történelmi üvegek roncsolásmentes vizsgálata prompt gamma aktivációs analízissel és elektron-mikroszondával / Provenance studies of glassware by PGAA and electron microprobe 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(1), pp. 48-56 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Provenance studies of glassware mean a challenge for historians. Typological features of the vessels are
    frequently not sufficient for characterisation of certain glasshouses. The knowledge of chemical composition
    may provide a substantial complementary data. Many different analytical methods have been used in glass
    archaeometry; however, most of them require sampling of the historical object. Two analytical methods have
    been applied for the examination of the historic glass. Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) is already well
    known in the field of archaeometry; however it can not be regarded non-destructive at all. The less known
    Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) represents a new nuclear method for bulk analysis, without the risk
    of samples’ destruction. In this study we have investigated 23 historical glass pieces mainly from the postmedieval
    periods. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of PGAA on historical glass objects.
    With PGAA we were able to determine all the major components (SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O, K2O, CaO TiO2, Fe2O3,
    BaO and PbO) and some trace elements, based on which we were able to draw some conclusions regarding the
    provenance of the objects. The obtained results are in good agreement with EPMA results. Chemical analysis of
    Baroque glass is essential in glass archaeometry, as such glass may contain substantial amount of boron – the
    element that is very hard to analyse by the use of non-destructive methods. Other important elements, such as
    Sb, Sr, Rb, Y, Zr and Zn are usually below the detection limits of PGAA.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KasztovszkyETAL2005,
      author = {Kasztovszky, Zsolt and Jerzy J. Kunicki-Goldfinger and Piotr Dzier?anowski and Gra?yna Nawrolska and Piotr Wawrzyniak},
      title = {Történelmi üvegek roncsolásmentes vizsgálata prompt gamma aktivációs analízissel és elektron-mikroszondával / Provenance studies of glassware by PGAA and electron microprobe},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {1},
      pages = {48-56},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_1/AM-2005-1-KZs.pdf}
    }
    
    Kasztovszky and Maróti
    Kasztovszky, Zsolt & Maróti, Boglárka
    Ezüsttárgyak neutronos vizsgálatának lehetőségei és nehézségei / Potentials and limitations of neutron-based methods in archaeometry of silver 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(1), pp. 25-32 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    Silver, besides copper and gold, is one of the oldest known and used metals. In the ancient times, it was possible to find it in native (pure metal) form, later it was produced by cupellation process from its ores. From the very early times, 3rd millennium B. C., up to now, it is used to produce ornaments, jewellery and coins. In the archaeometry of silver, the most frequently arising questions ? similarly to other kind of objects ? concern the provenance, the workshop identification and also the authenticity. Certainly, if possible, non-destructive and non-invasive investigations are preferred. In this paper, an overview of the neutron-based analytical methods, their potentials and limitations are discussed. We demonstrate the applicability of the methods through case studies from the practice of the Budapest Neutron Centre or taken from the literature.
    Kivonat
    Az ezüst ? a réz és az arany mellett ? az egyik legrégebben ismert és használt fém. Kezdetben termésezüstből nyerték, később ún. kupellációval állították elő ásványaiból. A Kr. e. III. évezredtől egészen napjainkig dísztárgyak, ékszerek, pénzérmék anyaga. Az ezüsttárgyak archeometriájával kapcsolatban ? más régészeti leletekhez hasonlóan ? többek között a nyersanyag eredetére, a műhelyek azonosítására, ill. az eredetiségre vonatkozó kérdések merülnek fel. Természetesen a kérdésekre lehetőleg roncsolásmentes vizsgálatokkal igyekszünk válaszolni. Jelen cikkben áttekintjük az ezüsttárgyak vizsgálatának különböző, neutronsugárzást alkalmazó vizsgálati lehetőségeit, és ezen módszerek korlátait. Bemutatjuk néhány saját ? azaz a Budapesti Kutatóreaktornál végzett ? mérésünk eredményét, valamint néhány irodalomból ismert példával szemléltetjük a vizsgálati lehetőségeket.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kasztovszky&Maroti2015_1,
      author = {Kasztovszky, Zsolt and Maróti, Boglárka},
      title = {Ezüsttárgyak neutronos vizsgálatának lehetőségei és nehézségei / Potentials and limitations of neutron-based methods in archaeometry of silver},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {1},
      pages = {25-32},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_1/AM-2015-01-KZS.pdf}
    }
    
    Kasztovszky and Mesterházy
    Kasztovszky, Zsolt & Mesterházy, Dávid
    Beszámoló a Nemzetközi Atomenergia Ügynökség ?Characterisation of Cultural Heritage Objects by Using Nuclear Application Techniques? c. továbbképzéséről Ankarából / Report on the advanced traing of IAEA on the protection of CH objects 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(1), pp. 99-100 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kasztovszky2011_1,
      author = {Kasztovszky, Zsolt and Mesterházy, Dávid},
      title = {Beszámoló a Nemzetközi Atomenergia Ügynökség ?Characterisation of Cultural Heritage Objects by Using Nuclear Application Techniques? c. továbbképzéséről Ankarából / Report on the advanced traing of IAEA on the protection of CH objects},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {1},
      pages = {99-100},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_1/AM-11-01-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Kasztovszky et al.
    Kasztovszky, Zsolt; Szilágyi, Veronika & Sajó, István
    Neolitikus rézgyöngyök vizsgálata Polgár-Csőszhalom lelőhelyről ? előzetes eredmények / Scientific investigation of Neolithic copper beads from Polgár-Csőszhalom ? Preliminary results 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(2), pp. 137-140 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This short communication summarizes the preliminary results of mineralogical (XRD, ND) and chemical
    (PGAA) investigations of one of the earliest metal finds of Hungary. Archaeological excavation of Polgár-
    Csőszhalom site of the Neolithic Csőszhalom Culture (B.C. 5000-4400) provided a unique copper bead necklace.
    Its present condition requires efficient intervention for conservation purposes. Our scientific analysis provided
    basic information about the state of the finds to establish the appropriate strategy for their restoration and
    storage. According to our results, the beads are highly altered (there is no metallic copper present in their
    cores). The predominant corrosion product is paratacamite, but also atacamite, cuprite and reactive agents are
    present in the finds.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KasztovszkyETAL2010_2,
      author = {Kasztovszky, Zsolt and Szilágyi, Veronika and Sajó, István},
      title = {Neolitikus rézgyöngyök vizsgálata Polgár-Csőszhalom lelőhelyről ? előzetes eredmények / Scientific investigation of Neolithic copper beads from Polgár-Csőszhalom ? Preliminary results},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {2},
      pages = {137-140},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_2/AM-10-02-KZS.pdf}
    }
    
    Kasztovszky et al.
    Kasztovszky, Zs.; Szilágyi, V.; T. Biró, K.; Teľak-Gregl, T.; Burić, M.; ©oąić, R. & Szakmány, Gy.
    Horvát és bosnyák régészeti lelőhelyekről származó obszidián eszközök eredetvizsgálata PGAA-val / Provenance study of Croatian and Bosnian archaeological obsidian artefacts by PGAA 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(3), pp. 5-14 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In 2008-2009 we started to work on archaeological obsidians from Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina within the
    frame of a Croatian-Hungarian project. The main objective of our work was to perform a provenance study of
    these obsidian artefacts. The chemical compositions of the systematically collected samples have been
    determined non-destructively with Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis. Obsidian is among the important raw
    materials of prehistoric tool production in the Carpathian Basin, and a popular subject of archaeometric
    studies. According to previous studies, three main groups could be separated. The main categories are the
    transparent-translucent Carpathian 1 (C1 ? Slovakian) type, the non-transparent Carpathian 2 (C2 ?
    Hungarian) and the Carpathian 3 (C3) type from Ukraine. In order to determine the origin of obsidian raw
    materials, we have analysed Carpathian (C1 and C2) and Mediterranean (Melos, Lipari, Sardinia) geological
    samples as well as archaeological pieces from Hungary and Romania. Our PGAA database on obsidian is
    continuously expanding with the new analytical results.
    In our earlier studies, we concluded that PGAA is suitable for differentiating between various Carpathian and
    the Mediterranean obsidians. Adding Croatian and Bosnian archaeological obsidian data to our library, we
    found that some of them can be best identified as C1 (Slovakian) and some are chemically similar to the Lipari
    obsidians.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KasztovszkyETAL2009_3,
      author = {Kasztovszky, Zs. and Szilágyi, V. and T. Biró, K. and Teľak-Gregl, T. and Burić, M. and ©oąić, R. and Szakmány, Gy.},
      title = {Horvát és bosnyák régészeti lelőhelyekről származó obszidián eszközök eredetvizsgálata PGAA-val / Provenance study of Croatian and Bosnian archaeological obsidian artefacts by PGAA},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {3},
      pages = {5-14},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_3/AM-09-03-KZs.pdf}
    }
    
    Kasztovszky and T. Biró
    Kasztovszky, Zsolt & T. Biró, Katalin
    A kárpáti obszidiánok osztályozása prompt gamma aktivációs analízis segítségével: geológiai és régészeti mintákra vonatkozó első eredmények 2004 Archeometriai Műhely
    1(1), pp. 09-15 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Obsidian is one of the classical subjects of archaeometrical analyses. Most analytical methods however will require destruction or preparation of the sample equal to destruction. Therefore most of the choice pieces are not to be analysed by these methods. PGAA is suitable for analysing the pieces without destruction and without any residual radioactivity. The pieces were placed into the analytical equipment without any special preparation, intact and naturally, without any destruction or sampling. 2×2 cm2 of the sample surface was irradiated by a cold neutron beam of 5×107 cm-2s-1 flux. Since neutrons penetrate the whole sample, the information we get reflects the bulk composition of the material, which is very advantageous for the glassy, homogeneous volcanic glass (obsidian).
    The question is how distinctly we can separate different source regions according to the detected components, and how effectively we can allocate the archaeological pieces into the resulting data sets. Our results of two measurement series seem promising, however we are working on extending our database of PGAA measurements concerning archaeological, as well as geological obsidian samples.
    Geological samples from all the important known obsidian sources of the Mediterranean region were measured with special regard to Central European (Carpathian I, II) sources, as well as archaeological sources mainly from Hungary. Elements detected in obsidian include main components (H, Na, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe) accessory- and trace elements (B, S, Cl, Cr, Sm and Gd). The distinction of the sources was made using series of bivariate plots and Principal Component Analysis. PGAA proved to be effective in separating Carpathian I, IIE, IIT groups the in accordance with NAA and supported by other analytical techniques (EDS-XRF, PIGE-PIXE) as well.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KasztovszkyBiro2004,
      author = {Kasztovszky, Zsolt and T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {A kárpáti obszidiánok osztályozása prompt gamma aktivációs analízis segítségével: geológiai és régészeti mintákra vonatkozó első eredmények},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {1},
      number = {1},
      pages = {09-15},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2004_1/AM-2004-KZS.pdf}
    }
    
    Kasztovszky et al.
    Kasztovszky, Zsolt; T. Biró, Katalin; Markó, András & T. Dobosi, Viola
    Pattintott kőeszközök nyersanyagainak roncsolásmentes vizsgálata Prompt Gamma Aktivációs Analízissel / Non-destructive analysis of chipped stone artefacts by PGAA 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(1), pp. 31-38 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Since 2001, several archaeometrical projects were started on the prehistoric collection of the Hungarian
    National Museum. The aims of the investigations were to distinguish between macroscopically similar or
    inadequately identified types of rocks. Further aim is to associate the archaeological finds with potential raw
    material sources. Among the analytical methods applied, non-destructive Prompt-gamma Activation Analysis
    has a special importance. Based on major and trace elements, characterisation of stone tools and their raw
    materials were performed. Until now, more than 300 pieces of various materials (i.e. flint, radiolarite, Szeletian
    felsitic porphyry, obsidian, etc.) from the Carpathian Basin and from the surrounding areas (Romania, Croatia,
    Ukraine, Poland and the Mediterranean region) have been analysed, including both archaeological and
    geological pieces. The characterisation of obsidian and Szeletian felsitic porphyry objects by PGAA is seemingly
    effective while the identification of the high silica content siliceous rocks, however, is much more difficult.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KasztovszkyETAL2009,
      author = {Kasztovszky, Zsolt and T. Biró, Katalin and Markó, András and T. Dobosi, Viola},
      title = {Pattintott kőeszközök nyersanyagainak roncsolásmentes vizsgálata Prompt Gamma Aktivációs Analízissel / Non-destructive analysis of chipped stone artefacts by PGAA},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {1},
      pages = {31-38},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_1/AM-09-01-KZS.PDF}
    }
    
    Kasztovszky et al.
    Kasztovszky, Zsolt; T. Dobosi, Viola; T. Biró, Katalin; Szilágyi, Veronika & Maróti, Boglárka
    Japán obszidiánok PGAA vizsgálata a Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum Litotéka gyűjteményéből / Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis of Japanese obsidians in the Lithotheca Collection of the HNM 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(4), pp. 247?254 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Elemental composition of twenty-eight Japanese geological obsidians of the Lithotheca collection of the
    Hungarian National Museum has been studied by Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis. The analytical results
    provide basic source data for a Japanese lithic raw material data base that is intended to use in advanced
    provenance studies in Japan. Additionally, European obsidian research can utilize the results, as comparative
    data. Based on the results, we can ascertain that the boron and chlorine contents of the Japanese obsidians are
    of similar magnitude or slightly higher than that of the Carpathian ones, but not as characteristically high as the
    ?Lipari? type ones. Most of the samples, which originate from the same quarry, form well defined groups
    according to their composition.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kasztovszkyetal2012_4,
      author = {Kasztovszky, Zsolt and T. Dobosi, Viola and T. Biró, Katalin and Szilágyi, Veronika, and Maróti, Boglárka},
      title = {Japán obszidiánok PGAA vizsgálata a Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum Litotéka gyűjteményéből / Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis of Japanese obsidians in the Lithotheca Collection of the HNM},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {4},
      pages = {247?254},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_4/AM-12-04-KZS.pdf}
    }
    
    Kasztovszky
    Kasztovszky, Zsolt & Belgya, Tamás
    From PGAA to PGAI: from bulk analysis to elemental mapping (PGAA-tól PGAI-ig: a tömb összetételtől az elemi térképezésig) 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(2), pp. 16-21 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In 2006, a new European Commission funded project with ten collaborators, called Ancient Charm, was
    launched with the aim of combining the above mentioned neutron based methods to achieve 3-D imaging and
    elemental mapping of museum objects with complex structures. The first experiments to develop bulk elemental
    PGAA towards elemental mapping and imaging of complex objects (i. e. to work out PGAI) will be attempted at
    the Institute of Isotopes, on the 5?107 n/cm2?s1 cold neutron beam of the Budapest Research Reactor.
    Representative archaeological objects for investigations have been chosen from the collections of the
    Hungarian National Museum, Villa Adriana near Rome, and the National Museum for Antiquities of Leiden.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KasztovszkyBelgya2006b,
      author = {Kasztovszky, Zsolt & Belgya, Tamás},
      title = {From PGAA to PGAI: from bulk analysis to elemental mapping (PGAA-tól PGAI-ig: a tömb összetételtől az elemi térképezésig)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {2},
      pages = {16-21},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_2/AM-2006-2-KZS.pdf}
    }
    
    Kenéz et al.
    Kenéz, Árpád; Szabó, Máté & Pető, Ákos
    Régészeti növénytani adatok Cserdi?Horgas-dűlőben fekvő római villa gazdaságtörténetéhez / Archaeobotanical data on the economy of the Roman villa of Cserdi?Horgas-dűlő (Baranya county, Hungary) 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(3), pp. 205-220 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The Roman Age villa near the settlement of Cserdi (Baranya County, Hungary) was discovered through aerial archaeological survey. Small scale excavations were carried out on the site both in 2012 and 2014/2015. Based on the recovered archaeological finds assemblage the villa buildings were dated to the 4th century AD. Macro-archaeobotanical (carpological) analysis was conducted on anthropogenic sediment samples collected from each stratigraphic layer. The main aim of this analysis type was to gain data on the economy and plant husbandry of the Roman villa. Similar analysis of Roman villa samples was only done so far at Baláca-puszta (Villa Romana Baláca, Veszprém County); however these special Roman economical units probably bear an extreme significance in terms of the rural economy of Roman Pannonia. Based on the archaeobotanical assemblage of the site, more ancient hulled cereal (e.g. einkorn ? Triticum monococcum L. subsp. moncoccum; emmer ? Triticum turgidum L. subsp. dicoccum (Schrank); spelt ? Triticum aestivum L. subsp. spelta) did not play a significant role in its plant husbandry, but preference was given to naked wheat (e.g. bread wheat ? Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum; dwarf wheat ? Triticum aestivum L. subsp. compactum (Host.) MacKey), rye (Secale cereale L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The most important leguminous plants of Roman Pannonia, such as green pea (Pisum sativum L.), bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia (L.) Willd) and fava bean (Vicia faba L.). The identified weed taxa underline the presence of arable lands and horticultural fields. Based on the relative ecological needs of the weed and natural vegetation taxa we could identify that the broader surrounding environment of the Roman villa consisted of various habitat mosaics. This is underlined by the presence of marshland, waterside pioneer and wet perennial plant remains such as the yellow iris (Iris pseudacorus L.) or the water mint (Mentha aquatica L.). The presence of forest side ecotone habitats and shrub lands are underlined by the occurrence of dwarf elder (Sambucus ebulus L.) or sedge taxa (Carex sitans/digitata). Not only taxa of wet, but that of arid meadows were also identified; these imply burnet-saxifrage (Pimpinella saxifraga L.) or lesser meadow-rue (Thalictrum minus L.).
    BibTeX:
    @article{KenézETAL2015_3,
      author = {Kenéz, Árpád and Szabó, Máté and Pető, Ákos},
      title = {Régészeti növénytani adatok Cserdi?Horgas-dűlőben fekvő római villa gazdaságtörténetéhez / Archaeobotanical data on the economy of the Roman villa of Cserdi?Horgas-dűlő (Baranya county, Hungary)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {3},
      pages = {205-220},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_3/AM-2015-3-KA.pdf}
    }
    
    Kenéz et al.
    Kenéz, Árpád; Szabó, Máté & Pető, Ákos
    Melléklet (Régészeti növénytani adatok Cserdi?Horgas-dűlőben fekvő római villa gazdaságtörténetéhez / Archaeobotanical data on the economy of the Roman villa of Cserdi?Horgas-dűlő (Baranya county, Hungary)) cikkéhez 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(3), pp. 1-10 lap 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{KenézETAL2015_3appendix,
      author = {Kenéz, Árpád and Szabó, Máté and Pető, Ákos},
      title = {Melléklet (Régészeti növénytani adatok Cserdi?Horgas-dűlőben fekvő római villa gazdaságtörténetéhez / Archaeobotanical data on the economy of the Roman villa of Cserdi?Horgas-dűlő (Baranya county, Hungary)) cikkéhez},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {3},
      pages = {1-10 lap},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_3/AM-2015-3_appendix-KA.pdf}
    }
    
    Kern et al.
    Kern, Zoltán; Árvai, Mátyás & Grynaeus, András
    Dendrochronological study of a wooden belfry from Szokolya-Királyrét, Hungary / Dendrokronológiai vizsgálatok a Szokolya-királyréti fa harangláb anyagán 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(1), pp. 71-76 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    A 94 years long floating oak chronology has been developed from four samples obtained during the reconstruction works of a belfry at Szokolya-Királyrét. Cross-dating against 7 nearest oak reference chronologies unambiguously dated the youngest ring found in the timber to 1901 AD. The earliest possible felling date of the wood was estimated to 1914 AD taking into account the missing sapwood. The strength of synchrony between the belfry?s chronology and the nearby reference ones indicates local timber source. The fact that these samples improved the replication over the poorly covered 19th century period of the Central Hungarian Oak Master Chronology, coinciding with the overlapping period of living and historical material lends special significance to them.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kernetal2014_1,
      author = {Kern, Zoltán and Árvai, Mátyás and Grynaeus, András},
      title = {Dendrochronological study of a wooden belfry from Szokolya-Királyrét, Hungary / Dendrokronológiai vizsgálatok a Szokolya-királyréti fa harangláb anyagán},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {1},
      pages = {71-76},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_1/AM-14-01-KZ.pdf}
    }
    
    Kibaroglu
    Kibaroglu, Mustafa
    Sedimentary Geochemical Approach to the Provenance of the non-calciferous North Mesopotamian Metallic Ware / Észak-mezopotámiai kerámiák üledék-geokémiai szemléletű proveniencia vizsgálata 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(2), pp. 42-45 
    article URL 
    Abstract: A korabronzkori észak-mezopotámiai fémedényhatású kerámia jelentős területeken terjedt el Szíria északkeleti
    és Anatólia délkeleti részén. Ez a fajta kerámia jelentős változatosságot mutat forma és szín tekintetében. A cikk
    a jellegzetes kerámia petrográfiai és geokémiai vizsgálatával foglalkozik. A geokémiai jellemzők szerint ehhez a
    kerámiához speciális kalcitszegény agyagot használtak a délkelet-anatóliai Derik-Telbesim formációból, amely
    prekambriumi korú muszkovit-palából, fillitből, agyagos üledékekből és alárendelten homokkőből áll.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kibaroglu2005,
      author = {Kibaroglu, Mustafa},
      title = {Sedimentary Geochemical Approach to the Provenance of the non-calciferous North Mesopotamian Metallic Ware / Észak-mezopotámiai kerámiák üledék-geokémiai szemléletű proveniencia vizsgálata},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {2},
      pages = {42-45},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_2/AM-2005-2-MK.pdf}
    }
    
    Kirfel
    Kirfel, Armin
    Construction and description of the UNIBONN "Black Boxes" 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(1), pp. 21-34 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In the framework of the Ancient Charm Project (Analysis by Neutron resonant Capture Imaging and other
    Emerging Neutron Techniques: new Cultural Heritage and Archaeological Research Methods, http://ancientcharm.
    neutron-eu.net/ach), imaging potentials of non-destructive neutron analytical methods are evaluated for
    archaeological applications. Prior to working on real archaeological specimens, so-called 'black boxes' were
    constructed (and characterised) for tests of the various methods. This paper is about the construction of these
    test boxes as realised by the Bonn University team.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kirfel2008,
      author = {Kirfel, Armin},
      title = {Construction and description of the UNIBONN "Black Boxes"},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {1},
      pages = {21-34},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_1/AM-08-01-AK.pdf}
    }
    
    Kis et al.
    Kis, Z.; Belgya, T.; Szentmiklósi, L.; Kasztovszky, Zs.; Kudejova, P. & Schulze, R.
    Prompt Gamma Activation Imaging on "Black Boxes" in the "Ancient Charm" Project 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(1), pp. 41-60 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The aim of the ?Ancient Charm? project is to combine Neutron Tomography (NT), Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis
    (PGAA), Time-of-flight Neutron Diffraction (TOF-ND), Neutron Resonance Capture Analysis (NRCA) and Neutron
    Resonance Transmission (NRT) in order to generate 3D images of the elemental and phase compositions of complex
    museum objects. For the development and benchmark of the combined methods, complex test samples, so called ?black
    boxes?, were constructed and then analysed by the different techniques. These test objects are sealed iron or
    aluminium-walled cubes of 40 and 50 mm edge lengths, respectively, containing 2D or 3D arrangements of materials
    relevant to the compositions of archaeological samples. The Prompt Gamma Activation Imaging (PGAI) is a new
    terminology ? introduced in the AC project ? for determining the compositions of small volumes within the sample by
    scanning. The experimental results obtained from PGAI on boxes investigated at Budapest Neutron Centre (BNC,
    Hungary) are reported.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KisETAL2008,
      author = {Kis, Z. and Belgya, T. and Szentmiklósi, L. and Kasztovszky, Zs. and Kudejova, P. and Schulze, R.},
      title = {Prompt Gamma Activation Imaging on "Black Boxes" in the "Ancient Charm" Project},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {1},
      pages = {41-60},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_1/AM-08-01-KZ.pdf}
    }
    
    Kis et al.
    Kis, Z.; Szentmiklósi, L.; Belgya, T.; Kasztovszky, Zs.; Kockelmann, W.; Festa, G.; Kirfel, A.; Kudejova, P.; Schulze, R.; T. Biró, K.; Dúzs, K.; Hajnal, Zs. & Visser, D.
    Radiográfia által irányított Prompt-Gamma Aktivációs Analízis és Neutron Diffrakciós mérések az Ancient Charm projekt számára tervezett Fekete Dobozokon / Radiography driven PGAA and neutron diffraction measurements on black boxes 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(3), pp. 59-64 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The aim of the ?Ancient Charm? project is to combine Neutron Tomography (NT), Prompt Gamma Activation
    Analysis (PGAA), Time-of-flight Neutron Diffraction (TOF-ND), Neutron Resonance Capture Analysis (NRCA)
    and Neutron Resonance Transmission (NRT) in order to generate 3D images of the elemental and phase
    compositions of complex museum objects. For the development and benchmark of the combined methods,
    complex test samples, so called ?black boxes?, were constructed and then analysed by the different techniques.
    These test objects are sealed cubes, containing 2D or 3D arrangements of materials relevant to the compositions
    of archaeological samples. The Prompt Gamma Activation Imaging (PGAI) is a new terminology ? introduced in
    the AC project ? for determining the compositions of small volumes within the sample by scanning. The
    presented experimental results are obtained from PGAI and TOF-ND investigations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KisETAL2008b,
      author = {Kis, Z. and Szentmiklósi, L. and Belgya, T. and Kasztovszky, Zs. and Kockelmann, W. and Festa, G. and Kirfel, A. and Kudejova, P. and Schulze, R. and T. Biró, K. and Dúzs, K. and Hajnal, Zs. and Visser, D.},
      title = {Radiográfia által irányított Prompt-Gamma Aktivációs Analízis és Neutron Diffrakciós mérések az Ancient Charm projekt számára tervezett Fekete Dobozokon / Radiography driven PGAA and neutron diffraction measurements on black boxes},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {3},
      pages = {59-64},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_3/AM-08-03-KZ.pdf}
    }
    
    Kisné Cseh
    Kisné Cseh, Julianna
    Tata-Porhanyóbánya, Vértes László ásatásai / The excavations of László Vértes at Tata - Porhanyó 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(2), pp. 31-36 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This paper gives a short summary on the excavations of László Vértes at Tata-Porhanyóbánya and its history.
    Two large excavations performed here (by Tivadar Kormos in 1909-1911 and by László Vértes in 1958-59)
    resulted in two monographs much ahead of their age with international recognition (Kormos 1912; Vértes et al.
    1964). The site was the first travertine settlement located in Hungary and the richest one ever since (in respect of
    archaeological finds, palaeobotanical evidence, etc.). The collaboration of the palaeobotanist István Skoflek, who
    re-discovered the site excavated by Kormos and László Vértes resulted in a complex monograph with all
    available scientific evidence of the age receiving an award of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
    The recent excavations of the site took place between 1995-2001 by Viola T. Dobosi and Julianna Kisné Cseh.
    Tata-Porhanyóbánya is still our richest site, the number of inventoried items is 25590 pieces (Table 1). The
    conclusions drawn by László Vértes were partly corroborated, partly completed and corrected by recent studies.
    The results of the new-old research group will be hopefully published in the near future.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cseh2008,
      author = {Kisné Cseh, Julianna},
      title = {Tata-Porhanyóbánya, Vértes László ásatásai / The excavations of László Vértes at Tata - Porhanyó},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {2},
      pages = {31-36},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_2/AM-08-02-CSJ.pdf}
    }
    
    Kiss
    Kiss, Viktória
    Régészeti fémtárgyak kutatásának új eredményei és kérdései Magyarországon / Recent results and questions of metal finds from archaeological context in Hungary 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(3), pp. 169-176 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    The research of iron objects and history of smelting in the Carpathian Basin run back over two hundred, while the analysis of copper, gold and bronze artefacts over one hundred years. Here I attempt to give an overview of the results of the recent decade with the help of the archaeometry case studies of metal finds from Hungary published in the Archeometriai Műhely and other journals. These papers reflect recent research trends that investigate the metal finds from two aspects: on the one hand they analyse the raw material composition of the artefacts, and they also study the phases of production technique on the other, with the application of destructive sampling and non-destructive methods as well.
    Kivonat
    A Kárpát-medencéből előkerült vastárgyak és a kohászat történetének kutatása immár kétszáz, a réz-, arany- és bronztárgyak vizsgálata több mint egy évszázados múltra tekint vissza. Az alábbiakban az utóbbi tíz év eredményeit, az Archeometriai Műhelyben és más folyóiratokban közölt, a hazai régészeti fémtárgyakat érintő újabb archeometriai esettanulmányokat tekintem át röviden. Ezek jól tükrözik a jelenlegi kutatási trendeket, melyek két fő irányból közelítik meg a fémtárgyakat: egyrészt a nyersanyag-összetétel elemzésére, másrészt a készítés-technikai lépések megismerésére irányulnak, roncsolásos mintavételek és roncsolás-mentes módszerek alkalmazásával egyaránt.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kiss2014_3,
      author = {Kiss, Viktória},
      title = {Régészeti fémtárgyak kutatásának új eredményei és kérdései Magyarországon / Recent results and questions of metal finds from archaeological context in Hungary},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {3},
      pages = {169-176},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_3/AM-14-03-KV.pdf}
    }
    
    Kiss
    Kiss, Viktória
    Arany, réz és bronztárgyak kutatása a középső bronzkorig - az archeometallurgia aktuális kérdései / The study of gold, copper and bronze artefacts until the Middle Bronze Age - current questions of archaeometallurgy 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(2), pp. 61-74 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Prehistoric copper and bronze artefacts have been studied from many different viewpoints during the past 100
    years of archaeometallurgical research based in the Carpathian Basin and in broader Central Europe. This
    short overview focuses upon the technological and social historical backgrounds of these processes, attempts to
    explore the operational sequences (chaîne opératoire) taking place during the production and addresses
    possible directions for future research.
    Mines used and exploited during prehistoric times and their related social context have recently been brought in
    the scope of archaeometallurgical studies. By locating ore sources combined with compositional analysis of raw
    materials of finished metal products ? in some cases supplemented by lead-isotope analysis ? can help to identify
    places of origin for these artefacts. These new results will certainly improve our knowledge about the network of
    relations between the Carpathian Basin and the surrounding regions operated during the Copper and Early
    Bronze Age. Different methods including use-wear analysis ? beyond the composition of the object ? reveal
    details of production technologies and ways of use.
    Studies on ingots and local metal production during the Hungarian Middle Bronze Age (between 2000 and
    1600/1500 BC) which time period is in the present paper?s focus, could be one possible direction for future
    research. Compositional and morphological analysis of metal objects can reveal details of production and
    technological methods applied by bronzeworkers in the past. In the Zalaszabar hoard ? assigned to the
    Transdanubian Encrusted Pottery culture ? a group of cast objects can be identified to have been produced in
    the same mould. Compositional analysis carried out by the Tübingen laboratory has shown the identical
    elemental composition of disc-shaped pendants presented here, which raises some issues on production
    technologies. A single object used repeatedly as a prototype for several clay moulds would indicate the practical
    decision of producing a larger number of identical artefacts during the same casting procedure. The small
    number of stone moulds known from the distribution of the Transdanubian Encrusted Pottery culture would
    serve as proof for this latter assumption. Metallographical examinations looking at the microstructure of the
    object ? beside compositional analysis ? would shed light on certain aspects of production technologies: cold
    working, hammering and annealing of artefacts following the casting procedure leave detectable marks on the
    object?s fabric. Examinations carried out so far point out that only the combination of various methods could
    result a reliable dataset. The synchronisation of archaeological research questions, aspects of heritage
    protection, clear strategies of sampling methods and the precise documentation of sampling locations are all
    issues of vital importance.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kiss2012_2,
      author = {Kiss, Viktória},
      title = {Arany, réz és bronztárgyak kutatása a középső bronzkorig - az archeometallurgia aktuális kérdései / The study of gold, copper and bronze artefacts until the Middle Bronze Age - current questions of archaeometallurgy},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {2},
      pages = {61-74},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_2/AM-12-02-KV.pdf}
    }
    
    Kissné Bendeffy
    Kissné Bendeffy, Márta
    Az EPISCON (European Phd In Science for CONservation) program / The EPISCON project 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(3), pp. 47-48 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The conservation and preservation of cultural heritage is an interdisciplinary field requiring close co-operation
    between conservator-restorers, archaeologists, art historians, museum curators and conservation scientists. Surveys
    carried out in the 1990s showed that the university training of scientists doesn?t provide them with the appropriate
    knowledge for the complex approach necessary for study and investigate cultural heritage, develop and evaluate
    conservation concepts, materials, methods, etc.
    In order to develop the first generation of 'true' conservation scientists in Europe, the European Community funded two
    projects (Leonardo programme, CURRIC project, Vocational Training Curricula for Conservation Scientists 2000-
    2003; and Marie Curie programme, project EPISCON - European Ph.D. in Science for Conservation 2006-2009).
    Preparing a training structure and guideline the CURRIC project provided a solid base for the EPISCON. In the frame
    of the program 16 young scientists has got the possibility to take part in the PhD training in ten EPISCON partners?
    host institutions within the European Community. The program included intensive five months training at the
    University of Bologna-Ravenna Campus in all aspects of the conservation of cultural heritage, followed by a two and a
    half year research project at one of the host institutions. The Hungarian scientist in charge of the project is the author,
    Márta Kissné Bendefy.
    Two young fellows are hosted by Hungarian Institutions. Anna Ruggeri (Italy) works at the Archaeological Department
    of the Hungarian National Museum (supervisor: Katalin T. Biró) while Magdalini Theodoridou (Greece) carries out
    her studies and research at the Dept. of Petrology and Geochemistry ELTE University (supervisor Dr. György
    Szakmány). Preliminary results of their work are published in this volume. Further information can be obtained from
    the project web pages, see end of paper.
    A kulturális örökség megőrzése számos szakmát átfogó
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bendeffy2007,
      author = {Kissné Bendeffy, Márta},
      title = {Az EPISCON (European Phd In Science for CONservation) program / The EPISCON project},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {3},
      pages = {47-48},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_3/AM-07-03-BM.pdf}
    }
    
    Kockelmann
    Kockelmann, Winfried & Kirfel, Armin
    Neutron Diffraction Imaging of Cultural Heritage Objects (A kulturális örökség körébe tartozó tárgyak neutrondiffrakciós vizsgálata) 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(2), pp. 01-15 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The capabilities of neutron diffraction for studying archaeological ceramics and metals have been demonstrated
    on many occasions. The main advantages of thermal neutrons are deep penetration and non-destructive
    analysis of intact objects. Neutron diffraction provides information on structural properties which are often
    related to the past material treatments and historical fabrication techniques. Most neutron diffraction analyses
    are normally performed on one or several points of an object with a large neutron beam, hence without much
    spatial resolution. In this paper we review the existing options and future perspectives of the systematic
    mapping of phases and microstructures with a neutron beam.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KockelmannKirfel2006,
      author = {Kockelmann, Winfried & Kirfel, Armin},
      title = {Neutron Diffraction Imaging of Cultural Heritage Objects (A kulturális örökség körébe tartozó tárgyak neutrondiffrakciós vizsgálata)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {2},
      pages = {01-15},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_2/AM-2006-2-WK.pdf}
    }
    
    Kostov
    Kostov, Ruslan I.
    Review of the mineralogical systematics of jasper and related rocks / A jáspis és a vele rokon kovakőzetek ásványtani osztályozása 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(3), pp. 215-226 
    article URL 
    Abstract: A review of the genetic classifications of jasper based on mineralogical data outlines three main types of jasper
    and related rocks: 1 ? jaspers; 2 ? jasperoids; 3 ? jasper-like rocks. True jasper has a quartz composition and is
    of metamorphic or metasomatic origin. Related in different colour and density to jasper other rocks of
    sedimentary or igneous origin can be found usually having a dominantly chalcedony-quartz and feldspar-quartz
    composition (jasperoids and jasper-like rocks). Main mineral impurities which cause the colour of the described
    rocks are listed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kostov2010_3,
      author = {Kostov, Ruslan I.},
      title = {Review of the mineralogical systematics of jasper and related rocks / A jáspis és a vele rokon kovakőzetek ásványtani osztályozása},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {3},
      pages = {215-226},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_3/AM-10-03-RK.pdf}
    }
    
    Kovács
    Kovács, Timea
    Paticsok - a kerámia és az üledék között / Daub between pottery and sediment 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(2), pp. 24-30 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This study deals with the archaeometrical investigation of Neolithic daub fragments collected from two
    archaeological sites (Vörs-Máriaasszony-sziget, Somogy county and Kup-Egyes, Veszprém county) between
    1999 and 2003.
    Daub is the term used for different parts of a wattle-walled house (wall, floor, kiln). It can be preserved by
    occasional or intentional burning of the building. It is a common and frequent component of most
    archaeological sites, however, it has not been studied in details in Hungary yet.
    I have examined altogether 500 pieces from the two sites. After macroscopical description I assorted them and
    chose 40 representative specimens for detailed analysis.
    The analytical program was based on macroscopic and thin section petrography, accompanied by X-ray
    powder diffraction. Besides, soil samples, collected from both sites during the excavations, were examined by
    binocular microscope and analysed by X-ray powder diffraction. The mineralogical composition of the daub
    samples is quite monotonous and quite similar in the two sites. The dominant nonplastic component is quartz. In
    addition to quartz smaller quantities of micas, feldspars and fragments of metamorphic and sedimentary rocks
    are present. For this reason the classification of daub samples was based on textural characteristics and the
    composition of the matrix. Considering these parameters it is usually possible to identify the former position of
    the daub fragments in the house. In some cases the matrix is inhomogeneous even in one piece, which shows
    that different raw materials were used. This phenomenon is more typical at Kup-Egyes site.
    According to X-ray powder diffraction analysis there are no clay minerals in the matrix of the daubs, which
    suggests that not the clay minerals but the clay size fraction is required to gain the proper stability of the wall.
    To increase the plasticity of the raw materials organic substance was used.
    Comparing the daub samples of the two sites I could not find significant differences between the building
    technology of the different cultures.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kovacs2005,
      author = {Kovács, Timea},
      title = {Paticsok - a kerámia és az üledék között / Daub between pottery and sediment},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {2},
      pages = {24-30},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_2/AM-2005-2-KT.pdf}
    }
    
    Kreiter et al.
    Kreiter, A.; B., Bajnóczi; Sipos, P.; Szakmány, Gy. & Tóth, M.
    Archaeometric examination of Early and Middle Bronze Age ceramics from Százhalombatta-Földvár, Hungary / Archeometriai vizsgálatok kora- és középső bronzkori kerámián, Százhalombatta-Földvárról 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(2), pp. 33-48 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This paper examines the technological aspects of Early and Middle Bronze Age ceramics from a tell settlement
    at Százhalombatta (Hungary) by using polarising and cathodoluminescence microscopy, X-ray diffraction
    (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) analyses. Towards the end of the Middle Bronze Age, during
    the Koszider period, ceramic production became more elaborate; and highly distinctive vessels appeared in
    terms of their decoration, surface treatment and firing conditions. For this analysis eight sherds belonging to
    fine and coarse wares were selected. In order to assess how potters may have altered their raw materials
    potential clay samples around the tell settlement were also examined by the same techniques. Results suggest
    that potters used locally available clays and even the most distinct vessels in terms of decoration (Rákospalota
    type wares) seem to be locally made. In spite of the similarities in clay compositions, however, there is a clear
    distinction between how potters manipulated their clay and temper even within a similar vessel type. This
    practice resulted in the existence of intrasite technological traditions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KreiterETAL2007,
      author = {Kreiter, A. and Bajnóczi B. and Sipos, P. and Szakmány, Gy. and Tóth, M.},
      title = {Archaeometric examination of Early and Middle Bronze Age ceramics from Százhalombatta-Földvár, Hungary / Archeometriai vizsgálatok kora- és középső bronzkori kerámián, Százhalombatta-Földvárról},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {2},
      pages = {33-48},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_2/AM-2007-02-KA.pdf}
    }
    
    Kreiter and Szakmány
    Kreiter, Attila & Szakmány, György
    Előzetes tanulmány Szemely-Hegyes és Zengővárkony késő neolitikus (Lengyel kultúra) településekről származó kerámiák petrográfiai vizsgálatáról / Preliminary study on the petrographical analysis of Late Neolithic pottery 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(2), pp. 55-68 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The aim of the paper is to provide the results of a preliminary ceramic technological investigation of the Lengyel
    culture from Szemely-Hegyes and Zengővárkony (Hungary). By the means of macroscopic and petrographic
    analysis the technology of different vessel types is compared in order to gain insight into the manufacturing
    practices of different vessel types. Furthermore, our purpose is also to assess possible ceramic technological
    similarities and differences between settlements that are situated close to each other. Since vessel painting in the
    Lengyel culture is a common practice a possible relationship between raw materials/technological practices,
    vessel types and painting is also assessed. Moreover, while at Szemely-Hegyes a round multi ditch-system was
    found, the size and complexity of which is larger than at other sites, no such feature was observed at
    Zengővárkony. For this reason it is possible to assess the ceramic technological differences between the two
    types of settlements. The most prominent similarity between the ceramic technologies of the two sites is that
    consumption wares at both sites were made from a very fine, probably levigated raw material. The characteristic
    difference between samples found at Zengővárkony is that some of the consumption wares were also tempered
    with coarse rock fragments, while at Szemely such tempering occurs only among the household wares. A further
    difference between the sites is that at Szemely, grog tempering is common, while at Zengővárkony this practice
    was not observed.
    The preliminary results clearly show that consumption wares were made in a very similar manner at both sites
    (very fine, probably levigated clay, slab building, firing under fully reductive circumstances) despite that at the
    two sites there may have been differences in the available raw materials.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KreiterSzakmany2008,
      author = {Kreiter, Attila and Szakmány, György},
      title = {Előzetes tanulmány Szemely-Hegyes és Zengővárkony késő neolitikus (Lengyel kultúra) településekről származó kerámiák petrográfiai vizsgálatáról / Preliminary study on the petrographical analysis of Late Neolithic pottery},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {2},
      pages = {55-68},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_2/AM-08-02-KA.pdf}
    }
    
    Kreiter and Szakmány
    Kreiter, Attila & Szakmány, György
    Előzetes tanulmány Belvárdgyula-Szarkahegy (M60-as gyorsforgalmi út 98. sz. lel?hely) kés? neolitikus (Lengyel kultúra) településr?l származó kerámiák petrográfiai vizsgálatáról / Preliminary study - Late Neolithic Pottery from Belvárdgyula-Szarkahegy 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(3), pp. 65-74 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Lengyel culture from Belvárdgyula-Szarkahegy, Hungary. By the means of macroscopic and petrographic
    analysis the technology of different vessel types is compared in order to assess possible similairities and
    differences in their manufacturing. The results of the analysis are compared with the results of other Lengyel
    culture settelments from Szemely-Hegyes and Zengővárkony that are situated within the same geographical
    area. At Belvárdgyula a relationship between vessel types and technological practices was observed in that
    consumption vessels have very fine fabrics and household wares usually have a much coarser fabrics. In
    assessing the fabric groups it seems that the raw materials of the different vessel types are very similar although
    potters treated them differently, for example through levigation and different types of tempering. There also
    seems to be a relationship between painting and vessel types in that only consumption wares are painted and
    coarse wares are not. The most common temper is clay pellet or argillaceous rock fragments that are
    characteristic for both consumption and household wares. The implication of the results from Belvárdgyula
    becomes more clear when the technological practices are compared between the sites. In the three sites many
    similarities can be recognized in technological practices. The most striking similarity is that the consumption
    wares not only look similar typologically but the technology of most of the examined vessels seems identical
    (very fine, probably levigated clay, slab building, firing under fully reduced circumstances). A fundamental
    difference between the sites is that at Zengővárkony coarse tempering appears among the consumption wares
    while this type of tempering among consumption wares is not present at Szemely, and at Belvárdgyula coarse
    tempering is also characteristic for household wares. A further difference between the sites is that at Szemely the
    use of grog for tempering is common, but this practice was not observed at Zengővárkony and Belvárdgyula. In
    the latter site, instead clay pellets and/or argillacecous rock fragments seem to be the main temper. Another
    interesting feature of the technological comparison is that organic tempering was present at Szemely but could
    not be observed at Zengővárkony and Belvárdgyula. The results clearly show that within consumption wares not
    only was it important that they should look similar, but it was also required to make them in a similar manner.
    Alongside the technological similarities the observed differences also show that within similar vessel types,
    mainly within household wares, potters used different recipes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KreiterSzakmany2008b,
      author = {Kreiter, Attila and Szakmány, György},
      title = {Előzetes tanulmány Belvárdgyula-Szarkahegy (M60-as gyorsforgalmi út 98. sz. lel?hely) kés? neolitikus (Lengyel kultúra) településr?l származó kerámiák petrográfiai vizsgálatáról / Preliminary study - Late Neolithic Pottery from Belvárdgyula-Szarkahegy},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {3},
      pages = {65-74},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_3/AM-08-03-KA.pdf}
    }
    
    Kristály
    Kristály, Ferenc
    Rapid non-destructive X-ray diffraction investigation of polished greenstone tools / Zöldkő típusú csiszolt kőeszközök gyors roncsolás mentes röntgendiffrakciós vizsgálata 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(4), pp. 223-242 
    article URL 
    Abstract: During the research of polished stone tools we may frequently find rare, valuable and unique exemplars. These qualities in many cases are determined by the rock type the tool has been made from. Among Hungarian findings, high pressure metamorphic rock made tools are rare. These cannot be identified based on their macroscopic appearance, colour or texture. The precise mineralogical investigations needed for their identification can be made by X-ray diffraction. Since we have to deal with unique pieces, non-destructive technique must be applied. On a laboratory diffractometer this can be done with the use of Göbel mirror, in parallel beam geometry. With a scintillation detector measurement times up to 8 hours are necessary, but position sensitive detectors allow recording times of minutes. Our measurements were carried out with 15 minutes recording. Instrumental alignment and precision was tested with the use standards. Identification of rock forming components was possible with accuracy using Search/Match algorithm. Measurement times were reduced to even 1 minute, depending on measured surface and rock type. Our measurements revealed the existence of eclogite type omphacitic and jadeite bearing rocks, amphibolites and nephrites, chlorite schist and hornfels type contact metamorphite. According to our observations, textural features and orientation patterns can be extracted, if necessary.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kristaly2014_4,
      author = {Kristály, Ferenc},
      title = {Rapid non-destructive X-ray diffraction investigation of polished greenstone tools / Zöldkő típusú csiszolt kőeszközök gyors roncsolás mentes röntgendiffrakciós vizsgálata},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {4},
      pages = {223-242},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_4/AM-2014-4-KF.pdf}
    }
    
    Kristály and Kereskényi
    Kristály, Ferenc & Kereskényi, Erika
    Non-destructive X-ray diffraction investigation of amphibole-rich stone implements: What precision should we expect for glaucophane identification? / Amfibol dús kőeszközök roncsolásmentes röntgen diffrakciós vizsgálata: milyen pontosságra számíthatunk a glaukofán azonosításában? 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(3), pp. 191-202 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Non-destructive X-ray diffraction has been successfully applied for mineralogical investigation of polished stone implements in several cases. Vertical ?-? goniometer and parallel beam geometry (with Göbel mirror) are basic instrument requirements for such studies. Rock-forming mineral species can be easily identified, also distinguishing between end-members of compositional series. As a recent development, several members of the amphibole group were successfully identified with this technique. Clear distinction between glaucophane (rock-forming Na-amphibole), actinolite (rock-forming Ca-amphibole) and other amphiboles were tested and successfully confirmed by SEM+EDS analysis.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kristalyi&Kereskenyi_2016_3,
      author = {Kristály, Ferenc and Kereskényi, Erika},
      title = {Non-destructive X-ray diffraction investigation of amphibole-rich stone implements: What precision should we expect for glaucophane identification? / Amfibol dús kőeszközök roncsolásmentes röntgen diffrakciós vizsgálata: milyen pontosságra számíthatunk a glaukofán azonosításában?},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {3},
      pages = {191-202},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_3/AM-2016-3-KF.pdf}
    }
    
    Kristály and Kovács
    Kristály, Ferenc & Kovács, Péter
    Régészeti és előzetes archeometriai vizsgálatok a 2008-as ásatásban Hejőpapiban feltárt kelta temető 3. lelőhelyének kerámia anyagán / Archaeological and Preliminary Archaeometrical Investigations on the ceramic findings from Nr. 3 Site of the Celtic Cemetery at Hejőpapi excavated in 2008 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(3), pp. 251?268 
    article URL 
    Abstract: A La T?ne period (LT B2 ? LT C1 transition) cemetery was excavated in the summer of 2008 at Hejőpapi
    (Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County, NE-Hungary) with 4 sites. The first archaeology and archaeometry research
    results on selected pottery from site nr. 3 are presented in this study. The pottery is similar in style and
    decoration to other findings from the area with similar ages. The mineralogy and petrography of the pottery was
    investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), polarizing microscopy and scanning electron microscopy
    (SEM). Chemical microanalysis was performed on selected samples by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS).
    The studied ceramics resemble in composition, with varying smectite contents, lacking carbonates and Ca-, Mgor
    Al-silicates as indicators of firing, suggesting a smectite-illite rich raw clay with muscovite and feldspars
    beyond quartz (as temper). Reheating of the ceramics to 250°C proved that smectite, and not residual chlorite is
    responsible for the 14 ? peak of XRD patterns.
    For the first time in Hungary, a graphitic vessel was investigated by non-destructive XRD. The presence of
    graphite, quartz and micas was observed. Graphite-like flakes were investigated in details on 0.001g sample by
    XRD and SEM+EDS, confirming the previous results. EDS also showed significant Si and Al content of the
    flakes, in a ratio characteristic to kaolinite group.
    Raw clay and sand from the excavation site was collected, their mineralogy corresponds to that expected for the
    ceramic raw materials of the studied pottery. An experimental mixture of clay : sand = 4:1 ratio was prepared
    and sequential firing was performed at 250°C, 360°C 720°C and 920°C, heating time was one hour in each
    case. Absolute temperature (°C) of firing could not be extrapolated for the pottery, since smectite rehydration
    and recrystallization were found to overprint the fired mineralogy. Firing temperatures are estimated to be in
    the range 250?700°C, possibly obtained by wood-chips and straw fuelled surface fast-firing. The pottery is
    supposed to have been produced for funeral scopes only, except for the graphitic vessel.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kristaly2011_3,
      author = {Kristály, Ferenc and Kovács, Péter},
      title = {Régészeti és előzetes archeometriai vizsgálatok a 2008-as ásatásban Hejőpapiban feltárt kelta temető 3. lelőhelyének kerámia anyagán / Archaeological and Preliminary Archaeometrical Investigations on the ceramic findings from Nr. 3 Site of the Celtic Cemetery at Hejőpapi excavated in 2008},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {3},
      pages = {251?268},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_3/AM-11-03-KF.pdf}
    }
    
    Kudejova
    Kudejova, Petra
    Neutron and X-Ray imaging of the "Black Boxes" for the Ancient Charm project 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(1), pp. 35-40 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The Ancient Charm project binds together archaeologists and neutron scientists. Their shared goal is a
    development of new neutron-based imaging techniques for non-destructive investigation of valuable
    archaeological objects, while the objects are treated with the highest precautions. One of the tasks of the Ancient
    Charm project was an analysis of test objects ? so called ?Black Boxes? prepared by the archaeologist for the
    initial development phase of the new neutron-imaging techniques. Since such a development is a challenging
    task, we decided to use well established imaging methods first: With the help of the neutron resp. X-ray
    radiography and tomography, we were able to find out and define the shapes and forms of the unknown objects
    inside of the black boxes. Provided with these pieces of information, the new neutron imaging methods can be
    positioned to the spots of interest within the black boxes and make the measurements. The overview of the
    neutron and X-ray radiography and tomography of the black boxes is presented in this article.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kudejova2008,
      author = {Kudejova, Petra},
      title = {Neutron and X-Ray imaging of the "Black Boxes" for the Ancient Charm project},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {1},
      pages = {35-40},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_1/AM-08-01-PK.pdf}
    }
    
    Kunst
    Kunst, Günther Karl
    Choice and constraint: butchery practices on cattle ribs from a Roman sanctuary at Carnuntum (Lower Austria) / A választás lehetősége és korlátai: római kori darabolási nyomok értelmezése szarvasmarha bordákon egy carnuntumi (Alsó-Ausztria) szentélyből 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(3), pp. 215-224 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    A sample of over 2,000 fragments of cattle ribs forms part of a large animal bone assemblage collected from a
    pit situated inside a Roman sanctuary at Carnuntum (Lower Austria). For each rib fragment, the approximate
    anatomical position (1st to 13th rib) and completeness were recorded. For the latter objective, ribs were divided
    into fragment zones running from the joint area to the ventral end. The whole rib cage was found to be present,
    although lowermost parts of the rib bodies and the anterior and posterior ribs were under-represented. An
    analysis of the butchery marks showed that (1) the majority of the fragments bear marks and that (2) these follow
    a uniform pattern. Chop-marks, largely prevailing over cut-marks and usually inflicted from the medial side,
    mostly segment the bodies of ribs transversally, or detached the ribs from the vertebrae through the head or
    neck. It is thought that both the anatomical distribution of fragments and the pattern of anthropogenic marks
    indicate the butchery and immediate consumption of, at least, the thoracic part of the carcass. This is also
    compatible with the idea of a feasting event being responsible for the accumulation of the bone assemblage.
    Kivonat
    A vizsgált minta 2000 bordatöredéket tartalmaz, amelyek kizárólag szarvasmarhákból származnak.
    Valamennyiüket az alsó-ausztriai Carnuntumban feltárt római kori szentély egyik gödrében találták egyetlen
    óriási leletegyüttes részeként. Minden egyes bordamaradványról feljegyeztük annak megközelítő anatómiai
    helyzetét (1.-13. sorszámmal) és töredezettségének mértékét. Ez utóbbi célból a csontot a dorzális ízületi és a
    ventrális vég között harántirányú törési zónákra osztottuk. A leletanyagban a mellkas valamennyi bordájából
    voltak darabok, noha a ventrális végdarabokat illetve a sorban első és utolsó helyzetű bordákat aránylag
    kevesebb töredék képviselte. A vágásnyomok elemzése azt mutatta, hogy (1) azok a töredékek csaknem
    mindegyikén előfordultak és (2) egységes mintázatot követtek. A durva bárdnyomok gyakoribbak voltak a
    finomabb vágásoknál, és elsősorban a bordák belső, mediális oldalán figyelhetők meg. Részben a bordák
    harántirányú hasítását célozták, részben pedig a bordák nyak- és fejrészének elválasztását a gerincoszloptól. Az
    emberi beavatkozások nyomainak anatómiai helyzete arra utal, hogy a levágott állatoknak legalábbis a bordák
    által képviselt mellkasi és háti részét azonnali fogyasztás céljából darabolták fel. Ez a megfigyelés
    összeegyeztethető avval a feltevéssel, hogy a gödörben felgyülemlett csontanyag valamiféle nagyszabású lakoma
    maradványa.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kunst2013_3,
      author = {Kunst, Günther Karl},
      title = {Choice and constraint: butchery practices on cattle ribs from a Roman sanctuary at Carnuntum (Lower Austria) / A választás lehetősége és korlátai: római kori darabolási nyomok értelmezése szarvasmarha bordákon egy carnuntumi (Alsó-Ausztria) szentélyből},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {3},
      pages = {215-224},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_3/AM-13-03-GKK.pdf}
    }
    
    Kürthy et al.
    Kürthy, Dóra; Szakmány, György; Józsa, Sándor & Géza, Szabó
    A regölyi kora vaskori sírhalom kőzetleleteinek előzetes archeometriai vizsgálati eredményei / Preliminary archaeometric study of rock types from the Early Iron Age mound grave in Regöly 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(2), pp. 111-126 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    Regöly is located in the northern part of Tolna County, at the confluence of Koppány and Kapos Rivers. The
    mound on the Strupka-Magyar land was excavated in the summer of 2011 and according to the archaeological
    observations it was built in the Early-Iron Age. Rock fragments together with artefacts were mixed with soil and
    deposited in the middle of the structure. The aim of this research was to study the rock fragments present at the
    site: list them into types and characterize them from a petrological point of view in order to outline the most
    probable provenance of the raw materials. Macroscopic analysis and polarizing microscopy analysis were used
    to achieve this goal. During field work 4074 stone artefacts were examined. According to macroscopic
    observations 8 main lithotypes were defined and based on the different attributes (colour, mineral composition,
    fabric) 27 subgroups were determined.
    Based on macroscopic observations 140 representative specimens were selected for thin section analysis.
    Detailed petrographic analysis modified the previously established groups: 7 main and 17 subtypes were
    determined. The main rock types in decreasing frequency are the following: carbonate rocks, granites,
    sandstones, rhyolites, quartzites, basalts and basaltic pyroclastics. Based on the results the possible provenances
    of the rock types present at the site are the Velence Mountains for granites, Polgárdi-Kőszárhegy for rhyolites,
    the Balaton Highland for basalts, basaltic pyroclastics and one subgroup of the sandstones, the Velence
    Mountains and/or Tihany peninsula for quartzites and also Tihany peninsula for the siliceous subgroup of
    carbonate rocks. The provenance of some carbonate rocks and sandstone subtypes has not been possible to
    determine until now. My results show that the possible provenances of most of the rock types are to the N-NW of
    Regöly, within 100 km.
    Kivonat
    Regöly Tolna megye északi részén fekszik, a Kapos és a Koppány folyó összefolyásánál. A Strupka-Magyar
    birtokon lévő halomsír feltárása 2011 kora tavaszán kezdődött. A régészeti megfigyelések alapján a halmot a
    kora vaskorban, a Kr.e. 7. században egy nagyméretű boronafalú épület fölé emelték, melynek födémjét a
    számítások szerint 54 belső faoszlop tartotta. A központi rész beásásaiban és az égett, hamus faszenes
    feltöltésében feltűnően nagy mennyiségű kőzetanyag is előkerült. Kutatásunk célja ezeknek a köveknek a
    vizsgálata; számbavétele, típusokba sorolása, a kőzettípusok lelőhelyének, lehetséges forrásterületének minél
    pontosabb behatárolása. Ehhez makroszkópos és polarizációs mikroszkópos módszereket használtunk. A terepi
    munka során 4074 darab követ vizsgáltunk meg. Makroszkópos megfigyelések alapján 8 kőzettani főcsoportot,
    ezeken belül a szín, szövet és ásványos összetétel alapján 27 alcsoportot állapítottunk meg.
    A makroszkópos megfigyelések alapján 140 reprezentatív példányból vékonycsiszolatos mikroszkópos
    petrográfiai elemzés készült. Ennek eredménye némileg módosította a makroszkóposan kialakított csoportokat,
    ez alapján 7 fő- és 17 alcsoportot véglegesítettünk. A halomsírban csökkenő gyakoriságuk szerint a következő fő
    kőzetcsoportokat különítettük el: karbonátos kőzetek, gránit, homokkő, riolit, kvarcit, bazalt és bazaltos
    piroklasztit. A kőzetek származási helyét tekintve, a vizsgálatok jelenlegi állása szerint a gránit a Velenceihegységből,
    a riolit Polgárdi-Kőszárhegyről, a homokkő kovás cementű alcsoportja, illetve a bazalt és a bazaltos
    piroklasztit a Balaton-felvidékről, a kvarcit a Velencei-hegységből és/vagy a Tihanyi-félszigetről, a karbonátos
    kőzetek kovás alcsoportja szintén a Tihanyi-félszigetről valószínűsíthető. Egyes karbonátos kőzettípusok és
    homokkövek nyersanyaglelőhelyének meghatározása egyelőre még nem volt lehetséges. A fenti valószínűsíthető
    lelőhelyek Regöly mintegy 100 km-es környezetében, attól észak, északnyugat felé helyezkednek el.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KurthyETAL2013_2,
      author = {Kürthy, Dóra and Szakmány, György and Józsa, Sándor and Szabó Géza},
      title = {A regölyi kora vaskori sírhalom kőzetleleteinek előzetes archeometriai vizsgálati eredményei / Preliminary archaeometric study of rock types from the Early Iron Age mound grave in Regöly},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {2},
      pages = {111-126},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_2/AM-13-02-KD.pdf}
    }
    
    Kürthy et al.
    Kürthy, Dóra; Szakmány, György; Józsa, Sándor & Szabó, Géza
    A regölyi vaskori sírhalom kerámiáinak előzetes archeometriai vizsgálati eredményei / Preliminary archaeometric results of ceramics from the Iron Age mound grave in Regöly 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(3), pp. 163-176 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Our research covers the study of ceramic finds and rock fragments of a mound grave in Regöly (SW Hungary) which, according to archaeological data, was built in the Iron Age, 7th Century BC. The mound is the heritage of a deficiently known people, the Pannons, who were the eponym population of the Roman province, Pannonia. On the basis of the construction of the mound, Central Asian traditions have followed here. Furthermore, based on pottery typology, close relationship can be assumed with the Hallstatt and Etruscan cultures. At about 6000 potsherds were found on the mound. According to macroscopic observations (colour, grain size, mineralogical composition) 14 main types were defined. Firstly, the most abundant type, the coarse ceramics, daubs and several local clayish sediments were examined. The goals of the examination were to characterize the composition of the local potential ceramic raw materials (plastic and non-plastic components) and compare them with the ceramics? material, in order to outline their origin as local or imported. Polarizing microscopy and scanning electron microscopic (SEM-EDX) analysis were used to achieve this goal. According to the main non plastic components of the matrices, the carbonate and granitoid tempered ceramics are similar to each other. The only difference their tempering material. Moreover, the plant tempered ceramic is separated from the other two types. Based on the accessories, the plant and carbonate tempered ceramics are similar, and the granitoid tempered is different. According to the chemical composition of the plastic material of the samples, there are only small differences between the matrices of the three types of ceramics. The local red clay could be the raw material for all three types.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KürthyETAL2015_3,
      author = {Kürthy, Dóra and Szakmány, György and Józsa, Sándor and Szabó, Géza},
      title = {A regölyi vaskori sírhalom kerámiáinak előzetes archeometriai vizsgálati eredményei / Preliminary archaeometric results of ceramics from the Iron Age mound grave in Regöly },
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {3},
      pages = {163-176},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_3/AM-2015-3-KD.pdf}
    }
    
    Kőrösi
    Kőrösi, Andrea
    Correlation between skull size and age in Hungarian grey cattle / A magyar szürke marha koponyaméretek és az életkor közötti korreláció 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(4), pp. 259-274 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    Relationships between age and certain cranial measurements were studied on 108 skulls of Hungarian Grey
    cattle kept in the Osteological Collection of the Hungarian Agricultural Museum. These skulls originated from
    individuals of 2 to 16 years of age. The cranial measurements were plotted in diagrams and the character of
    their relationship to age was studied using linear regression equations. The correlation factor shows a close link
    between the change of size and the progress of age. In the case of 20 measurement age-dependent increase could
    be observed, while a decrease occurred only in 3 measurements. Twenty-four measurements were independent of
    the individuals? age. In case of 14 sizes the correlation is medium, in case of 8 sizes the correlation is closer than
    medium and in case of 2 sizes the correlation is very close. In general, the widths and lengths of the skull, the
    frontal bone and the facial cranium vary with age. Among length values the basal size of the cerebral cranium
    grows to a lesser extent, while the width dimensions change more significantly as age progresses. The total
    length of the upper cheektooth row [P1-3+M1-3 (measurement 20)], the molar row [M1-3 (measurement 21)]
    and the upper premolar row [P1-3 (measurement 22)] tend to decrease with age due to intradental erosion. The
    length and the basis circumference of the horn cores might be expected to grow with age. The length of the horn
    (47a) grows 10 mm, the circuit of the horn core base (44) grows 4,22 mm annually. Bartosiewicz observed in his
    studies annual growth of 18 mm in cows, and that of 38 mm in oxen (Bartosiewicz 2005. 310.) Other horn core
    and horn measurements hardly show any increase. It seems that inheritance plays a role not only in the shape of
    horns but also in the length of both the horn core and the horn sheath. Horn size is also influenced by the age of
    castration in oxen. The basal length [St-B (14)] of the neurocranium has an interesting picture. The data of
    dimensions form two distinct groups, which may represent two different types of skull. The difference between
    the two size range is higher than 50 mm. Skulls with longer basal neurocraniums are more common.
    Kivonat
    A koponyacsontok méretének nagysága és az életkor kapcsolatát a Magyar Mezőgazdasági Múzeum magyar
    szürkemarha-gyűjteményének 108 koponyáján vizsgáltam. A koponyák 2-16 éves állatoktól származtak. A
    koponyaméreteket diagramon ábrázoltam, és linearis regresszió függvénnyel ellenőriztem a kapcsolat jellegét. A
    korrelációs együttható megadta a méret és az életkor kapcsolatának szorosságát. Általánosságban elmondható,
    hogy 20 méret esetében a méret növekedése, 3 méretnél a csökkenése állapítható meg. 24 koponyaméret
    független az életkortól. Ez alapján 14 méretnél közepesnek, 8 méretnél a közepesnél szorosabbnak és 2 méretnél
    szorosnak nevezhető a korreláció. A koponya, a homlokcsont, valamint az arckoponya szélességi és hosszúsági
    méretei, általában az életkorral párhuzamosan változnak. A hosszúság méretek közül az agykoponya basalis
    mérete kisebb mértékben, a szélességi méretek az életkor előrehaladásával jelentősen változnak. A teljes fogsor
    [P1-3+M1-3 (20)], a zápfogsor [M1-3 (21)] és a premolaris fogsor [P1-3 (22)] hossza az életkor növekedésével
    csökken, ami a fogak intradentalis csiszolódásával magyarázható. A vizsgálatok azt mutatják, hogy a tülök
    hosszmérete és a szarvcsap tövének körmérete növekszik az öregedéssel párhuzamosan. A szarv (tülök) hossza
    (47a) 10 mm-t, a szarvcsaptő körmérete (44) 4,22 mm-t növekszik évente. Bartosiewicz László vizsgálataiban
    teheneknél évenként 18 mm ökröknél 38 mm növekedést állapított meg (Bartosiewicz 2005. 310.) A többi
    szarvval és szarvcsappal kapcsolatos méret növekedése nem függ az életkortól. Véleményem szerint az öröklött
    tulajdonságok nemcsak a szarv alakjában, hanem a szarvcsap és a szarv hosszában is, döntő szerepet játszanak.
    Jelentős hatással van a szarv méreteire, hogy a borjút hány éves korában ivartalanították. Ugyancsak érdekes
    jelenség, hogy az agykoponya basalis hosszának méretei [B-St (14)] alapján két jól elkülönülő csoportot
    alkotnak, ami két különböző koponyatípust jelenthet. A két mérettartomány közötti különbség 50 mm feletti. A
    hosszabb basalis agykoponyák a gyakoribbak.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Korosi2013_4,
      author = {Kőrösi, Andrea},
      title = {Correlation between skull size and age in Hungarian grey cattle / A magyar szürke marha koponyaméretek és az életkor közötti korreláció},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {4},
      pages = {259-274},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_4/AM-13-04-KA.pdf}
    }
    
    Lővei
    Lővei, Pál
    Kőanyagvizsgálat, művészettörténet, műemlékvédelem / Monument petrology, monument protection and art history 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(3), pp. 01-6 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The geological research of building materials is an important tool of protection
    a part of preparing the catalogue "Lapidarium Hungaricum" of architectural fragments
    in Hungary. The ?red marble? is perhaps the most important material of stone
    century. Similar ?red marble? occurrences can be found in the surroundings of
    and the Gerecse mountains in Hungary. The petrographic-geochemical analyses
    significant differences of samples from Austrian and Hungarian quarries. These
    the origin of ?red marble? fragments.
    It would be very useful to publish a book on all kind of stone material used for building
    19th century in Hungary.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lovei2005,
      author = {Lővei, Pál},
      title = {Kőanyagvizsgálat, művészettörténet, műemlékvédelem / Monument petrology, monument protection and art history},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {3},
      pages = {01-6},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_3/AM-2005-3-LP.pdf}
    }
    
    Lakatos et al.
    Lakatos, Szilvia; Bajnóczi, Bernadett & Tóth, Mária
    Az archeometria lehetőségei és határai az ?Enyedi Iuno? márványszobron végzett vizsgálatok alapján / Potentials and limits of archaeometry based on studies of the ?Juno Enyedi? marble statue 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(4), pp. 53-64 
    article URL 
    Abstract: ?Juno Enyedi? is a marble statue of a seated woman that was entrusted as a loan to the Museum of Fine Arts in
    Budapest, in 2008. At this time, a thorough restoration of the statue was carried out, and thus it became possible
    to perform archaeometric analyses. Samples were taken from the body, as well as several of its extensions. In
    order to determine the provenance of the marble, X-ray diffraction and stable isotope analyses were performed.
    In addition ? whenever the sample sizes were large enough ? polarizing and cathodoluminescence microscopy
    analyses on thin sections were carried out. The investigations proved that the ?Juno Enyedi? is composed of at
    least three kinds of marble. In accordance with the research of H. W. Müller in the 1990?s, the analysis showed
    conclusively that the body is composed of dolomitic marble from Thasos. Further, new results indicate that the
    extensions were made from two types of calcitic marbles. Considering the observations made by H. R. Goette,
    two distinct phases of restoration can be distinguished in the history of the statue.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LakatosETAL2009_4,
      author = {Lakatos, Szilvia and Bajnóczi, Bernadett and Tóth, Mária},
      title = {Az archeometria lehetőségei és határai az ?Enyedi Iuno? márványszobron végzett vizsgálatok alapján / Potentials and limits of archaeometry based on studies of the ?Juno Enyedi? marble statue},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {4},
      pages = {53-64},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_4/AM-09-04-LSZ.pdf}
    }
    
    Lapuente
    Lapuente, Pilar
    Archaeometry on stones. multi-method approach to investigate stone provenance. studied cases from Roman Hispanic marmora / Kövek archeometriája: több módszer együttes alkalmazása származási hely vizsgálatokra. esettanulmányok hispaniai római márványokon 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(3), pp. 149-158 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    This contribution aims to expose a number of considerations regarding the reliability of the analytical results in the investigation of the quarry source of stones used as raw material in archaeological pieces. In many cases, a sequential selection of common petrological techniques achieves a positive result in provenance identification. Together with petrography and the determination of C and O stable isotopes, the study must often be complemented by the application of an additional technique to increase the rate of success, especially with certain white marbles. In some cases, however, even with a multi-method approach, the analytical results only guarantee an uncertain provenance between two possible marble sources. Additional remarks are reported after the archaeometric studies carried out on marble pieces found in Roman Hispania, where the presence of both, local and imported marbles, makes provenance study more difficult.
    Kivonat
    Ez a tanulmány a bányahely azonosítás problémáival, az anyagvizsgálati eredmények megbízhatóságával foglalkozik. Sok esetben, különféle kőzettani technikák megfelelő sorrendben történő alkalmazása jó eredményeket hozhat a származási hely vizsgálatok tekintetében. A kőzettani vizsgálatokkal együttesen alkalmazott stabil izotóp vizsgálatok mellett további technikák alkalmazására is sort kell keríteni a hatékonyság növelése érdekében, különösen bizonyos fehér márvány típusok esetében. Egyes esetekben azonban még a többféle vizsgálati technika is csak bizonytalan azonosítást tesz lehetővé, például két lehetséges márványbánya azonosítása tekintetében. További példákat mutatunk be a római kori Hispánia márvány leletein, ahol mind a helyi, mind a távolsági eredet felmerülhet a márványok tekintetében, ami a vizsgálatok körét kiszélesíti és megnehezíti.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lapuente2014_3,
      author = {Lapuente, Pilar},
      title = {Archaeometry on stones. multi-method approach to investigate stone provenance. studied cases from Roman Hispanic marmora / Kövek archeometriája: több módszer együttes alkalmazása származási hely vizsgálatokra. esettanulmányok hispaniai római márványokon},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {3},
      pages = {149-158},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_3/AM-14-03-PL.pdf}
    }
    
    Lektorok
    Lektorok
    Az Archeometriai Műhely 2016 XIII. évfolyam 1-4 számainak lektorai 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(4), pp. 293 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lektorok2016,
      author = {Lektorok},
      title = {Az Archeometriai Műhely 2016 XIII. évfolyam 1-4 számainak lektorai},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {4},
      pages = {293},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_4/AM-2016-4-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Lektorok
    Lektorok
    Az Archeometriai Műhely 2015 XII. évfolyam 1-4 számainak lektorai 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(4), pp. 279 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lektorok2015,
      author = {Lektorok},
      title = {Az Archeometriai Műhely 2015 XII. évfolyam 1-4 számainak lektorai},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {4},
      pages = {279},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_4/AM-2015-4-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Lektorok
    Lektorok
    Az Archeometriai Műhely XI. (2014.) évfolyamának lektorai 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(4), pp. 263 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lektorok2014,
      author = {Lektorok},
      title = {Az Archeometriai Műhely XI. (2014.) évfolyamának lektorai},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {4},
      pages = {263},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_4/AM14-04-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Lektorok
    Lektorok
    Az Archeometriai Műhely 2013. évfolyamának lektorai 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(4), pp. 314 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lektorok2013,
      author = {Lektorok},
      title = {Az Archeometriai Műhely 2013. évfolyamának lektorai},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {4},
      pages = {314},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_4/AM-13-04-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Lektorok
    Lektorok
    Az Archeometriai Műhely 2012. évfolyamának lektorai 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(4), pp. 296 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lektorok2012,
      author = {Lektorok},
      title = {Az Archeometriai Műhely 2012. évfolyamának lektorai},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {4},
      pages = {296},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_4/AM-12-04-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Lektorok
    Lektorok
    Az Archeometriai Műhely 2011. évfolyamának lektorai 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(4), pp. 372 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lektorok2011,
      author = {Lektorok},
      title = {Az Archeometriai Műhely 2011. évfolyamának lektorai},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {4},
      pages = {372},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_4/AM-11-04-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Lektorok
    Lektorok
    Az Archeometriai Műhely 2010. évfolyamának lektorai 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(4), pp. 297 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lektorok2010,
      author = {Lektorok},
      title = {Az Archeometriai Műhely 2010. évfolyamának lektorai},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {4},
      pages = {297},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_4/AM-10-04-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Lektorok
    Lektorok
    Az Archeometriai Műhely 2009. évfolyamának lektorai 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(4), pp. 73 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lektorok2009,
      author = {Lektorok},
      title = {Az Archeometriai Műhely 2009. évfolyamának lektorai},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {4},
      pages = {73},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_4/AM-09-04-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Len
    Len, Adél
    A kisszögű neutronszórás archeometriai alkalmazási lehetőségei / Possible Applications of Neutron Small Angle Scattering in Archaeology 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(2), pp. 27-31 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) method is a method for studying nanometer scale structural features in
    various materials such as porous media, ceramics, metals etc. Due to their very low energy, the thermal
    neutrons penetrate in most materials without destroying the structure. The obtained information is
    characteristic to the whole irradiated volume of the sample.
    The ?Yellow Submarine? SANS spectrometer operating at the research reactor of Budapest Neutron Center is a
    unique large-scale facility in the Central European region. It covers a scattering vector range from 0,002 ?-1 to
    0,5 ?-1 allowing the study of inhomogeneities in materials on a length scale from 100 ? to 2500 ?. SANS
    technique makes possible the determination of void sizes in porous media such as cements, marbles; observation
    of anisotropy in the precipitates orientation in minerals or metals, as well as the investigation of particle
    agglomeration in ceramic bodies and evolution of pores during different types of processing. Characteristic
    examples are to be shown in order to give an overview of the applicability of SANS method in nanoscale
    structure investigations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Len2006,
      author = {Len, Adél},
      title = {A kisszögű neutronszórás archeometriai alkalmazási lehetőségei / Possible Applications of Neutron Small Angle Scattering in Archaeology},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {2},
      pages = {27-31},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_2/AM-2006-2-LA.pdf}
    }
    
    Lipovics et al.
    Lipovics, Tamás; Petrovszki, Judit; Kudó, István; Pánczél, Szilamér; Dobos, Alpár; Vass, Lóránt; Lenkey, László & Bajusz, István
    Domborzati modell alkalmazása egy Prolissumon végzett régészeti célú mágneses mérés feldolgozásában és értelmezésében / Application of a terrain model in the evaluation and interpretation of a magnetic survey carried out for archeological purposes in Porolissum, Romania / Application of a terrain model in the evaluation and interpretation of a magnetic survey carried out for archeological purposes in Porolissum, Romania 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(2), pp. 31-42 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In this study with the help of a high-resolution magnetic survey carried out for archaeological purposes we show
    how joint application of magnetic and geodetic data can be used for topographic correction and interpretation
    of the measured anomaly map. The magnetic survey was carried out over the Roman-age ruins of Porolissum in
    NW Romania. We surveyed an area of 100 m x 120 m with grid spacing of 0.5 m, and measured the total
    magnetic field and its vertical gradient.
    In general, the application of topographic correction is unnecessary in magnetic surveying because the
    magnetization of the subsoil is negligible. However, the topographic effect can be significant if the near-surface
    magnetic susceptibility is high. Magnetic topographic correction is defined here as the removal of the disturbing
    magnetic signals caused by the topography.
    Besides the subsoil?s enhanced magnetization in the survey area significant topographic variations explain the
    consideration of the magnetic terrain effect. In the applied procedure the induced magnetic field is estimated
    using the topography, the strength of the geomagnetic field and the magnetic susceptibility of the subsoil. The
    unknown remanent magnetization of the subsoil is neglected. We estimated the magnitude of the induced field
    considering three different susceptibility values (0.0035, 0.01 and 0.02 SI). The calculated magnetic field is
    subtracted from the measured data.
    The corrected magnetic gradient map shows streets and foundations of houses like a present day city map. In
    some places two generations of houses built on top of each other?s foundations can be recognised as the walls
    with different ages have different orientations. The magnetic maps proved to be very useful in reconstructing the
    structure of the ancient city.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LipovicsETAL2009,
      author = {Lipovics, Tamás and Petrovszki, Judit and Kudó, István and Pánczél, Szilamér and Dobos, Alpár and Vass, Lóránt and Lenkey, László and Bajusz, István},
      title = {Domborzati modell alkalmazása egy Prolissumon végzett régészeti célú mágneses mérés feldolgozásában és értelmezésében / Application of a terrain model in the evaluation and interpretation of a magnetic survey carried out for archeological purposes in Porolissum, Romania / Application of a terrain model in the evaluation and interpretation of a magnetic survey carried out for archeological purposes in Porolissum, Romania},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {2},
      pages = {31-42},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_2/AM-09-02-LT.pdf}
    }
    
    Láng
    Láng, Orsolya
    Fast Archaeology: Applying New Technologies in the Archaeological Research in the Civilian City of Aquincum and in its Territory 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(1), pp. 51-60 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The sharply rising number of building investments on archaeologically protected territories in Budapest represents a particular challenge for archaeologists in the capital. The Budapest Historical Museum can only adapt itself to these demands if we apply new technologies in documentation and survey. Photogrammetry, geophysical survey and laser-scanning, to date mainly have been used to complement traditional documentation, have also been tested in excavation circumstances last year. Examples will be presented concerning the Roman villa-estates, the western and central part of the Aquincum Civil Town and its aquaduct. These types of documentation, sometimes carried out in a few hours, were not only of help to the archaeological research, but also yielded new archaeological information: that shed light on previously unexplained data from old excavations at the Civil Town of Aquincum.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lang2006,
      author = {Láng, Orsolya},
      title = {Fast Archaeology: Applying New Technologies in the Archaeological Research in the Civilian City of Aquincum and in its Territory},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {1},
      pages = {51-60},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_1/AM-2006-1-LO.pdf}
    }
    
    Mando
    Mando, Pier Andrea
    Ion Beam Analysis and Radiocarbon dating 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(1), pp. 18-23 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The working principles and main characteristics of the two main categories of nuclear techniques for applications to Cultural Heritage problems, i.e. Ion Beam Analysis for compositional characterisation of materials and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for 14C dating of archaeological finds, are briefly recalled. The new Florence Tandem accelerator laboratory is presented and some applications described, as examples of the great potential of these techniques in the specific field.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mando2006,
      author = {Mando, Pier Andrea},
      title = {Ion Beam Analysis and Radiocarbon dating},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {1},
      pages = {18-23},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_1/AM-2006-1-PAM.pdf}
    }
    
    Marey Mahmoud
    Marey Mahmoud, Hussein Hassan
    A multi-analytical approach for characterizing pigments from the tomb of Djhutyemhab (TT194), el-Qurna Necropolis, Upper Egypt / Festékanyagok azonosítása Djehutyemhab (TT194) sírjából többfajta vizsgálati módszer segítségével 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(3), pp. 205-214 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The present paper aims to characterize some ancient pigments from the painted reliefs of the tomb of
    Djehutyemhab (TT194), (Ramesside Period, ca. 1298?1064 BC), Nobles tombs, El-Qurna necropolis (Luxor),
    Upper Egypt. The analytical techniques used in this study were: optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron
    microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS), X-ray diffraction analysis, micro-
    Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies (?-Raman and FT?IR). Based on the results of these
    analyses, the stratigraphic structure, the morphology and the chemical composition of the paint layers were
    identified. The results revealed that the blue pigment is Egyptian blue (cuprorivaite, CaCuSi4O10), the
    turquoise-green pigment is Egyptian green (Cu-wollastonite) together with traces of cuprorivaite, the yellow
    pigment is yellow ochre, and the red pigment is red ochre. Moreover, the preparation layer was identified as a
    mixture of gypsum and calcite. FT?IR analysis of the paint layers revealed the use of a proteinaceous binder
    (probably of animal glue). The obtained results will help in establishing a conservation plan of these murals.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Marey2012_3,
      author = {Marey Mahmoud, Hussein Hassan},
      title = {A multi-analytical approach for characterizing pigments from the tomb of Djhutyemhab (TT194), el-Qurna Necropolis, Upper Egypt / Festékanyagok azonosítása Djehutyemhab (TT194) sírjából többfajta vizsgálati módszer segítségével},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {3},
      pages = {205-214},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_3/AM-12-03-HHMM.pdf}
    }
    
    Marey Mahmoud
    Marey Mahmoud, Hussein Hassan
    Archaeometric and petro-mineralogical remarks on damaged Egyptian wall paintings, El-Qurna necropolis, Upper Egypt / Archeometriai és petroarcheológiai megfigyelések a felső-egyiptomi El-Qurna nekropolisz megrongálódott falfestményein 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(2), pp. 149-156 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The present study aims at characterizing the main deterioration mechanisms affecting some Egyptian wall
    paintings of Theban tombs (TT277&278), El-Qurna, Upper Egypt. Several weathering products were observed
    on the painted surfaces representing different degrees of decay. The morphology and microanalysis of the
    studied samples were performed by scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray
    analysis system (SEM?EDS). The mineralogical characterization was carried out using X-ray powder
    diffraction analysis (XRPD), while the petrographic examination on the prepared thin sections was carried out
    using the polarized light microscope (PLM). The results showed that the limestone types in the area are
    microsparry calcite embedded in a micrite matrix rich in fossils and grains of quartz. XRPD data showed that
    the main crystalline phases in the limestone samples are calcite, quartz, anhydrite, halite and clay minerals. The
    results showed that the damage of the examined wall paintings is mainly attributable to the effect of different
    salts such as halite (NaCl), gypsum (CaSO4?2H2O), and sylvite (KCl). The blue pigment was identified as
    Egyptian blue (Cuprorivaite), the red pigment as hematite (red ochre) and the yellow pigment as goethite
    (yellow ochre). The obtained results will help in drawing a conservation plan for the damaged wall paintings in
    the area.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HHMM2010_2,
      author = {Marey Mahmoud, Hussein Hassan},
      title = {Archaeometric and petro-mineralogical remarks on damaged Egyptian wall paintings, El-Qurna necropolis, Upper Egypt / Archeometriai és petroarcheológiai megfigyelések a felső-egyiptomi El-Qurna nekropolisz megrongálódott falfestményein},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {2},
      pages = {149-156},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_2/AM-10-02-HMM.pdf}
    }
    
    Marković and Bulatović
    Marković, Nemanja & Bulatović, Jelena
    Ploughing in Medieval Times on the territory of present-day Serbia / Szántás a középkorban a mai Szerbia területén 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(3), pp. 225-230 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    During medieval times the majority of the population in the territory of present-day Serbia dealt with
    agriculture, as evidenced by a number of farming tools found at archaeological sites. In this paper, ethnological,
    iconographic, textual, archaeological and arhaeozoological evidence for the method of medieval tillage and the
    typological evolution of the plough are presented. Specific pathological changes in the distal parts of the limbs
    potentially caused by the intensive use of animals in draught work are also discussed. Two different types of
    ploughing devices ? usually pulled by a pair of oxen were used ? ralo (ard) and plug (mouldboard plough), in
    Serbia during the Middle Ages. Work-related pathologies were observed in faunal assemblages from two
    medieval sites dated to the second half of the 14th century.
    Kivonat
    Amint arról a régészeti lelőhelyeken talált földművelő eszközök számából következtethetünk a mai Szerbia
    területén a középkori lakosság zöme mezőgazdasággal foglalkozott. Cikkünkben néprajzi, képi és írott források,
    valamint régészeti és régészeti állattani leletek alapján tekintjük át a középkori talajművelés módszereit és az eke
    típusainak fejlődését. Megvitatjuk azokat a sajátos kóros elváltozásokat, amelyeket az igásállatok végtagjainak
    disztális részein az intenzív munka okozhat. Szerbiában a középkor folyamán a szántásban két különböző típusú
    eszköz, a túróeke (ralo) és az ágyeke (plug) volt használatban. Ezeket általában egy pár ökör húzta. A
    munkavégzéssel kapcsolatos kóros elváltozások voltak megfigyelhetők két a XIV. század második felére keltezett
    középkori lelőhely régészeti állattani leletegyüttesében.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Markovic&Bulatovic2013_3,
      author = {Marković, Nemanja and Bulatović, Jelena},
      title = {Ploughing in Medieval Times on the territory of present-day Serbia / Szántás a középkorban a mai Szerbia területén},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {3},
      pages = {225-230},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_3/AM-13-03-NM.pdf}
    }
    
    Markó
    Markó, András
    Limnokvarcit a Cserhát hegységben / Limnic quartzite in the Cserhát Mountains 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(4), pp. 52-55 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Based on the technical literature, the Cserhát Mts. is quite poor in traces of hydrothermal activity and as a consequence in hydrothermal raw materials. Since the 1980s however, a large number of archaeological localities of different ages and dozens of workshop sites were discovered and partly excavated in this territory. All of them yielded quite characteristic siliceous rocks, containing many inhomogeneities, fossil plant and mollusc remains and covered by bluish and white patina layer. On the other hand single artefacts made of macroscopically similar raw material were identified in some assemblages excavated in a larger distance from the supposed outcrops. Another type of hydroquartzite and jasper were also used on these sites.
    The question was to identify the possible source/sources of the raw material types. During the field prospections outcrops of the raw materials were identified in the vicinity of Püspökhatvan and Galgagyörk; furthermore other sources may be supposed around Buják. The jasper may originate from gravel deposits of the Miocene age.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Marko2005,
      author = {Markó, András},
      title = {Limnokvarcit a Cserhát hegységben / Limnic quartzite in the Cserhát Mountains},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {4},
      pages = {52-55},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_4/AM-2005-4-MA.pdf}
    }
    
    Martini and Sibilia
    Martini, Marco & Sibilia, Emanuela
    Luminescence Dating and Cultural Heritage 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(1), pp. 03-11 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Crystalline inclusions present in ceramics act as thermoluminescent dosimeters of the dose due to the natural irradiation field. Because of this various ceramic material (pottery, bricks, cooked clays, clay-cores) can be dated by thermoluminescence (TL). A short review of the main possibilities of TL dating is given, with some examples that underline the advantages and limits of this method in archaeology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MartiniSibilia2006,
      author = {Martini, Marco and Sibilia, Emanuela},
      title = {Luminescence Dating and Cultural Heritage},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {1},
      pages = {03-11},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_1/AM-2006-1-MM.pdf}
    }
    
    Maróti
    Maróti, Boglárka
    Beszámoló -?Using Nuclear Techniques for the Characterization and Preservation of Cultural Heritage Artefacts in the European Region? témájú, RER/0/034 TC sz. projekt ülés 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(3), pp. 216-218 
    article URL 
    Abstract: .
    BibTeX:
    @article{Maroti2012_3,
      author = {Maróti, Boglárka},
      title = {Beszámoló -?Using Nuclear Techniques for the Characterization and Preservation of Cultural Heritage Artefacts in the European Region? témájú, RER/0/034 TC sz. projekt ülés},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {3},
      pages = {216-218},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_3/AM-2012-3-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Medzihradszky
    Medzihradszky, Zsófia
    Vértes és a pleisztocén paleobotanika / Vértes and the Pleistocene palaeobotanical research 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(2), pp. 11-16 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In the present paper the results of the palaeobotanical investigations carried out on the archaeological
    excavations of László Vértes are introduced. The changes of the vegetation history and the climate are presented
    using the botanical data of three methods, anthracotomy, macrofossil analysis and palynology at the localities
    Istállóskő-cave, Tata- Porhanyó quarry and Vértesszőlős.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Medzihradszky2008,
      author = {Medzihradszky, Zsófia},
      title = {Vértes és a pleisztocén paleobotanika / Vértes and the Pleistocene palaeobotanical research},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {2},
      pages = {11-16},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_2/AM-08-02-MZS.pdf}
    }
    
    Melis
    Melis, Eszter
    A Rómer bicentenáriumról és az Arrabona 51. 2013. (2015) kötetéről 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(3), pp. 232-238 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Melis2015_3,
      author = {Melis, Eszter},
      title = {A Rómer bicentenáriumról és az Arrabona 51. 2013. (2015) kötetéről},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {3},
      pages = {232-238},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_3/AM-2015-3-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Mende
    Mende, Balázs Gusztáv
    Possibilities and limits of the archaeogenetical analysis on the ancient human remains 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(1), pp. 29-33 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Archaeogenetic investigations ? parallel to the wide expansion of molecular genetics ? have recently gained importance in archaeology and population history. This positive change in its role in historical research is based partly on the technological development of the last two decades and partly on the recognition of the fundamental conservatism of the DNA.
    The field was open for a multi-respect analysis of the DNA of several thousand years old human remains. The polymorphism of the DNA, especially on certain sections of the mitochondrial DNA, offered the possibility for the most thorough examination ever in relation to the spread and genetic variability of the human species. Because of the fragmentary character of the preserved ancient DNA sections, the morphometric features of the human skeleton and the genetic haplogroups formed by the DNA-based polymorphism cannot be correlated. In fortunate cases, archaeogenetic investigations make it possible to study illnesses of genetic origin or analyse kinship relations in smaller burial groups. The examination of patrilineal and autosomatic inheritance can be of great help in answering the major questions of the population history of the Carpathian Basin.
    The most recent investigations concentrate on the testing of archaeological and historical preconceptions regarding the eighth to twelfth centuries, with special emphasis on the problem of population and ethnic group. The most spectacular results, however, can be expected in relation to the population problems of the Neolithic. The archaeogenetic laboratory in the Archaeological Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences was established to answer these questions.
    The long-term financing of such investigations, however, has not been solved properly, not least because of the time needed and the difficulties one has to face when trying to provide an interdisciplinary interpretation. In order to decrease the possibility of modern human DNA contamination, there is a recent tendency to limit the number of research groups and focus the limited resources ? among them the available grants and funds ? in the major archaeogenetic research centres.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mende2006a,
      author = {Mende, Balázs Gusztáv},
      title = {Possibilities and limits of the archaeogenetical analysis on the ancient human remains},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {1},
      pages = {29-33},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_1/AM-2006-1-MBG.pdf}
    }
    
    Merkl and Ilon
    Merkl, Ottó & Ilon, Gábor
    Rovarmaradvány egy római kori kútból Ménfőcsanak?Széles-földekről /Insect remains found in a Roman Age well located in the lands of Ménfőcsanak ? Széles-földek 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(1), pp. 53-56 
    article URL 
    Abstract: At Ménfőcsanak, NW Hungary, Gábor Ilon conducted a preventive archaeological excavation between October
    2009 and September 2011. Nearly eleven thousand archaeological features were recorded on an area of 277,165 m2.
    The most concentrated historic period incorporating cca. 90 per cent of these features was represented by the
    Celtic and Roman Ages. Soil samples were collected in 145 (standard M30 size) boxes for the purpose of natural
    scientific analyses. A preponderance of these samples came from archaeological features that could be defined
    as ?structures?. Samples were also taken from the fillings of wells.
    Hungarian archaeological technical papers scarcely report on examples of insect remains. This report is to
    extraordinarily communicate particular ones (Fig. 4.) extracted with a piece of wet soil from a timbered wooden
    structure supported well (STR 10990: Fig. 1 and 3) dating to the Roman Age. This archaeological feature
    contained the remains of an ordinary earth-boring dung beetle (Geotrupes spiniger), more specifically
    particular parts of its exoskeleton (prothorax, left hardened wing, right foreleg, and specific parts of the head).
    This insect is quite widespread on the open platforms of the Carpathian Basin (the average altitude of the
    archaeological salvage site was 112.5 meters) lying at a lower altitude (under 500 meters). In addition, it was
    even more widespread in the period of increased grazing. This species is known to live in the manure of large
    ungulates (horses and cattle) mainly. It has been assumed that the remains of the once living specimen settled in
    the manure of animals driven to the well to imbibe.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Merkl&Ilon2012_1,
      author = {Merkl, Ottó and Ilon, Gábor},
      title = {Rovarmaradvány egy római kori kútból Ménfőcsanak?Széles-földekről /Insect remains found in a Roman Age well located in the lands of Ménfőcsanak ? Széles-földek},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {1},
      pages = {53-56},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_1/AM-12-01-IG.pdf}
    }
    
    Mertinger and Benke
    Mertinger, Valéria & Benke, Márton
    Fémleletek röntgendiffrakciós vizsgálatainak speciális lehetőségei / Special X-ray diffraction methods for metallic artifacts 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(1), pp. 15-24 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    From the beginning of Neolithic many technologies have been applied since metallic objects were produced by humans. All of the applied technologies modify the properties of the crystal structure and microstructure of raw material. The change in the crystal structure is in a strong relation with the applied technology. The selected, most technology sensitive structure properties are residual stress and texture. Using our practical experience of decades in modern age metal technologies, a non-destructive X-ray diffraction method was developed for the examinations of archeological objects. In the present manuscript, the production conditions of several silver objects produced by partially known manufacturing techniques are deduced based on the results of residual stress and texture (crystallographic orientation) examinations and thereby the developed examination method is validated. The results of objects produced by casting or forging, or casting and forging are clearly distinguishable. These methods are improved for the investigation of Seuso artifact in framework of collaboration with Institute for Geological and Geochemical Research, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
    Kivonat
    Az újkőkortól kezdődően mióta az ember fémtárgyakat állít elő, számos technológiát alkalmaz. Az alkalmazott technológiák mindegyike megváltoztatja a fémalapanyag rácsszerkezeti, szövetszerkezeti, mikroszerkezeti jellemzőit. A szerkezetben bekövetkező változás és az alkalmazott technológia szoros korrelációs kapcsolatban áll egymással. Az általunk választott, a technológiára leginkább érzékeny anyagszerkezeti jellemző a maradó feszültség és kristálytani textúra (orientáció). Az újkori fémtechnológia gyakorlatban szerzett több évtizedes tapasztalatainkat felhasználva dolgoztunk ki egy roncsolásmentes röntgendiffrakciós vizsgálati módszert régészeti tárgyak vizsgálatára. Jelen munkánkban különböző, részben ismert módon előállított ezüsttárgyak maradó feszültség és textúra vizsgálatának eredményei alapján az előállítás körülményeit határozzuk meg, a kidolgozott vizsgálati módszerünket validáljuk. Az eredmények alapján jól elkülöníthető az öntött és az alakított tárgy, vagy az öntött majd alakított technológiai folyamat eredménye. A vizsgálatok célja a módszer kidolgozása, az MTA Csillagászati és Földtudományi Kutatóközpont, Földtani és Geokémiai Intézetével történő együttműködés keretén belül történő Seuso leletek vizsgálatának előkészítése.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mertinger&Benke2015_1,
      author = {Mertinger, Valéria and Benke, Márton},
      title = {Fémleletek röntgendiffrakciós vizsgálatainak speciális lehetőségei / Special X-ray diffraction methods for metallic artifacts},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {1},
      pages = {15-24},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_1/AM-2015-1-MV.pdf}
    }
    
    Mertinger et al.
    Mertinger, Valéria; Benke, Márton; Vízer, Zsuzsanna; Sepsi, Máté & Kárpáti, Viktor
    Római kori ezüsttárgyak előállításának rekonstruálása roncsolásmentes röntgendiffrakciós vizsgálattal / Reconstruction of production methods of silver artefacts from the Roman Age using a non-destructive x-ray diffration technique 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(3), pp. 195-204 
    article URL 
    Abstract: A non-destructive X-ray diffraction method for archaeological finds was developed using our experience of decades in the field of practical modern age metal technologies. Cold formed and annealed model samples were prepared. Residual stress, full width at half maximum (FWHM), Bragg-angle and texture were determined on the model samples. The correlation between the determined parameters and the underlying physical metallurgical processes was established based on the performed examinations. Applying these fundamental correlations, the production technology of one of the silver platters of the so called Sabać finds and the wash basin of the Seuso treasure is interpreted based on results of the performed examinations. The indirect aim of the examinations is the interpretation of our results, obtained during the large scale examination series performed on seven silver vessels of the Seuso treasure in the framework of collaboration with the Institute for Geological and Geochemical Research, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, based on validated results.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MertingerETAL2015_3,
      author = {Mertinger, Valéria and Benke, Márton and Vízer, Zsuzsanna and Sepsi, Máté and Kárpáti, Viktor},
      title = {Római kori ezüsttárgyak előállításának rekonstruálása roncsolásmentes röntgendiffrakciós vizsgálattal / Reconstruction of production methods of silver artefacts from the Roman Age using a non-destructive x-ray diffration technique},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {3},
      pages = {195-204},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_3/AM-2015-3-MV.pdf}
    }
    
    Merva
    Merva, Szabina
    Kritikai megjegyzések az archeomágneses keltezési módszer használhatóságáról kiválasztott 10-11. századi lelőhelyek esetében / Notes on the applicability of the archaeomagnetic dating method in Hungary for selected 10-11th c. sites 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(1), pp. 19-30 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The present work gives account of a general methodological problem, the archaeological background of the
    archaeomagnetic dating method and its practice of the application. The starting point of the study is that the raw
    data of the calibration curves (the archaeomagnetic directions measured on burnt clay features) are linked to
    the absolute chronology by means of age estimates made on archaeological grounds. Even so, the reference to
    the archaeomagnetic results can be read by the chronology of several sites in the archaeological literature, as
    well as the misconstruction of the data, giving shorter intervals than the real one.
    The present paper scrutinizes the archaeomagnetic dating method in Hungary on examples of selected
    archaeological sites (fortresses, settlements and iron smelting furnaces) dating back to the 10-11th centuries, in
    what follows, the archaeological dating methods and their chronological sensitivity are reviewed. It?s important
    to emphasize, that the errors in the archaeological age estimates (horizontal lines, Fig. 1.) shows a specious
    short interval ? 50-100 years. Dating with archaeological methods to such a short interval in case of graves is
    possible and by the fortresses is arguable, but in case of settlements and ironsmelting furnaces it has not been
    proven yet in the 10-11th centuries.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Merva2012_1,
      author = {Merva, Szabina},
      title = {Kritikai megjegyzések az archeomágneses keltezési módszer használhatóságáról kiválasztott 10-11. századi lelőhelyek esetében / Notes on the applicability of the archaeomagnetic dating method in Hungary for selected 10-11th c. sites},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {1},
      pages = {19-30},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_1/AM-12-01-MSZ.pdf}
    }
    
    Merva et al.
    Merva, Szabina; Sipos, György & Tóth, Orsolya
    Adatok az Árpád-kori sánc építését megelőző kora középkor kérdéséhez Sopronban / Data on the chronology of Early Mediaeval layers before the construction of the Árpád Age fortification in Sopron 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(3), pp. 161-172 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Although, the first archaeological excavations at Városház str., Sopron were already made in the 1960s, the
    detailed processing of findings and the publication of results are still unfinished. Based on short archaeological
    reports, however, it has been claimed that there is a 10th c. settlement layer just below the well known, Árpád
    Period woodenstructure rampart. Nevertheless, in the light of more recent works there is a chance that ceramic
    findings excavated from the layer and suggested to represent the 9-10th/9-11th/10-11th c. AD were originally
    misinterpreted. In order to resolve the problem above, thermoluminescence dating (TL) was applied for 3
    representative pottery fragments originating from the questionable layer.
    Samples were performing well during TL measurements, their sensitivity and TL signals were high. Nevertheless,
    as a matter of uncertainties in the radioactive background the relative error of age calculations was as much as
    13-15 %. Two of the specimens, forming one group by typological means as well, were dated to be of similar
    age, and were fired in the 310 BC ?250 AD time interval. The third pottery fragment was significantly older and
    was dated to the Late Bronze Age. The validity of these results was reinforced by the measurement of a fourth,
    archaeologically well established Late Bronze Age sherd.
    Considering the age results, the investigated specimens certainly do not represent the youngest group of ceramic
    fragments of the investigated layer, thus they seem to be improper for telling the minimum age of the Sopron
    dark earth layer, from where no other unambiguously Middle Age fragments were excavated either. As a
    consequence, considering both typological and absolute dating results we claim that the present pottery family
    cannot be used for proving the existence of a Conquest Period settlement layer beneath the Sopron fortification.
    Moreover, the early or mid 11th c. origin of the fortification cannot be supported either by the dark earth layer
    and its pottery findings alone.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Merva_et_al2012_3,
      author = {Merva, Szabina and Sipos, György and Tóth, Orsolya},
      title = {Adatok az Árpád-kori sánc építését megelőző kora középkor kérdéséhez Sopronban / Data on the chronology of Early Mediaeval layers before the construction of the Árpád Age fortification in Sopron},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {3},
      pages = {161-172},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_3/AM-12-03-MSZ.pdf}
    }
    
    Mesterházy
    Mesterházy, Dávid
    Beszámoló a "Regional Training course on Demonstration of Techniques for Cultural Heritage Protection" rendezvényről / Participant?s account on the event "Regional Training course on Demonstration of Techniques for Cultural Heritage Protection" 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(3), pp. 283-84 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mesterhazy2011_3,
      author = {Mesterházy, Dávid},
      title = {Beszámoló a "Regional Training course on Demonstration of Techniques for Cultural Heritage Protection" rendezvényről / Participant?s account on the event "Regional Training course on Demonstration of Techniques for Cultural Heritage Protection"},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {3},
      pages = {283-84},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_3/AM-11-03-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Mesterházy et al.
    Mesterházy, Dávid; Kovács, András & Kasztovszky, Zsolt
    Beszámoló a "Regional Training course on Demonstration of Techniques for Cultural Heritage Protection" rendezvényről 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(2), pp. 209-210 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mesterhazy2011_2,
      author = {Mesterházy, Dávid and Kovács, András and Kasztovszky, Zsolt},
      title = {Beszámoló a "Regional Training course on Demonstration of Techniques for Cultural Heritage Protection" rendezvényről},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {2},
      pages = {209-210},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_2/AM-11-02-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Mihály et al.
    Mihály, Judith; Berthold, Christoph; Szilágyi, Veronika; Leno, Viktoria; Zöldföldi, Judit; Csengeri, Piroska & Biró, Katalin T.
    A Bükki kerámia inkrusztált díszítéseinek vizsgálata mikro-analitikai módszerekkel / Investigation of the incrustation on Bükk pottery by means of micro-analysis techniques 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(4), pp. 249-258 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In the frame of the German-Hungarian DAAD-MÖB project (2009-2010 ?Long distance trade in Neolithic
    pottery?) elemental and phase analysis of incrustation material on selected Bükk pottery samples were
    performed. To investigate these small, thin parts of pottery non-destructive, high-resolution methods like ?-XRF,
    ?-XRD, ?-Raman and the quasi-destructive ?-ATR-FTIR were applied. The incrustation material proved to be
    disordered, probably heat treated (X-ray amorphous) kaolinite together with quartz and feldspar. No bone grit
    was detected. In the yellow and pink-yellow incrusted decorations, beside kaolinite and quartz, goethite was
    identified, while the red coloration proved to be due to hematite. In some cases traces of gypsum were also
    detected. The obtained results contributed to creating the ?fingerprint? of the Bükk pottery.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mihalyetal2010_4,
      author = {Mihály, Judith and Berthold, Christoph and Szilágyi, Veronika and Leno, Viktoria and Zöldföldi, Judit and Csengeri, Piroska and Biró, Katalin T.},
      title = {A Bükki kerámia inkrusztált díszítéseinek vizsgálata mikro-analitikai módszerekkel / Investigation of the incrustation on Bükk pottery by means of micro-analysis techniques},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {4},
      pages = {249-258},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_4/AM-10-04-MJ.pdf}
    }
    
    Mihály et al.
    Mihály, Judith; Mink, János & Hajba, László
    Vértesszőlősi, alsó paleolit korból származó állatcsontok vizsgálata FTIR és FT-Raman spektroszkópiai módszerekkel / FTIR and FT-Raman spectroscopical study of Lower Palaeolithic bones from Vértessz?l?s 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(3), pp. 15-18 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Archaeological bone samples of burned and unburned appearance from Vértesszőlős excavation were analysed
    by FT-Raman, FTIR and Far-FTIR techniques and compared with results of modern bones.
    FTIR spectrum of archaeological sample is similar to OH-apatite with some carbonate contamination, referring
    to a perfect crystalline structure. In the archaeological bone spectrum with the most burned appearance,
    however, an extra band at 1050 cm-1 (shoulder) starts to grow up. (After oven experiment of fresh bone a well
    defined splitting at 1047 and 1038 cm-1 occurs, presumably due to apatite transformation.) The relative
    intensities of 1102/1043 cm-1 and 604/565 cm-1 are also changed. Far-FTIR measurements also reveal changes
    in the lattice structure for burned samples. IR spectra of burned ancient bones and of fresh bones after oven
    experiment are very similar also in the spectral region between 1700 and 1200 cm-1. No dark coloured metaloxide
    species (~530 cm-1) were detected.
    FT-Raman spectrum of unburned archaeological bone shows small organic contamination (IR showed the
    same) and a very nice crystalline structure. Burned bones, dark coloured samples, because the strong heating
    effect, were difficult to measure producing not very good S/N spectra. Less organic contamination, but some
    extra bands of carbonate (1435, 1083, 701 and 280 cm-1) are present in the spectrum. Regarding the crystalline
    structure, again some small shift from 590 to 593 cm-1 in the ?
    4PO4 contour can be observed.
    Combination of Raman and FTIR spectroscopy can be an effective tool to investigate archaeological remains of
    organic origin.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MihalyETAL2006,
      author = {Mihály, Judith and Mink, János and Hajba, László},
      title = {Vértesszőlősi, alsó paleolit korból származó állatcsontok vizsgálata FTIR és FT-Raman spektroszkópiai módszerekkel / FTIR and FT-Raman spectroscopical study of Lower Palaeolithic bones from Vértessz?l?s},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {3},
      pages = {15-18},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_3/AM-2006-3-MJ.pdf}
    }
    
    Molnár et al.
    Molnár, Dávid; Sávai, Szilvia; Hupuczi, Júlia; Galović, Lidija & Sümegi, Pál
    Kelet-horvátországi lösz-paleotalaj sorozatok malakológiai elemzése / Malacological investigations on East-Croatian loess-paleosol profiles 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(2), pp. 127-136 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Quaternary sediments are prevalent in Eastern Croatia and include predominantly alluvial, marshy, lacustrine
    sediments that are partly covered with aeolian material. At least six paleolsols, ranging in age from the Middle
    to Upper Pleistocene, are intercalated in the loess sections in Eastern Croatia. Geochemical, sedimentological
    and geochronological analyses of these paleosols have been used to reconstruct the environmental and climatic
    changes that occurred in Eastern Croatia during the Middle to Late Pleistocene.
    With a few exceptions, results of malacological investigations of loess profiles in Eastern Croatia were
    published mostly in Croatian language so far. In 2008, conjunction with Croatian-Hungarian bilateral project,
    three of these loess profiles were investigated at Zmajevac and ©arengrad villages, in Eastern Croatia. All
    profiles are situated in the vicinity of the Danube. Samples were taken at every 25 cm, and the main goal of the
    investigation was to study the Quaternary malacofauna. The examined profiles yielded nearly 9,000 specimens
    of 55 mollusc species.
    The main characteristics of the Zmajevac profile are the appearance of chronospecies (Ena montana, Mastus
    bielzi, Cochlodina laminata, Macrogastra ventricosa, Clausilia pumila, Trichia unidentata, Trichia edentula), the
    presence of Pseudofusulus varians which taxa is a curio in the Carpathian Basin; and a probable change in
    temperature demand of Vallonia tenuilabris in the lower parts of the profile. Based on composition of the
    mollusc fauna and the age data, the lower part of the profile is deposited during the Middle Pleistocene. The
    duality of ©arengrad profiles can be revealed in the composition of the mollusc fauna. The lower part of the
    profiles has fluvial origin (sandy silts with infusion loess layers on the top) and on the upper part aeolian loess
    layers deposited.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Molnar2011_2,
      author = {Molnár, Dávid and Sávai, Szilvia and Hupuczi, Júlia and Galović, Lidija and Sümegi, Pál},
      title = {Kelet-horvátországi lösz-paleotalaj sorozatok malakológiai elemzése / Malacological investigations on East-Croatian loess-paleosol profiles},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {2},
      pages = {127-136},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_2/AM-11-02-MD.pdf}
    }
    
    Molnár et al.
    Molnár, Mihály; Rinyu, László; Janovics, Róbert; Major, István & Veres, Miháy
    Az új debreceni C-14 AMS laboratórium bemutatása / Introduction of the new AMS C-14 laboratory in Debrecen 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(3), pp. 147-160 
    article URL 
    Abstract: A new MICADAS type accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system was installed in Debrecen during the
    summer of 2011. The Hungarian AMS is dedicated for C-14 environmental research. Its maximum measurable
    C-14 age limit is about 50,000 yr BP. A normal measurement time is about half an hour for a sample. A new
    AMS C-14 sample preparation lab was also established to serve the AMS measurements in Debrecen. This paper
    give an overview of AMS C-14 sample analyses in the Debrecen laboratory to show how samples are pretreated
    in a long process which leads to get a reliable C-14 result on it. More than two thousand samples were analysed
    in the first year of the operation using the new AMS system in Debrecen. Long term stability of the instrument is
    presented via the variation of Oxa-II normalization standard and the processed blank targets level for the first
    half of 2012.
    In this project, a multipurpose gas handling system was developed for the gas ion source of EnvironMICADAS
    at ETH Zürich that is designed for the measurement of small environmental origin samples (<50 ?g carbon)
    with moderate precision requirements aiming an automated device for high sample throughput.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Molnar_et_al2012_3,
      author = {Molnár, Mihály and Rinyu, László and Janovics, Róbert and Major, István and Veres, Miháy},
      title = {Az új debreceni C-14 AMS laboratórium bemutatása / Introduction of the new AMS C-14 laboratory in Debrecen},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {3},
      pages = {147-160},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_3/AM-12-03-MM.pdf}
    }
    
    Mozgai
    Mozgai, Viktória
    Beszámoló az Archaeometallurgy in Europe IV (4AIE) konferenciáról 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(3), pp. 231-232 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mozgai2015_3,
      author = {Mozgai, Viktória},
      title = {Beszámoló az Archaeometallurgy in Europe IV (4AIE) konferenciáról},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {3},
      pages = {231-232},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_3/AM-2015-3-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Mozgai et al.
    Mozgai, Viktória; Fórizs, István & Bajnóczi, Bernadett
    Régészeti és történeti fémtárgyak nyersanyaga származási helyének meghatározása izotóp-geokémiai módszerrel: ólom-, ezüst- és rézizotópok együttes alkalmazása / Provenance determination of archaeological and historical metal objects with isotope geochemical method: combined use of lead, silver and copper isotopes 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(4), pp. 273-290 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This review paper discusses the use of isotopes of three metals (lead, silver and copper) as a tool to determine the provenance of the raw material of archaeological and historical metal objects. Lead isotope analyses have been performed on various types of metal artefacts since the 1950s. In the 1990s, the introduction of multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers (MC-ICP-MS) offered a great opportunity to do faster, more precise and accurate measurements and to measure other metal isotopes such as copper and silver isotopes. Two published case studies are discussed as examples showing how the combination of lead, silver and copper isotopes can be used to determine the provenance of the raw material of silver artefacts. The combined use of these three isotopes is unique in the field of provenance studies.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mozgai_et_al_2016_4,
      author = {Mozgai, Viktória and Fórizs, István and Bajnóczi, Bernadett},
      title = {Régészeti és történeti fémtárgyak nyersanyaga származási helyének meghatározása izotóp-geokémiai módszerrel: ólom-, ezüst- és rézizotópok együttes alkalmazása / Provenance determination of archaeological and historical metal objects with isotope geochemical method: combined use of lead, silver and copper isotopes},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {4},
      pages = {273-290},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_4/AM-2016-4-MV.pdf}
    }
    
    Márton
    Márton, Péter
    A hazai archeomágneses adatok repertóriuma 1966?2011 (Archeomágneses Mintavételi Adattár 2011) / Repertory of archaeomagnetic directional data for Hungary, 1966?2011 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(1), pp. 11-18 
    article URL 
    Abstract: There are four publications of the archaeomagnetic directional data from Hungary, three for historical and one
    for prehistorical times (Márton, 2003), (Márton & Ferencz, 2006), (Márton, 2010a), and (Márton, 2009) each
    containing the necessary archaeological information for the identification of the studied objects but very little
    about their archaeological background. In order for making up for the missing details in archaeology a series of
    tables are presented here as a supplement to the publications above. The organisation of these tables is as
    follows. The first three rows contain the name of the excavation site, that of the site archaeologist, and full
    reference to the excavation report. The next row contains the date(s) of the archaeomagnetic sampling. Each of
    the following rows gives the full identification (obj. number, obj. description, archaeological age estimate,
    independently oriented sample numbers/signs) of one sampled object. These rows serve for comparison with the
    data tables of the above referred publications. The last row (remarks) shows who is the age estimates from (pers.
    com.), and some 14C ages where available. Table 1. contains some archaeomagnetic directions not included in
    the above referred publications.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Marton2012_1,
      author = {Márton, Péter},
      title = {A hazai archeomágneses adatok repertóriuma 1966?2011 (Archeomágneses Mintavételi Adattár 2011) / Repertory of archaeomagnetic directional data for Hungary, 1966?2011},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {1},
      pages = {11-18},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_1/AM-12-01-MP.pdf}
    }
    
    Márton
    Márton, Péter
    2012/1. 1. melléklet , Archeomágneses Mintavételi Adattár / Archaeomagnetic Sampling Repertory 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(1), pp. - 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Marton2012_1App,
      author = {Márton, Péter},
      title = {2012/1. 1. melléklet , Archeomágneses Mintavételi Adattár / Archaeomagnetic Sampling Repertory},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {1},
      pages = {-},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_1/AM-12-01-melleklet-MP.pdf}
    }
    
    Márton and Csóka
    Márton, Zsuzsanna & Csóka, Ádám
    Lézerindukált Plazmaspektroszkópia: az archeometriai és restaurátori elemanalitika gyors és hatékony eszköze / Laser Induced Plasma Spectroscopy: a quick and efficient tool for element analysis in conservation and archeometry 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(1), pp. 1-6 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    Selected metal artefacts from excavations, collections and standard suppliers were studied by LIBS spectrometry. Qualitative elemental analysis of base metal, coating and corrosion layers of artefacts made of different alloys were performed in relation to the emerging specific questions regarding restauration or identification of the given object. This paper focuses on the characteristic features of the LIBS spectroscopy, which make it a plausible choice for a first, quick analysis of metallic artefacts in conservation studios or in archaeometry. The importance of the adjustable spatial resolution and the neccesity of statistical evaluation of the measurement data are emphasised.
    Kivonat
    Ásatásból, múzeumi gyűjteményből és standard ötvözeteket forgalmazó cégtől származó fém tárgyakat vizsgáltunk LIBS spektroszkópiával. Kvalitatív elemanalízist végeztünk a tárgyak tömbanyagán, felületi bevonatán és a rajtuk található korróziós rétegen, hogy ennek segítségével választ adhassunk az adott tárgyak azonosításával, restaurálásával kapcsolatos specifikus kérdésekre. A jelen cikk a LIBS spektroszkópia azon tulajdonságaira fókuszál, melyek különösen alkalmassá teszik a módszert fémtárgyak gyors analízisére a restaurátor műhelyben vagy az archeometriában. Kiemeljük a mintavételi hely változtatható méretének fontosságát és a mérések statisztikai módszerekkel való kiértékelésében rejlő lehetőségeket.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Marton&Csoka2015_1,
      author = {Márton, Zsuzsanna and Csóka, Ádám},
      title = {Lézerindukált Plazmaspektroszkópia: az archeometriai és restaurátori elemanalitika gyors és hatékony eszköze / Laser Induced Plasma Spectroscopy: a quick and efficient tool for element analysis in conservation and archeometry},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-6},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_1/AM-2015-01-MZS.pdf}
    }
    
    Müller
    Müller, Róbert
    Kés?bronzkori arany szalaggal díszített textíliák / Spätbronzezeitliche, mit Goldbändern verzierte Textilien / Late Bronze Age textiles ornamented with gold band 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(2), pp. 117-122 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Resümee
    An der, in Várvölgy, Nagy-Lázhegy erschlossenen, spätbronzezeitlichen Höhensiedlung kam auch ein
    Goldschatz zum Vorschein, das unter anderem auch schmale, wahrscheinlich mit komplizierter Technologie
    hergestellte Goldbänder beinhaltete. Mit dem teilweise dicht aufgewickelten Material wurde aller
    Wahrscheinlichkeit nach ein Kleidungsstück ausgenäht. Mehrere zeitgleiche Goldschätze beinhalteten ähnliche
    Goldfäden, die bis jetzt durch die Forschung als Bestandteile von Pektoralien bestimmt wurden. Es ist
    anzunehmen, dass ursprünglich auch mit diesen Textilien verziert wurden und die mit Goldfäden ausgenähten
    Kleidungsstücke gewöhnliche Bestandteile der Goldschätze waren.
    Abstract
    On the Late Bronze Age hill fort excavated on Várvölgy?Nagy-Lázhegy, a golden hoard find was found
    containing thin gold ribbons produced by sophisticated technology. The heavily coiled bands were probably
    used on a garment. Several coeval finds are known comprising similar gold bands considered up to now
    elements of pectorals. We can suppose that they were also used for textile decoration and garments ornamented
    with gold threads were regular constituents of gold hoard finds.
    Kivonat
    A Várvölgy?Nagy-Lázhegyen feltárt későbronzkori magaslati telepen előkerült egy aranykincs is, amely többek
    között vékony, valószínűleg bonyolult technológiával készített aranyszalagokat is tartalmazott. A részben sűrűn
    tekercselt anyaggal minden bizonnyal egy ruhadarabot varrtak ki. Több hasonló korú aranylelet tartalmazott
    ugyanilyen aranyszálakat, amelyeket a kutatás eddig melldíszek alkotórészeinek tartott. Feltételezhető, hogy
    eredetileg ezekkel is textíliát díszíthettek, és az aranyszállal kivarrt ruhadarabok megszokott tartozékai voltak az
    aranykincseknek.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Muller2012_2,
      author = {Müller, Róbert},
      title = {Kés?bronzkori arany szalaggal díszített textíliák / Spätbronzezeitliche, mit Goldbändern verzierte Textilien / Late Bronze Age textiles ornamented with gold band},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {2},
      pages = {117-122},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_2/AM-12-02-MR.pdf}
    }
    
    Nagy and Szakmány
    Nagy, Anna & Szakmány, György
    Savariában talált rhodosi amphorák petrográfiai elemzése / Petrographic analysis of Rhodian amphorae from Savaria 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(3), pp. 177-188 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Petrographic analysis were done on 35 ancient Roman amphorae of the Rhodian type which were found in Savaria (present Szombathely), Western-Hungary. Based on the archaeological context they can be dated between the middle of the 1st ? middle of the 2nd centuries AD. This type of amphora contained wine. The aim of this research was to obtain a detailed petrographic description of the amphorae in order to suggest possible production sites and to get a better knowledge of the commercial connections of Savaria. Besides our observations, previous archaeometric studies of the Rhodian amphorae and information obtained from literature about the geology of the suggested source areas (Rhodes, the Rhodian Peraea, Kos, Crete, the South-West coast of Asia Minor, Ephesos and the Meander valley) were taken into consideration. The studied amphorae were classified into six petrographic groups. The majority of the finds (18 amphorae) are characterised by their high amount of volcanic temper and match Peacock?s 4th fabric group. They were imported from the Aegean, maybe from Nisyros. Eight amphorae can be attributed to Peacock?s 3rd fabric group: they are distinguished by their high quantity of biotite and non-plastic components (especially volcanic fragments). Four amphorae containing serpentinite were made in Rhodes or the Rhodian Peraea and belong to Peacock?s 1st fabric group. Three amphorae assigned to Peacock?s 6th class were produced at a yet unidentified place where granites are abundant (maybe on Mykonos or the South-West coast of Asia Minor). Two amphorae show similarities with Sauer?s samples: one amphora ? made from a fine-grained clay containing silt ? was probably produced in the Rhodian Peraea, while the other?s provenance could not be determined due to the near lack of temper constituents. The fact that a small number of Rhodian amphorae found on one site could be classified into six petrographic groups shows great variety, especially in Pannonia, where amphorae are relatively rare. Its explanation may lie in economic or agricultural reasons.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nagy&Szakmány2015_3,
      author = {Nagy, Anna and Szakmány, György},
      title = {Savariában talált rhodosi amphorák petrográfiai elemzése / Petrographic analysis of Rhodian amphorae from Savaria},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {3},
      pages = {177-188},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_3/AM-2015-3-NA.pdf}
    }
    
    Nagy et al.
    Nagy, Géza; Pásztor, Adrien; Fórizs, István & Tóth, Mária
    Szarmata és avar kori üveggyöngyök elektron-mikroszondás vizsgálata / Investigation of Sarmatian and Avar glass beads by electron microprobe 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(1), pp. 27-50 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Nearly 200 glass beads found in Sarmatian (2nd -4th cent. AD) and Avar (6th -8th cent. AD ) graves in recent
    Hungary were subjected to instrumental analysis. The Sarmatian beads are monochrome, the Avar beads are
    often decorated. The textures, inclusions, precipitations, colouring and modifying components, inhomogeneities
    of glasses with different colours were investigated, and exact quantitative analyses were done by electron
    microprobe and X-ray diffraction. The beads and the determined compositions of the glasses are listed in
    Appendix. A review of the literature of ancient and early medieval glass making and colouring is given in order
    to understand the obtained results.
    The coloured glass beads not only follow the fashion but reflect changes in technology, too. Blue glass was
    coloured in Sarmatian time presumably by cobalt with antimony added, in Avar age mainly by bivalent copper
    combined by lead. The green colour was produced mainly by copper in both ages. The red glass was coloured by
    elementary copper precipitations, produced by reduction of bivalent copper oxide. In Avar age iron was used as
    inner reducing agent, proved by the microtexture and chemical compositions; in Sarmatian age another
    technology was used, its traces we could not detect. Orange glass ? coloured by reduced copper and tin- and
    lead-oxide ? was made only in Sarmatian age. The red and orange beads found in Sarmatian graves are made of
    ?ash? type glasses, glass beads of other colours were mainly made of ?soda? type glasses from both ages as
    well as red Avar glasses. Yellow glass was found in Avar graves only, it is rich in lead and has been coloured by
    PbSn1-xSixO3 grains. White glass obtained its colour from antimony-oxide in Sarmatian age and from tin and
    lead-oxide in Avar age. The texture and compositions of the black glasses are diverse, the majority of Avar black
    beads have high iron contents.
    The differences in material ? in texture and in chemistry ? made it possible to classify in cases of uncertain
    graves, and indicated repeated use of a few glass beads.
    Excluding Sarmatian red and orange beads, the majority of the glasses belong to ?soda? type glasses, but ?ash?
    type glasses also appear; both types have been coloured similarly. The simultaneous occurrence of the two types
    indicates that the production and processing ? colouring and bead production ? were done in different places,
    and the processing workshops worked with rough glasses originating sometimes from distant places from each
    other.
    In cases of Early Avar beads the decorations were compared with monochrome beads and with ?bases? of
    decorated beads of the same colours. We found that the textures were similar, but small differences appeared in
    compositions. Unequivocal differences, proved by statistical t-probe were found in iron contents of the red
    glasses and in lead contents of every colours. These are interpreted as intentional differences, preventing
    unwanted changes in the colour, or modifying the colour, or influencing the softening temperature of the glass.
    BibTeX:
    @article{NagyETAL2010_1,
      author = {Nagy, Géza and Pásztor, Adrien and Fórizs, István and Tóth, Mária},
      title = {Szarmata és avar kori üveggyöngyök elektron-mikroszondás vizsgálata / Investigation of Sarmatian and Avar glass beads by electron microprobe},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {1},
      pages = {27-50},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_1/AM-10-01-NG.pdf}
    }
    
    Nagy
    Nagy, I., Weiszburg T. Szakmány Gy. Varga G. Kasztovszky Zs.
    Mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical study of Neolithic polished axes from Micula (NW Transylvania, Romania) / Újkőkori csiszolt kőeszközök vizsgálata kőzettani és geokémiai módszerekkel (Mikola, ÉNy Erdély, Románia) 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(2), pp. 37-46 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Two polished stone axes found at Micula (NW Transylvania, Romania) were mineralogicaly, petrographicaly
    and geochemicaly studied. The stone artefacts were assigned to the Neolithic period. Both are made from
    metamorphic rocks, i.e. amphibolite and hornfels respectively. The petrography, EMP, and PGAA analyses of
    the stone axes compared with geological information and the references data point to an extremely large range
    of possible geological sources for the rocks: from the northern part of the Apuseni Mts. to the northern part of
    the Eastern Carpathians or even the Bohemian Massif. Most likely, the place for collecting material could have
    been the alluvial sediments (boulders, pebbles) from the rivers nearby, such as Someş, Tisa, Crasna or Criş.
    BibTeX:
    @article{NagyETAL2008,
      author = {Nagy, I., Weiszburg, T., Szakmány, Gy., Varga, G., Kasztovszky, Zs.},
      title = {Mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical study of Neolithic polished axes from Micula (NW Transylvania, Romania) / Újkőkori csiszolt kőeszközök vizsgálata kőzettani és geokémiai módszerekkel (Mikola, ÉNy Erdély, Románia)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {2},
      pages = {37-46},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_2/AM-08-02-NI.pdf}
    }
    
    Nagy
    Nagy, Zsolt Dezs?
    40. Nemzetközi Archeometriai Szimpózium (2014. május 19-23., Los Angeles) / 40th International Symposium on Archaeometry (Los Angeles, 19-23rd May, 2014) 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(2), pp. 137-138 
    article URL 
    Abstract: You can read below a short review about the 40th International Symposium on Archaeometry, which was held in Los Angeles on 19-23rd May, 2014.
    BibTeX:
    @article{NAGY_2014_2,
      author = {Nagy, Zsolt Dezs?},
      title = {40. Nemzetközi Archeometriai Szimpózium (2014. május 19-23., Los Angeles) / 40th International Symposium on Archaeometry (Los Angeles, 19-23rd May, 2014)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {2},
      pages = {137-138},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_2/AM-14-02-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Niţu and Cârciumaru
    Niţu, Elena-Cristina & Cârciumaru, Marin
    Selection, opportunism and conceptual contradictions in the Mousterian from the Carpathian caves (Romania) / A nyersanyag kiválasztása, opportunizmus és fogalmi ellentmondások a Kárpátok barlangjainak (Románia) moustieri kultúrájában 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(2), pp. 81-102 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Between the settlements dating from the Middle Palaeolithic in Romania, a special place is held by the Mousterian from the Carpathian caves which provided lithic industries made of a great diversity of local rocks: flint, chaille, chert, jasper, radiolarite, quartz, quartzite, quartzolite, andesite, basalt, diorite etc. So far, all the specialized studies highlight the use of rocks other than flint, chaille or chert as a form of substitution of the high-quality raw materials missing in a certain area. As the use of certain types of rocks provides particular technological and typological features to the material culture from the Carpathian caves, we shall attempt to understand to what extent the Mousterian dwellers of the Carpathian caves chose, for debitage, certain categories of rocks with different mechanical properties and petrographic characteristics. The types of rocks analysed in this article come from the following Mousterian settlements: Bordul Mare Cave from Ohaba Ponor, Curată Cave from Nandru, Cioarei Cave from Boroşteni and Muierii Cave from Baia de Fier. Besides the prevalent use of local rocks, which denotes opportunistic behaviour and particular adaptability in relation to resources existing around the settlements, we find there are differences in selecting the types of raw material.
    BibTeX:
    @article{NITU_2014_2,
      author = {Niţu, Elena-Cristina and Cârciumaru, Marin},
      title = {Selection, opportunism and conceptual contradictions in the Mousterian from the Carpathian caves (Romania) / A nyersanyag kiválasztása, opportunizmus és fogalmi ellentmondások a Kárpátok barlangjainak (Románia) moustieri kultúrájában},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {2},
      pages = {81-102},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_2/AM-14-02-ECN.pdf}
    }
    
    Nyerges
    Nyerges, Éva Ágnes
    Preliminary report on the neolithic archaeozoological finds from Alsónyék?Bátaszék, Hungary / Előzetes jelentés Alsónyék?Bátaszék neolitikus lelőhely archeozoológiai leletanyagáról 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(3), pp. 209-214 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    Alsónyék?Bátaszék is a significant prehistoric site located in the southern Sárköz region west of the Danube
    river in Hungary. The area was periodically re-populated between the Early Neolithic and the beginning of the
    Copper Age reaching its greatest territorial expansion during the Late Neolithic Lengyel culture. Lengyel
    culture archaeozoological finds, forming the majority of animal remains recovered at the Alsónyék?Bátaszék
    settlement complex are of utmost importance in interpreting daily life at the site. During the course of
    investigations carried out continuously since 2011 over twenty thousand animal remains have been inventoried.
    The aim of this paper is the preliminary summary of this rich Neolithic material.
    Kivonat
    Alsónyék?Bátaszék neolitikus lelőhely a Dunától nyugatra, a Sárköz déli részén található. Területe a korai
    neolitikumtól a rézkorig szinte folyamatosan lakott volt. Legnagyobb kiterjedését a Lengyeli kultúra idején érte
    el. A feltárások során előkerült leletanyag igen nagy részét az archeozoológiai leletek adják. Vizsgálatuk jelentős
    ismeretekkel szolgál a lelőhelyen egykor élt emberek, így a lengyeli kultúra lakosságának is, a mindennapi
    életével kapcsolatban. Az állattani leletanyag vizsgálata 2011-től folyamatos, mindezidáig több mint húszezer
    maradvány meghatározására került sor. Jelen rövid összefoglalás alapját ezen archeozoológiai vizsgálatok
    eredményei képezik.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nyerges2013_3,
      author = {Nyerges, Éva Ágnes},
      title = {Preliminary report on the neolithic archaeozoological finds from Alsónyék?Bátaszék, Hungary / Előzetes jelentés Alsónyék?Bátaszék neolitikus lelőhely archeozoológiai leletanyagáról},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {3},
      pages = {209-214},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_3/AM-13-03-NYE.pdf}
    }
    
    Nyári et al.
    Nyári, Diána; Knipl, István; Kiss, Tímea & György, Sipos
    Environmental changes in historical times near Kecel on the Danube-Tisza Interfluve, Hungary. Archaeological research and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating / Környezeti változások a történeti időkben Kecel környékén. régészeti kutatás és OSL kormeghatározás 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(1), pp. 31-38 
    article URL 
    Abstract: A major advantage of luminescence dating is that it enables the direct dating of sediments containing quartz. Up
    till the last couple years Hungarian researches applying luminescence have mainly been concentrating on the
    dating of loess profiles, and hardly any attempts were made on the investigation of the sediments of historic
    times, in order to complement archeological findings and results. This work will present a complex analysis
    based on archaeological research and OSL dating.
    The growing population, the development of agricultural techniques and the changes in land use caused human
    induced environmental changes, which became increasingly significant in history. Good examples on it can be
    found on the Danube-Tisza Interfluve where the change in climatic conditions and the anthropogenic
    disturbance both caused aeolian activity during historical times. Therefore the original geomorphological
    setting of the area transformed, the Pleistocene forms were reshaped by Holocene sand-movements.
    The present work will provide good evidence on sand movement in historical times caused by human impact on
    the environment with the help of OSL dating and archaeological research in the vicinity of the village of Kecel,
    which is located on the largest blown-sand area of Hungary on the Danube-Tisza Interfluve.
    BibTeX:
    @article{NyariETAL2012_1,
      author = {Nyári, Diána and Knipl, István and Kiss, Tímea and Sipos György},
      title = {Environmental changes in historical times near Kecel on the Danube-Tisza Interfluve, Hungary. Archaeological research and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating / Környezeti változások a történeti időkben Kecel környékén. régészeti kutatás és OSL kormeghatározás},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {1},
      pages = {31-38},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_1/AM-12-01-KI.pdf}
    }
    
    Oláh István
    Oláh István, Ligner Jácint, BendHo) Zsolt Szakmány György Szilágyi Veronika
    Különösen gazdag kHo)balta és csiszolt kHo)eszköz leletegyüttes elHo)zetes vizsgálati eredményei Diósviszlóról / Preliminary results on a unique collection of axes and polished stone tools from Diósviszló 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(1), pp. 67-82 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The goal of this study was the petrological and geochemical investigation of the polished stone artefacts of the
    Korinek-collection, as well as the grouping of the raw materials and the determination of the possible
    provenance areas of the artefacts. These artefacts were collected as straight finds by Dr. László Korinek from a
    plow-land area that located between Diósviszló and Márfa villages (South Hungary). The collection contains
    more than one hundred chipped stone tools and fragments, also ceramics and 87 pieces of polished stone
    artefacts. The artefacts are predominantly axes, but some adzes, chisels, grinding stones, handstones and
    perforated pendants also belong to the collection. The majority of the artefacts are fragmented, but some entire
    finished and semi-finished tools also occur in the collection. The ceramics found together with them suggest that
    some of the artefacts originated from the Transdanubian Linear Pottery culture.
    Beyond the provenance analysis the authors tried to link between particular artefacts of the collection and stone
    artefacts that derived from the recently excavated archaeological site of HT 104 near Diósviszló village. The
    track of this excavation partially overlaps the source area of the Korinek-collection.
    Macroscopic description and magnetic susceptibility measurements were done on all samples, polarising
    microscopic petrography, mineral chemistry by SEM-EDX and PGNAA bulk chemical analyses were used on
    selected representative artefacts. The entire artefacts were analysed by non destructive methods only. We used a
    completely non-destructive SEM-EDX method, which is absolutely new developing in the analyses of polished
    stone tools.
    As regards the raw materials the majority of the artefacts were made from the late Cretaceous fine grained dyke
    or subvolcanic alkaline magmatic rocks of the closely Mecsek Mountains. Although a few alkaline magmatic
    rock samples come from ulterior localities. The provenance of the rare, hainite bearing sodalite phonolite is the
    Moldanubian zone, most probably ®elenický Vrch. There is relatively high amount of greenschists-metabasitescontact
    metabasites which have high varieties. We could identify Felsőcsatár, Pezinok and ®elezn? Brod types
    amongst them while one of them presumably derived from the Engadin tectonic window of the Western Alps. The
    majority of the grindstone raw materials derived from the Permian red sandstones of the Balaton Highland.
    Other raw materials are represented by few pieces only: basanite, serpentinite, milonite, siltstone, volcanoclastic
    siltstone, limestone and quartzite.
    We found connection between the Korinek-collection and the samples from Diósviszló excavation site.
    Regarding the raw materials of the collection and the excavation site the alkaline magmatic rock types are very
    similar and two artefacts types made of sandstone are completely identical.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Olah2013_1,
      author = {Oláh István, Ligner Jácint, BendHo) Zsolt, Szakmány György, Szilágyi Veronika},
      title = {Különösen gazdag kHo)balta és csiszolt kHo)eszköz leletegyüttes elHo)zetes vizsgálati eredményei Diósviszlóról / Preliminary results on a unique collection of axes and polished stone tools from Diósviszló},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1},
      pages = {67-82},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_1/AM-13-01-OI.pdf}
    }
    
    Ono and Yamada
    Ono, Akira & Yamada, Masayoshi
    The Upper Palaeolithic of the Japanese Islands: an overview / A japán szigetek felső paleolitikuma: rövid áttekintés 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(4), pp. 219-228 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    This paper focuses on general outline of the Upper Palaeolithic in the Japanese Islands with an introduction of
    characteristic features of early use of obsidian in the early Upper Palaeolithic. A brief historical sketch of
    archaeological heritage management and chronological summaries of human history developed in the Islands
    from the Palaeolithic through to the foundation of ancient state periods also introduced for better understanding
    of background of Japanese archaeology. The time range of the Upper Palaeolithic in the Islands estimated as ca.
    40ka to 16ka by calibrated radiocarbon dates. The emergence of pottery in Japanese Islands date back as early
    as in ca. 15ka, therefore, incipient Jomon period began within the Late Glacial. Obsidian procurement in the
    early Upper Palaeolithic emerged in ca. 38,000 cal BP. The beginning of obsidian procurement evaluated as
    one of the indication of concrete evidence of modern human dispersal to the Japanese Islands from the Asian
    mainland through Korean Peninsula, with Edge-ground stone adzes. These two elements of cultural phenomena
    indicate an independent creation caused by modern humans.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ono&Yamada2012_4,
      author = {Ono, Akira and Yamada, Masayoshi},
      title = {The Upper Palaeolithic of the Japanese Islands: an overview / A japán szigetek felső paleolitikuma: rövid áttekintés},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {4},
      pages = {219-228},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_4/AM-12-04-AO&MY.pdf}
    }
    
    Oravecz and Józsa
    Oravecz, Hargita & Józsa, Sándor
    A Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum újkőkori és rézkori csiszolt kőeszközeinek régészeti és kőzettani vizsgálata / Archaeological and petrographic investigation of polished stone tools ... 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(1), pp. 23-47 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This paper deals with the investigation of polished stone tools, both from archaeological and petrographic
    aspects. Altogether 266 stone artefacts from 35 localities were studied from Transdanubia, the North Hungarian
    Mid-Mountain Range and the Great Hungarian Plain, all of them coming from authentic excavations, mainly
    from settlements and partly from graves.
    Hungarian prehistoric research has for long acknowledged the connection between polished stone tools and
    their use on wood, their exact function, however, was not analysed. This article aims at investigating the use of
    the tools partly by typology (the finish of the artefacts), partly, by traces of use-wear. In our opinion, the
    polished stone tools were used mainly for working wood, specialised for one or more operations. Variations can
    be explained by hardness of the wood and precision of work. For small jobs and for fine elaboration of wood
    variations of chisels, rabots, cutting and carving tools were used while for big enterprises like felling trees,
    production of transporting media, building activities, axes, adzes and hatchets of different size were used. The
    polished stone artefacts had, beside their practical use, both social and ritual function. They could express rank
    (prestige), and serve as a measure of value. This can explain the spread of beautifully worked ornamental tools
    and weapons, made of rare raw materials. On many of the settlements, utilisation of lithic materials had an
    important role. Some of the artefacts were ?recirculated?, made by re-shaping from previously used tools.
    Most of the stone tools were made of raw materials that cannot be unambiguously identified macroscopically.
    After a primary classification the tools were further analysed petrographically in thin section, and subsequently
    grouped according to their significance and potential in defining source regions. The first group comprised
    magmatic (igneous) rocks and their slightly metamorphic variants, the second group contained rocks of possibly
    ophiolithic origin, the third group was made up of basically sedimentary rocks rich in silica, partly
    metamorphosed. On the basis of the rock groups formed, and their presence on the investigated sites, regions of
    use (districts) were differentiated. In the Zala district, serpentinite, in the Pilis district, andesite and chlorite
    schist-greenschist, in the Borsod district, metaophiolites and metavolcanites - metatuffs, in the Kőrös district,
    metaophiolites, in the Szeged district, sandstone and metaophiolites, in the Tisza district, andesite and
    metaophiolites, in the Tokaj sub-district separated within the latter, sandstone was found to be the dominant
    raw material. These districts were allocated to potential source regions based on the geological build-up of the
    territories in question. According to our studies volcanites, metavolcanites and sandstone were basically used
    locally while rocks of ophiolitic origin could be used for the production of stone tools at a considerable distance
    from the sources.
    BibTeX:
    @article{OraveczJozsa2005,
      author = {Oravecz, Hargita and Józsa, Sándor},
      title = {A Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum újkőkori és rézkori csiszolt kőeszközeinek régészeti és kőzettani vizsgálata / Archaeological and petrographic investigation of polished stone tools ...},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {1},
      pages = {23-47},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_1/AM-2005-1-OH.pdf}
    }
    
    P. Barna et al.
    P. Barna, Judit; Tokai, Zita Mária; Eke, István & Pásztor, Emília
    A késő neolitikus körárkok kutatásának helyzete Zala megyében / Current research on Late Neolithic rondels in Zala county 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(2), pp. 75-88 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    The scientific programme of the research team set up by Balatoni Museum is devoted to explore and study the Prehistoric earthworks of Zala County, Western Hungary which are examined as results of human activity in natural environment and the part they acted in Prehistoric settlement system. About forty ditch systems, among them seven in Zala County, are known in Western-Hungary (Transdanubia) up to date (Table 1, Fig. 1.). They show great variability in both their sites and chronological classification (Fig. 2.). The paper covers the sites referring to the relative chronological order.
    Sormás-Török-földek. Two ditch-systems were revealed in the site. The bigger one (Enclosure No II.) was established by the people of the Sopot culture and it encircled the settlement. The smaller one (Enclosure No I.) is a typical Lengyel-type rondel, dated to the formative phase, a space separated from the ?mundane? part of the settlement (Fig. 3.). The two ditch-systems demonstrate clearly the radical change in space-use as the result of which the domestic and ritual spaces become separated.
    Gétye-Gyomgyáló-lejtős. The geophysical and several field surveys have proved our previous assumption on the existence of a Late Neolithic rondel. Oval ground-plan with four gates and a single ditch with V-shaped cross-section (Fig. 4.) are outlined clearly. The site can be dated to the classical phase of the Lengyel culture.
    Becsehely-Gesztenyési-földek. This roundish, double rondel is only known by field survey and aerial and satellite photos (Fig. 5.). It lies on the alluvial plain of river Mura. Considering its geographical situation this rondel seems to be an exceptional one.
    Bezeréd-Teleki-dűlő II. Our latest discovery is a double rondel lying on the top of a 50 metre high hill (Figs. 6-7.). Geomagnetic survey yielded a well-interpretable picture of details such as palisades accompanying the ditches, gates with semi-circular affixes in front, and ground-plans of buildings inside the rondel. The Bezeréd site extends the northern boundary of the distribution of the rondels fitted with affixes (Fig. 8.).
    Nagykanizsa-Palin-Anyagnyerőhely. The treble, roundish rondel system was situated on the top of a 20 m high sand hill. 5-6 earthen bridges are built to access the interior, free from any archaeological features, some of which have an affix (Fig. 9.) . Earthworks with such additions are mostly concentrated in South-Transdanubia. Numerous finds representing the classical phase of Lengyel culture have been uncovered from the debris of ditches. The importance of the centre is emphasised by unique artefacts relating to ritual activities.
    Balatonmagyaród-Hídvégpuszta. This partly excavated double, oval rondel can be dated to the late phase of the Lengyel culture (Early Copper Age).
    To sum up: as Fig. 10. shows the Transdanubian rondels perfectly follow the argument on the sunrise alignment. The orientations of the gates of the eastern side not only fall in the rising sun arc at the horizon but they even concentrate in a narrow range which signal a collective principle and maybe shared foundation rite. Our future plan is to extend the area to be investigated to the micro-region of Zalapáti-hát where more than half of the currently known rondels lie.
    Kivonat
    A Balatoni Múzeum által létrehívott kutatócsoport Zala megye őskori földműveinek vizsgálatára alakult. Célunk a földművek, mint mesterséges tájformáló jelenségek természeti környezetükben való komplex, több szempontú tanulmányozása, ill. az őskori településhálózatban betöltött szerepük vizsgálata.
    Ma mintegy negyven késő neolitikus (az i.e. V. évezred első felére keltezhető) árokrendszert ismerünk a Dunántúlon, közülük Zala megyében jelenleg hat lelőhelyről összesen hét létesítményt. Ezek mind alaprajzi variációikat, mind pedig kronológiai helyzetüket tekintve meglehetősen változatosak. A tanulmány relatív kronológiai helyzetük szerint, az idősebbtől a fiatalabb felé haladva ismerteti röviden a lelőhelyeket: Sormás-Török-földek, Gétye-Gyomgyáló-lejtős, Becsehely-Gesztenyési-földek, Bezeréd-Teleki-dűlő, Nagykanizsa-Palin-Anyagnyerőhely és Balaton-magyaród-Hídvégpuszta.
    Eddigi tapasztalataink alapján úgy véljük, hogy Zala megye területe számos lehetőséget kínál a késő neolitikus körárkok tanulmányozására. Távlati terveink között szerepel a kutatás volumenének kiterjesztése a Zalapáti-hát egészére, mivel a jelenleg ismert zalai körárkos lelőhelyek közel fele ezen a kistájon fekszik. Lelőhelyeink részletesebb vizsgálata nem csak a körárkoknak a településhálózatban beöltött szerepével, ill. kialakulásukkal és fejlődésükkel kapcsolatban hozhat új eredményeket, hanem a körárkok funkciójának jobb megértéséhez is hozzájárulhatnak (pl.: a bezerédi körárok belsejében mutatkozó nagyméretű épületek mibenlétének tisztázása révén). A dunántúli körárkok adatai tökéletesen alátámasztják a napfelkeltéhez való tájolás elméletét. A keleti kapuk tájolása nem csupán beleesik a felkelő nap horizonton kirajzolt ívébe, hanem azon belül is szűk határok közt koncentrálódnak, ami egy közös kitűzési elvre, esetleg közös alapítási rítusra utal.
    BibTeX:
    @article{PBarna&al2015_2,
      author = {P. Barna, Judit and Tokai, Zita Mária and Eke, István and Pásztor, Emília},
      title = {A késő neolitikus körárkok kutatásának helyzete Zala megyében / Current research on Late Neolithic rondels in Zala county},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {2},
      pages = {75-88},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_2/AM-2015-2-PBJ.pdf}
    }
    
    P. Fischl et al.
    P. Fischl, Klára; Kienlin, Tobias L. & Tugya, Beáta
    Bronze Age settlement research in North-Eastern Hungary / Bronzkori településkutatások Északkelet-Magyarországon 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(2), pp. 117-134 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    In this paper we want to provide a brief introduction to our current research on the Early to Middle Bronze Age (Hatvan to Füzesabony period) settlement sites in the Borsod plain of North-eastern Hungary. Our work is based on intensive archaeological surface survey, aerial photography, topographical measurements and magnetometer survey that provide important data both on the intra and off-site level. With the results obtained so far, it is possible to provide a much more nuanced picture of both the internal structure of the tell and tell-like Bronze Age sites of our study area and their development through time than was hitherto possible. As an example of the ongoing research we will discuss some results of our work at the site of Tiszabábolna-Fehérlótanya including the surface finds, magnetometry and archaeozoological results.
    Auszug
    Nach einem kurzen Überblick über die methodischen Grundlagen des BORBAS Projektes (Borsod Region Bronze Age Settlements) wird in diesem Beitrag der Kenntnisstand zur früh- und mittelbronzezeitlichen Besiedlung (Hatvan- und Füzesabony-Periode) der Borsod-Ebene in Nordostungarn dargestellt. Neue Forschungsergebnisse im Rahmen des BORBAS Projektes erlauben es, ein differenzierteres Bild des Aufbaus der einzelnen Siedlungen und ihrer Entwicklung im Laufe der Zeit zu entwerfen als dies bislang möglich war. Als Fallbeispiel dient uns die Ansiedlung von Tiszabábolna-Fehérlótanya. Die Ergebnisse der nicht-invasiven Prospektionsarbeiten und der archäozoologischen Untersuchungen werden kurz vorgestellt.
    Kivonat
    A BORBAS Projekt (Borsod Region Bronze Age Settlements) módszertani alapjainak rövid bemutatása után a dolgozat a Borsodi síkság (Északkelet-Magyarország) korai és középső bronzkori településeinek (hatvani és füzesabonyi időszak) vizsgálata során nyert legújabb kutatási eredmények rövid összefoglalása. Ezen eredmények alapján az egyes települések felépítéséről és fejlődéséről, egymáshoz való viszonyukról sokkal részletesebb kép bontakozik ki, mint eddig ismert volt. Esettanulmányként Tiszabábolna ? Fehérló-tanya lelőhely roncsolásmentes kutatásainak elemzésére kerül sor, részletes archaeozoológiai értékeléssel.
    BibTeX:
    @article{PFischl&al2015_2,
      author = {P. Fischl, Klára and Kienlin, Tobias L. and Tugya, Beáta},
      title = {Bronze Age settlement research in North-Eastern Hungary / Bronzkori településkutatások Északkelet-Magyarországon},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {2},
      pages = {117-134},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_2/AM-2015-2-FK.pdf}
    }
    
    Pataki
    Pataki, Bernadeth
    Könyvismertetés / Book review: Z. Maxim, Diana Bindea, Luminiţa Săsăran (szerk.): Archeometrie în România, III. kötet 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(1), pp. 105 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pataki2010_1,
      author = {Pataki, Bernadeth},
      title = {Könyvismertetés / Book review: Z. Maxim, Diana Bindea, Luminiţa Săsăran (szerk.): Archeometrie în România, III. kötet},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {1},
      pages = {105},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_1/AM-10-01-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Patay-Horváth
    Patay-Horváth, András
    Virtual 3D reconstruction of the east pediment of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia - a preliminary report / Előzetes jelentés az olympiai Zeus-templom keleti oromcsoportjának virtuális 3D rekonstrukciójáról 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(1), pp. 19-26 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The arrangement of the five central figures of the east pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olympia has been the
    subject of scholarly debates since the discovery of the fragments more than a century ago. Most recently the
    author has started a project to approach this controversy in a new way, by producing a virtual 3D
    reconstruction of the group. Digital models of the statues are produced by scanning the original fragments and
    by reconstructing them virtually in order to test the feasibility and aesthetic effects of the different
    reconstructions. The present report focuses on the various technical difficulties encountered during the scanning
    campaign in the Archaeological Museum of ancient Olympia and gives an overview of the work in progress.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Patay2010_1,
      author = {Patay-Horváth, András},
      title = {Virtual 3D reconstruction of the east pediment of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia - a preliminary report / Előzetes jelentés az olympiai Zeus-templom keleti oromcsoportjának virtuális 3D rekonstrukciójáról},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {1},
      pages = {19-26},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_1/AM-10-01-PHA.pdf}
    }
    
    Paukovics
    Paukovics, Gergő
    Congenital anomalies of animals in written and pictorial sources / Az állatok veleszületett rendellenességei írott és képi forrásokban 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(4), pp. 243-248 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    Sources concerning various human congenital malformations are well known from early Antiquity to the Modern
    Times, but what about the animals? The first known source is the ©umma izbu, an ancient Mesopotamian
    compendium of around 2,000 teratological omens from 1300 BC. In these texts first descriptions of many
    disorders can be found such as different types of conjoined twinning or polydactyly. Some of these omens appear
    in the Roman Period by Julius Obsequens, Valerius Maximus and Tacitus. The thesis, that the Babylonian-
    Assyrian point of view spread through Asia Minor to the Greeks, and Romans originates from Morris Jastrow jr.
    (1914). The Latin term monstrum reflects the idea, that such phenomena sign some upcoming event to
    demonstrate the will of a deity. We have many more written and pictorial sources from the late Middle Ages
    from Ambroise Paré, Thomas Bartholinus and Ulisse Aldrovandi. The scarcity of comparable archaeological
    materials can be answered with four reasons:
    1. Minor anomalies on the bones are hard to detect in the animal.
    2. Many major abnormalities resulted in the animal?s perinatal death. In this stage of development the bones are
    poorly mineralized, resulting a rapid dissolution.
    3. Many inherited deformities affected the soft tissue, nearly always missing from archaeological materials.
    4. Malformed stillborns were often fed to the dogs or thrown into rivers.
    Kivonat
    Az emberi torzszülöttekről számos forrás ismert az ókortól napjainkig, de vajon mi a helyzet az állatokkal? Az
    első ismert forrás a ©umma izbu, egy i.e. XIV. századi mezopotámiai jóslatgyűjtemény, amely nagyjából 2000
    teratológiai óment tartalmaz. Ezek az eddig ismert első írásos emlékek olyan születési rendellenességekről, mint
    például a polydactylia, vagy a sziámi ikerség különböző formái. Ezek a jóslatok a római korban Julius
    Obsequens, Valerius Maximus és Tacitus munkáiban bukkannak fel újra. Morris Jastrow jr.-tól (1914) származik
    az az elmélet, miszerint a babilóniai-asszír szemlélet terjedt tovább kis-ázsiai és görög közvetítéssel Rómába is.
    A latin ?monstrum? terminus azt a hitet tükrözi, hogy egy ritka természeti jelenség olyan eljövendő eseményre
    utal, amelyben majd az isteni akarat megmutatkozik. A középkori babonák háttérbe szorulásával és a humanista
    orvostudomány fejlődésével többek között Thomas Bartholinus, Ulisses Aldrovandi vagy Ambroise Paré
    hatására egyre több olyan tudományos igényű mű született, amelyek képi ábrázolásokkal gazdagították az
    esetleírásokat. A forrásokkal összehasonlítható régészeti leletanyag hiánya négy pontban összegezhető:
    1. A kisebb elváltozásokat nehéz azonosítani.
    2. A nagyobb-fokú kóros elváltozások miatt a perinatális időszakban az állat elpusztul. Mivel ezen a fejlődési
    szinten a csontok mineralizációja még kezdeti stádiumban van, azok hamar feloldódnak a talajban.
    3. Sok rendellenesség csak a lágyszöveteket érinti, ami szintén hamar elbomlik, így régészeti anyagban
    legtöbbször nem található meg.
    4. A torz újszülötteket gyakran vetették állatok elé, vagy dobták őket folyóba.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Paukovics2013_4,
      author = {Paukovics, Gergő},
      title = {Congenital anomalies of animals in written and pictorial sources / Az állatok veleszületett rendellenességei írott és képi forrásokban},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {4},
      pages = {243-248},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_4/AM-13-04-PG.pdf}
    }
    
    Perhoč
    Perhoč, Zlatko
    Sources of chert for prehistoric lithic industries in Middle Dalmatia / Adatok Közép-Dalmácia őskori kőeszközeinek nyersanyag-forrásaihoz: kovakőzetek 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(3), pp. 45-56 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This contribution presents an overview of chert outcrops in Middle Dalmatia. It is a result of outcrop
    prospection and macroscopic analysis of cherts from the region, in the course of which a comparative collection
    of geological samples and a respective data base were formed. Middle Dalmatia is a part of the outer Dinaric
    Range, finally shaped by orogenesis during the Neogene, and acquiring recent maritime character since the end
    of Pleistocene. Lithologically, the region is built of carbonate rocks that were deposited continuously from
    Jurassic until Paleogene. Primary chert outcrops that appear within those rocks throughout the region are from
    Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and (most often) Paleogene, with secondary accumulations formed during the
    Quaternary Period. This overview presents results of the first phase of long-term research, aimed at correlating
    archaeological lithic inventories to regional sources of lithic raw material.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Perhoc2009_3,
      author = {Perhoč, Zlatko},
      title = {Sources of chert for prehistoric lithic industries in Middle Dalmatia / Adatok Közép-Dalmácia őskori kőeszközeinek nyersanyag-forrásaihoz: kovakőzetek},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {3},
      pages = {45-56},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_3/AM-09-03-ZP.pdf}
    }
    
    Persaits et al.
    Persaits, Gergő; Farkas, Csilla & Pap, Ildikó Katalin
    Késő vaskori (kelta), koraközépkori és kora-árpád-kori őrlőkövek fitolitelemzése (Vas megye, Magyarország) / Phytolith analysis of grinding stones from the Iron Age, Early Middle and Arpadian Ages 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(3), pp. 215-226 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Phytolith analysis is already an important method in geoarchaeological researches in Hungary. We analysed
    millstones from late Iron Age and early Middle Ages from two different sites (Kemenespálfa-Zsombékos,
    Celldömölk-Vulkánfürdő). We should like to know what kind of plants formed the grown plants by the analysis of
    the cereal phytoliths sticked on the surface of millstones derive from formerly milled seeds. Altogether 20
    millstone-fragments were analysed from 12 different archaeological features. In case of the late Iron Age
    samples einkorn (Triticum monococcum) phytoliths were dominant (Kemenespálfa-Zsombékos) as well as
    emmer (Triticum dicoccum). Samples derive from the Middle Ages contained only common wheat (Triticum
    aestivum) phytoliths to such a degree that in Celldömölk-Vulkánfürdő site we could not clearly identify any other
    sort of cereals. It is maybe because of the phytolith-loss during the secondary utilisation of millstones (building
    stones). So the phytolith analysis of millstones can be very effective if we can collect quickly deposited stones
    without secondary usage.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Persaits2010_3,
      author = {Persaits, Gergő and Farkas, Csilla and Pap, Ildikó Katalin},
      title = {Késő vaskori (kelta), koraközépkori és kora-árpád-kori őrlőkövek fitolitelemzése (Vas megye, Magyarország) / Phytolith analysis of grinding stones from the Iron Age, Early Middle and Arpadian Ages},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {3},
      pages = {215-226},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_3/AM-10-03-PG.pdf}
    }
    
    Pető
    Pető, Ákos
    A fitolitkutatás szerepe az őskörnyezettanban / The role of phytolit research in palaeoecological reconstructions 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(2), pp. 15-30 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The present paper is based on the presentation held on 31st March 2009 at the Hungarian National Museum on
    a workshop entitled "Archaeology ? Geology - Pedology ? how far have we got with palaeoecological
    reconstructions?? organised by the Archaeometry Workshop. Following paper intends to present the brief
    history and theoretical development of the discipline called phytolith analysis and intends to give a basic
    theoretical background of various methodological aspects, before discussing certain issues and experimental
    relations gained in Hungarian case studies.
    The function of the uppermost Earth cover ? defined as soil ? is multifarious. Besides being the most important
    medium for crop cultivation and buffer of contaminations, it shelters the ?memories? of human history in the
    form of many different phenomena. Not only macrofossils or archaeological findings transmit information on
    how people managed their environment, but microscopic remains formed in and by living organisms are
    equipped with notable information package, too.
    Phytolith analysis went through several phases of development during the last two centuries until the most
    important baselines of the discipline evolved. Nowadays these principles are widely used in environmental
    archaeology, palaeoecology and landscape studies. Tracing the development of the discipline provides useful
    lessons for all of those applying the method in environmental studies.
    During the building of a soil-phytolith database, a wooded pasture in the Bakony Mountains was selected as a
    target area too conduct controll studies for the further development of the reference database. An ecological
    classification system was used to conduct the analysis of the target area, which was once densily covered by
    decidous forest. Environmental change classified by ?forest ? ploughland ? wooded pasture? was underlined by
    the results of the controll Luvisol profile.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Peto2009,
      author = {Pető, Ákos},
      title = {A fitolitkutatás szerepe az őskörnyezettanban / The role of phytolit research in palaeoecological reconstructions},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {2},
      pages = {15-30},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_2/AM-09-02-PA.pdf}
    }
    
    Pető et al.
    Pető, Ákos; Kenéz, Árpád; Baklanov, Szandra & Ilon, Gábor
    Komplex archaeobotanikai vizsgálatokra alapozott objektumon belüli térhasználat-elemzés. Módszertani esettanulmány Győr?Ménfőcsanak, Széles-földek lelőhelyről / A complex archaeobotanical approach in the spatial analysis of determing activity areas. A methodological case study from Győr?Ménfőcsanak, Széles-földek archaeological site 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(3), pp. 173-204 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In addition to the archaeological interpretation of artefacts, the scientific analysis of soil samples ? collected
    systematically and with required precision ? is also an adequate method for defining activity areas within a site
    or even within an archaeological feature. The spatial distribution of data stored in the form of chemical and
    physical parameters, and plant or animal remains in the soil reflect the economic life and the everyday customs
    of ancient cultures. This paper presents the results of an integrated archaeobotanical analyses conducted on 68
    samples collected systematically during the excavation of two features (houses) at the site of Győr?
    Ménfőcsanak?Széles-földek. The samples represent a Celtic and a Roman period indigenous building/house.
    Samples were collected in 50×50 cm quadrats laid on the surface of the buildings. We attempted to demonstrate
    possible differences between the use of inner space of the two features by the methods of macro-floral and
    phytolith analyses. The identified micro and macro-archaeobotanical remains found within the archaeological
    features imply that a large amount of plant material connected to cereals (stem, leaf, glume, spike fragment,
    cereal grain fragment) was stored inside the buildings. The overall interpretation of the distribution pattern
    projected on the floor levels, and the spatial evaluation of the data enabled us to put forward hypotheses
    regarding the use of inner space. While it was not possible to determine unequivocal differences of spatial use of
    the inner space of the Roman period indigenous feature (129/4645), two distinct spatial sections could be
    observed in the case of the Celtic feature (127/5111). It is supposed that the examined buildings were used for
    hay or straw storage, dung depots or utilised as (littered) barns, possibly for caprovines. Based on the presence
    of graphite fragments in the flotation material and the possible presence of dung and straw material, it might
    also be imagined that the inner space of these building were in close connection with ceramic production.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Peto_et_al2012_3,
      author = {Pető, Ákos and Kenéz, Árpád and Baklanov, Szandra and Ilon, Gábor},
      title = {Komplex archaeobotanikai vizsgálatokra alapozott objektumon belüli térhasználat-elemzés. Módszertani esettanulmány Győr?Ménfőcsanak, Széles-földek lelőhelyről / A complex archaeobotanical approach in the spatial analysis of determing activity areas. A methodological case study from Győr?Ménfőcsanak, Széles-földek archaeological site},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {3},
      pages = {173-204},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_3/AM-12-03-PA.pdf}
    }
    
    Piatničková
    Piatničková, Kristina
    Current State of Reserach on the Bükk Culture in Slovakia / A Bükki kultúra kutatásának aktuális helyzete Szlovákiában 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(4), pp. 237-248 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This article presents a short review on the state of research regarding Bükk Culture in Slovakia. Results of the
    field surveys and excavations within the last few decades are specifically considered. After the first Slovak
    summary on the subject written by J. Lichardus in 1974 it was S. ©iąka who dealt with the particular questions of
    the Bükk Culture in Slovakia. On the basis of some differences observed on the pottery, associated with the
    diverse cultural background, the same author described the ?eastern type of the Bükk Culture? and suggested
    the possibility of the existence of two groups ? the ?western? and ?eastern? ones. Their geographical extension
    could be synchronized more or less with the ?Eastern-? and ?Western? Upper Tisza Region cultural circles of
    the previous Eastern Linear Pottery Culture. The turning point in the knowledge of the discussed culture was
    due to the excavations on several very important sites as in the East Slovak Plain as well as in other parts of the
    settlement area in Slovakia.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Piatnickova2010_4,
      author = {Piatničková, Kristina},
      title = {Current State of Reserach on the Bükk Culture in Slovakia / A Bükki kultúra kutatásának aktuális helyzete Szlovákiában},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {4},
      pages = {237-248},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_4/AM-10-04-KP.pdf}
    }
    
    Pintér
    Pintér, Farkas
    Az izotópgeokémia alkalmazása az archeometriai kerámiavizsgálatokban / Isotope geochemistry in the archaeomertical ceramic analysis 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(2), pp. 46-50 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Radiogenic isotope geochemistry is a widely used analytical method among geochemical analyses. Radiogenic
    isotopes are mostly used for radiogenic dating of minerals and rocks, they can also be used as tracers (e.g.
    87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, etc.) in characterisation of geological regimes, rocks, and areas.
    The radiogenic isotopes can also be successfully applied in the research of siliciclastic sediments. These mostly
    clayey sediments, which were used as raw materials of the pottery production, also bear the radiogenic isotope
    geochemical properties of the rocks of an orogenic region from which they derived due to alteration and
    sedimentation processes. Therefore radiogenic isotope ratios of the ceramics can provide valuable information
    about the origin of raw materials, and thus directly about the provenance of the artefacts.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pinter2005a,
      author = {Pintér, Farkas},
      title = {Az izotópgeokémia alkalmazása az archeometriai kerámiavizsgálatokban / Isotope geochemistry in the archaeomertical ceramic analysis},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {2},
      pages = {46-50},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_2/AM-2005-2-PF.pdf}
    }
    
    Pintér
    Pintér, Farkas
    Magyarországi műemléki kőanyagok kataszterezésének lehet?sége a gerecsei "vörös márvány" példáján bemutatva / Possibilities of catalogueing prominent building and decorative stones from Hungary, presented on the examble of "Red marble" 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(3), pp. 07-12 
    article URL 
    Abstract: For the comprehensive categorisation of building materials of important Hungarian historic monuments no overall issue has yet come into existence. Based on the experience of monument protection the existence of such building stone catalogue would be very useful for several organisations and experts dealing with monument protection in Hungary. The presentation of rock-types would be based on different Hungarian historic monuments. The collection would contain the following data: geological, petrographic, macro- and microscopic characterisation and physical properties of different rock types, ancient and working quarries, description of typical weathering phenomena, presentation of useable cleaning and conservation methods, etc. The printed version should be completed with a dynamically developing electronic database which will contain the list of the Hungarian monuments made of different rock types. The selection of the monuments will be based on archaeological and art historical data (from the Roman Age until the middle of the 19th century), the processing of the stone material will be based on geological criteria.
    The catalogue will be mainly useful for architects, art historians, archaeologists, and conservators, but it can contain valuable information for geologists as well.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pinter2005b,
      author = {Pintér, Farkas},
      title = {Magyarországi műemléki kőanyagok kataszterezésének lehet?sége a gerecsei "vörös márvány" példáján bemutatva / Possibilities of catalogueing prominent building and decorative stones from Hungary, presented on the examble of "Red marble"},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {3},
      pages = {07-12},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_3/AM-2005-3-PF.pdf}
    }
    
    Pintér et al.
    Pintér, Farkas; Bajnóczi, Bernadett; Tóth, Mária & Weber, Johannes
    Törökkori hidraulikus vakolatok és habarcsok a Budapesti Császár-fürdőből / Hydraulic mortars and plasters of the Ottoman Császár Bath (Budapest) 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(1), pp. 75-80 
    article URL 
    Abstract: During the recent restoration of the Ottoman part of the Császár Bath in Budapest, dated back to the 16th
    century, brick-lime plasters and mortars of different colours (white, pink, and red) were identified in the interior.
    Archaeometric study of brick-lime plasters and mortars aimed at determining their composition, hydraulic
    properties as well as to reveal the preparation technology. In the brick-lime mixtures, commonly used in the
    Ottoman times for several water-resistant building constructions (e.g. baths), brick fragments and brick dust
    play a role as pozzolanas (latent hydraulic aggregates) in the formation of the hydraulic character of mortars
    and plasters. Preliminary results indicate that the lime used for producing mortars and plasters also had
    hydraulic properties. The high Si content of the limy matrix, zoned ?lime lumps? containing high amount of Si,
    silicate grains with Ca-rich diffusion rims and the card-house microstructure of the matrix suggest that the lime
    was produced by calcination of impure limestone (i.e. limestone with silicate impurities).
    BibTeX:
    @article{PinterETAL2009,
      author = {Pintér, Farkas and Bajnóczi, Bernadett and Tóth, Mária and Weber, Johannes},
      title = {Törökkori hidraulikus vakolatok és habarcsok a Budapesti Császár-fürdőből / Hydraulic mortars and plasters of the Ottoman Császár Bath (Budapest)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {1},
      pages = {75-80},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_1/AM-09-01-PF.PDF}
    }
    
    Pintér et al.
    Pintér, Farkas; Wacha, Robert; Bajnóczi, Bernadett; Borsodiné Kovács, Magdolna & Tóth, Mária
    Anyagtudomány és műemléki kutatás: középkori habarcsok vizsgálata a felső-ausztriai Prandegg várromából / Materialwissenschaft und Denkmalforschung: untersuchungen an mittelalterlichen Mörteln von der Burgruine Prandegg (Oberösterreich) / Analytical sciences and monument protection: research on mortar from the Mediaeval fortress Prandegg (Upper Austria) 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(1), pp. 1-10 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In frames of the Austro-Hungarian cooperation the texture, microstructure, phase and chemical composition of mortars from
    the Gothic Prandegg castle (Upper Austria) were studied by using several methods including polarizing and
    cathodoluminescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and wet chemical analyses. Based on the
    detailed study of the original mortar the research aimed at preparing a restoration mortar identical or nearly identical to the
    original one in both appearance and characteristics.
    Mortar samples contain high amount of poorly sorted silicate aggregate grains referring to the weathering products of the
    local granite. The binder is porous, shrinkage cracks appear rarely, most probably due to the continuous grain-size
    distribution of aggregates and the high amount of fine fraction. Latent hydraulic slag fragments with Ca-Mg-silica gel and/or
    silicate-hydrate zones on rim were identified in two samples. Despite these features, micro- and wet chemical analyses and
    microstructural observations did not confirm the presumed hydraulic character of the mortars. The heterogeneous, Mg-, Siand
    Al-bearing calcareous binder and lime inclusions (lumps) indicate that carbonate rocks used for lime burning may be
    impure limestones and/or carbonate raw materials with different chemical composition, admixed during lime slaking. The
    results support the earlier assumption that gravels and boulders deposited by the river Enns at its Danube mouth, deriving
    from the Northern Calcareous Alps and serving as raw material for lime burning since the Middle Ages in the lime-poor
    regions north of the Danube, were also used during the construction of the castle.
    BibTeX:
    @article{PinterETAL2012_1,
      author = {Pintér, Farkas and Wacha, Robert and Bajnóczi, Bernadett and Borsodiné Kovács, Magdolna and Tóth, Mária},
      title = {Anyagtudomány és műemléki kutatás: középkori habarcsok vizsgálata a felső-ausztriai Prandegg várromából / Materialwissenschaft und Denkmalforschung: untersuchungen an mittelalterlichen Mörteln von der Burgruine Prandegg (Oberösterreich) / Analytical sciences and monument protection: research on mortar from the Mediaeval fortress Prandegg (Upper Austria)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-10},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_1/AM-12-01-PF.pdf}
    }
    
    Pintér and Zöldföldi
    Pintér, Farkas & Zöldföldi, Judit
    A szombathelyi Isis-szentélyből származó két márványminta eredethatározása stabilizotóp-geokémiai és petrográfiai módszerekkel / Provenancing two marble samples from the Savaria Iseum by stable isotope geochemistry and petrography 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(1), pp. 57-59 
    article URL 
    Abstract: During the restoration work of the roman Isis sanctuary (Szombathely, West Hungary) the question has arisen,
    from where originated the raw material of the entablature. In order to answer this question we used
    petrographic (thin section) and stable isotope geochemical methods. Results were compared to the isotope
    geochemical and petrographic data of ancient marble quarries in south Austria. Results have shown that the
    two marble pieces taken from the entablature of the sanctuary originated from the same marble quarry, which
    was most probably the quarry near Gummern (Carinthia, Austria). This result is also supported by the fact, that
    Gummern was already a well-known marble source in the Roman Ages.
    BibTeX:
    @article{PinterZoeldfoeldiETAL2005,
      author = {Pintér, Farkas and Zöldföldi, Judit},
      title = {A szombathelyi Isis-szentélyből származó két márványminta eredethatározása stabilizotóp-geokémiai és petrográfiai módszerekkel / Provenancing two marble samples from the Savaria Iseum by stable isotope geochemistry and petrography},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {1},
      pages = {57-59},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_1/AM-2005-1-PF.pdf}
    }
    
    Piros
    Piros, Réka Ágnes
    Egy ?magyarországi?, préselt aranyozott ezüstlemezes leletegyüttes röntgenfluoreszcens vizsgálatának előzetes eredményeiről és a lehetséges problémákról / The preliminarily results from the XRF analysis of a pressed, gilded silversheeted assemblage... 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(3), pp. 189-194 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In this paper we introduce the preliminary results of the archaeometrical investigation of 4th?5th centuries AD harnesses of the Vor- und Frühgeschichte Museum in Berlin. The assemblage was originated from Hungary and included a pair of axe shaped bronze/copper pendant from the bridle, covered with pressed, gilded silver plaque, as well as one piece of spoke-shaped horse bit with the similar type of ornamentation. This material was the subject of our investigation, focused on the way of the ornamentation, which can bring us closer to the problem of approximate determination of the analogies, provenance and the cultural effects that might have had an influence on the objects. To find out, we carried out a non-destructive element analysis with a Bruker?s XRF Tracer. According to the first results, some new information is available and a few earlier opinions can be refined.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Piros2015_3,
      author = {Piros, Réka Ágnes},
      title = {Egy ?magyarországi?, préselt aranyozott ezüstlemezes leletegyüttes röntgenfluoreszcens vizsgálatának előzetes eredményeiről és a lehetséges problémákról / The preliminarily results from the XRF analysis of a pressed, gilded silversheeted assemblage... },
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {3},
      pages = {189-194},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_3/AM-2015-3-PRA.pdf}
    }
    
    Prud?ncio
    Prud?ncio, M. Isabel
    NAA applied to heterogeneous lithic archaeological artefacts - difficulties and advantages for provenance establishment / Neutronaktivációs analízis alkalmazása régészeti kőanyagon ? eredmények és problémák a származási hely azonosítás vizsgálatokban 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(4), pp. 243-248 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a sensitive, precise and accurate technique, and allows obtaining simultaneously the concentration of a large number of chemical elements. The small amount of sample required for INAA is a huge advantage when dealing with Cultural Heritage materials. Nevertheless the chemical results obtained for these small samples analyzed must be representative of the object, which becomes difficult when dealing with heterogeneous materials like chert. INAA applied to very small flakes of the core from the same chert artefact has shown to be a promising methodology to identify chemical fingerprints contributing to the establishment of provenance and human mobility in ancient times.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Prudencio2015_4,
      author = {Prud?ncio, M. Isabel},
      title = {NAA applied to heterogeneous lithic archaeological artefacts - difficulties and advantages for provenance establishment / Neutronaktivációs analízis alkalmazása régészeti kőanyagon ? eredmények és problémák a származási hely azonosítás vizsgálatokban},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {4},
      pages = {243-248},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_4/AM-2015-4-IP.pdf}
    }
    
    Pusztai
    Pusztai, Tamás
    Középkori emlékek roncsolás mentes kutatása Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén megyében / Non-destructive study of Mediaeval sites in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County, Hungary 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(2), pp. 151-162 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    The non-destructive investigations of mediaeval relics in the territory of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county show a distinctive pattern. Always present, we can observe a trend for spotting archaeological sites, find the limits of the archaeologically viable areas and where to plant excavations proper. At the same time there is a tendency to gather information not necessarily with an eye on potential excavations. In these instances, the geophysical observations, aerial photography, LIDAR etc. applications appear as an independent branch of settlement studies of non-destructive character. This type of research is basically independent of financial background for archaeological excavations and the scale of interest is also different from, even large surface, excavations. The aim of these studied is to create an information system by overlaying 4-6 layers of analysis on specific site types. Though we shall hardly have the fortunate chance to create a unified information system on all Mediaeval settlements of the county ? partly, because the current settlement pattern can overlap with the former system, and the coverage of the former sites is widely different ? we can still create reasonable systems for analyses to be considered together. This system is based on archaeological sources which can fruitfully complement other micro-regional interpretations like the one presented by András Kubinyi, based on, mainly, written historical records.
    Kivonat
    A középkori emlékek Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén megye területén végzett roncsolás mentes vizsgálati módszerei alkalmazásának terén egy igen határozott folyamatot figyelhetünk meg. Mindvégig jelen van az az irány, amikor e lehetőségeket arra használjuk, hogy meghatározzuk, hol van régészeti lelőhely, hol vannak a határai, egyáltalán, hol érdemes a későbbiek során régészeti ásatásokat végezni. Ugyanakkor jelentkezett egy másik irány is, ami nem minden esetben kapcsolódik ásatások előkészítéséhez. Itt a geofizikai mérések, légi felvételezések, szisztematikus leletgyűjtés, LIDAR és egyéb más nondestruktív módszerek egymás melletti alkalmazásával, régészeti lelőhelyek sorozatában önálló kutatási irányként jelenik meg a roncsolás mentes vizsgálati csomag alkalmazása. Ez a kutatási irány független attól, hogy van-e elég pénz az ásatásra vagy sem, ugyanis a szempontjai, a kutatási kérdései eltérnek még egy nagyon nagy területre kiterjedő régészeti ásatástól is. A célja, hogy egy adott korszak adott lelőhelytípusáról több, 4?6 vizsgálati réteg alapján egymással összevethető elemekből álló rendszert hozzon létre. Noha olyan szerencsénk soha nem lesz, hogy a megye összes elpusztult középkori települését azonos szempontrendszer szerint vizsgálhassuk, hisz van olyan középkori eredetű településünk, amely ma is lakott, míg van olyan, aminek a területe ma szántóföld, de ki tudunk közülük választani olyan vizsgálati helyszíneket, melyeket e lehetőségek segítségével, egymással összevetve, egy rendszerbe helyezhetjük. Ez a régészeti forrásokon alapuló rendszer, akár egy mikrorégió esetén is, kiegészítheti azt a rendszert, amelyet Kubinyi András Északkelet-Magyarország középkori településhálózatát elemezve, javarészt az írott történeti források alapján, felépített.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pusztai2015_2,
      author = {Pusztai, Tamás},
      title = {Középkori emlékek roncsolás mentes kutatása Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén megyében / Non-destructive study of Mediaeval sites in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County, Hungary},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {2},
      pages = {151-162},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_2/AM-2015-2-PT.pdf}
    }
    
    Pánczél-Bajnok et al.
    Pánczél-Bajnok, Katalin; Pánczél, Péter; Szakmány, György & Vida, Tivadar
    5-6. századi, Pannonia területéről származó kerámiák archeometriai elemzése / Archeometric analysis of 5?6th century ceramics from Pannonia 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(1), pp. 1-12 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    Our study contains the results of the archaeometrical examination of six archaeological sites from the 5?6th century AD located in the territory of the former province Pannonia (three cemeteries: Kajdacs, Szólád, Tamási; three settlements: Balatonlelle, Ordacsehi, Zamárdi). During our work we mainly used ceramic petrographic analysis, although in some cases (samples from Group 9) we had a chance to carry out cathodoluminescence microscopy (CL) and on one sample (151.1/48.13) electron probe microanalysis (SEM-EDX) as well. The main aim of this study is to give preliminary information on the pottery technology of this period, focusing on different types of tempering techniques. During the examination 11 groups were defined based on tempering techniques. The most common technique was tempering with limestone fragments (Group 4), which was usually used for various types of pots. The limestone, which was used for these ceramics probably arises from the vicinity of the examined archaeological sites, as well as sand (Group 3), sandstone (Group 5) and quartzite (Group 10) tempering material. Furthermore, there are certain tempering raw materials that may not originate from the direct vicinity of the archaeological sites, such as tempering with marble (Group 8), basalt (Group 6), andesite (Group 7) and metamorphic rock fragments. These raw materials might be defined as import products. Varied types of tempering were observed at each site, and almost every petrographic group contains ceramics from three or more archaeological sites. The different types of tempering are not characteristic of the type of the site i.e. of settlements or cemeteries.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Panczel-Bajnoketal2014_1,
      author = {Pánczél-Bajnok, Katalin and Pánczél, Péter and Szakmány, György and Vida, Tivadar},
      title = {5-6. századi, Pannonia területéről származó kerámiák archeometriai elemzése / Archeometric analysis of 5?6th century ceramics from Pannonia},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-12},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_1/AM-14-01-PBK.pdf}
    }
    
    Péterdi
    Péterdi, Bálint
    Balatonőszöd ? Temetői dűlő rézkori lelőhely homokkő nyersanyagú kőeszközeinek kőzettani és geokémiai vizsgálata / Petrographical and Geochemical investigation of stone tools made of sandstone from the site Balatonőszöd - Temetői dűlő (Hungary) 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(4), pp. 265?286 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The present study reports results of petrographical and geochemical analyses on stone tools from the
    archaeological site Balatonőszöd ? Temetői dűlő (Hungary). Balatonőszöd ? Temetői dűlő is the largest
    excavated and longest-lived site of the Baden Culture in Hungary (more than 20.000 m2). In the site objects of
    the Balaton-Lasinja Culture (Middle Copper Age) and the Boleraz Culture were found too. Altogether 500 finds
    (made of stone) turned up. The present study reports the results of the investigation of 205 finds, all made of
    sandstone. Most of the finds made of sandstone belong to the Baden Culture. Almost all finds made of sandstone
    are grinding stones (on a few of them, traces of mineral paint were noticeable), grinders and polishers, but
    objects whose function is not known, elaborated and non-elaborated fragments, boulders of raw material are
    also in the studied set.
    According to their macroscopic and microscopic features three types of sandstone can be separated among the
    finds. Some of the finds ? because of their intensively weathered state ? could not be grouped to these three types.
    Applying detailed petrographical and geochemical methods as well as comparing published data, I concluded
    that the overwhelming majority (89%) of the sandstones ? red (or bleached, white) sandstones (I type) ? made of
    the Red Sandstone and Aleurolite Member of the Balaton Highland Sandstone Formation, especially from the
    mature type sandstone in which quartz is predominant, and it is almost free of feldspar. This type is
    characteristic of the confines of the Southern Balaton Highland and the lower part of the formation in the
    Northern Balaton Highland. The raw material of a minor part (2.5%) of the red sandstones (II type) originates
    from the sandstones of the Jakabhegy Sandstone Formation (Western Mecsek Mts.). I did not undertake the task
    of locating the source of the raw material of the grey-coloured, mica-rich, sparite-cemented, young sandstones
    (III type, 2.5%) because of the great number of the a geological localities with the same type of sandstone.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Peterdi2012_4,
      author = {Péterdi, Bálint},
      title = {Balatonőszöd ? Temetői dűlő rézkori lelőhely homokkő nyersanyagú kőeszközeinek kőzettani és geokémiai vizsgálata / Petrographical and Geochemical investigation of stone tools made of sandstone from the site Balatonőszöd - Temetői dűlő (Hungary)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {4},
      pages = {265?286},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_4/AM-12-04-PB.pdf}
    }
    
    Péterdi
    Péterdi, Bálint
    Beszámoló a 36. Nemzetközi Archeometriai Szimpóziumról (36th International Symposium on Archaeometry, 2-6 May 2006, Quebec City, Canada) 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(2), pp. 39-40 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Peterdi2006,
      author = {Péterdi, Bálint},
      title = {Beszámoló a 36. Nemzetközi Archeometriai Szimpóziumról (36th International Symposium on Archaeometry, 2-6 May 2006, Quebec City, Canada)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {2},
      pages = {39-40},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_2/AM-2006-2-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Péterdi et al.
    Péterdi, Bálint; Judik, Katalin & Dobosi, Gábor
    Bazaltos lapillitufa anyagú ?rl?kövek k?zettani és geokémiai vizsgálata (Balaton?szöd - Temet?i d?l? lel?hely) / Petrographical and geochemical investigation of grinding stones made of basaltic lapilli tuff (Balaton?szöd - Temet?i d?l? site, Hungary) 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(2), pp. 115-126 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The present study reports results of petrographical and geochemical analyses on grinding stone fragments from the archaeological site Balatonöszöd ? Temetői dűlő (Hungary). Balatonőszöd ? Temetői dűlő is the largest excavated and longest-lived site of the Baden Culture in Hungary (more than 200.000 m2) (Fig. 1.). In the site objects of the Balaton-Lasinja Culture and the Boleraz Culture were found too. Altogether 500 finds (made of stone) turned up, among them 11 finds (grinding stones and their fragments) made of basaltic lapilli tuff.
    Applying detailed petrographical and geochemical methods as well as comparing literary data, We concluded that the raw material of the grinding stones (and fragments of grinding stones and other non-specific fragments) made of basaltic lapilli tuff most probably originate from the young basaltic pyroclastics of the Balaton-Highland and the Little Hungarian Plain, namely from any of the following localities: Hajagos-hill (Diszel), Csobánc, Kereki-hill, Szigliget, Uzsa, pyroclasts cropping out between Bazsi and Tátika.Hajagos-hill (Diszel) and Uzsa have been discussed as possible source for archaeological finds (from the same excavation) made of basaltic material (Péterdi et al. 2011).
    BibTeX:
    @article{PETERDI_2014_2,
      author = {Péterdi, Bálint and Judik, Katalin and Dobosi, Gábor},
      title = {Bazaltos lapillitufa anyagú ?rl?kövek k?zettani és geokémiai vizsgálata (Balaton?szöd - Temet?i d?l? lel?hely) / Petrographical and geochemical investigation of grinding stones made of basaltic lapilli tuff (Balaton?szöd - Temet?i d?l? site, Hungary)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {2},
      pages = {115-126},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_2/AM-14-02-PB.pdf}
    }
    
    Péterdi et al.
    Péterdi, Bálint; Szakmány, György; Bendő, Zsolt; Kasztovszky, Zsolt; T. Biró, Katalin; Gil, Grzegorz; Harsányi, Ildikó; Mile, Viktória & Szilágyi, Szandra
    Possible provenances of nephrite artefacts found on Hungarian archaeological sites (preliminary results) / Magyarországi régészeti lelőhelyeken talált nefrit eszközök és ezek lehetséges származási helye (előzetes eredmények) 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(4), pp. 207-222 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Nephrite is mainly known in prehistoric context as raw material for polished stone tools. It is present among archaeological finds in Hungary only in a few numbers. They are known mostly from Transdanubian archaeological sites.
    The general aim of our investigations is the detailed petrographic and geochemical examination of the nephrite artefacts found on Hungarian sites, and locating the origin of the raw materials. The material was basically investigated by non-destructive methods (PGAA, non-destructive SEM-EDX) to avoid invasive analyses on the complete artefacts. In this study, preliminary results are presented.
    Based on their chemical composition, most of the artefacts measured so far belong to the S-type (serpentinite-related) nephrite deposits.
    On the basis of their microscopic and mineral-chemical features, the artefacts investigated so far can be divided into five raw material types: (1) almost pure tremolite-nephrite with only a few fine grained magnetite or ilmenite grains and some pseudomorphs after pyroxenes; (2) almost pure actinolite-nephrite with only a few very fine grained magnetite or ilmenite grains; (3) almost pure tremolite-nephrite with a few chlorite and some pseudomorphs after pyroxenes; (4) actinolite-nephrite, with chlorite, relict clinopyroxenes (diopside), pseudomorphs after pyroxene, spinels and garnets. Magnetite, limonite, apatite and titanite also occur. There is a typical association of chromite spinel and grossular garnet in this type; (5) actinolite-nephrite ? sometimes also tremolite - with chlorite, relict clinopyroxenes and spinel (chromite), but garnet is missing.
    We have already built a database of the possible nephrite raw material sources of Europe - descriptions and survey data: mineral-, textural- and chemical composition (Péterdi et al., 2014.).
    On the basis of our investigations the most probable raw-material sources are the following: type (1) and (3) belongs to Jordanów, Poland. The provenance of the other types is not so clear, but we have candidates from the Swiss Alps. There is a nephrite type in Jordanów, that looks very similar to type (4), but the main amphibole type is tremolite in all Jordanów samples, while actinolite in the type four artefacts.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Peterdi&al2014_4,
      author = {Péterdi, Bálint and Szakmány, György and Bendő, Zsolt and Kasztovszky, Zsolt and T. Biró, Katalin and Gil, Grzegorz and Harsányi, Ildikó and Mile, Viktória and Szilágyi, Szandra},
      title = {Possible provenances of nephrite artefacts found on Hungarian archaeological sites (preliminary results) / Magyarországi régészeti lelőhelyeken talált nefrit eszközök és ezek lehetséges származási helye (előzetes eredmények)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {4},
      pages = {207-222},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_4/AM-2014-4-PB.pdf}
    }
    
    Péterdi et al.
    Péterdi, Bálint; Szakmány, György; Judik, Katalin & Dobosi, Gábor
    Bazaltos andezit nyersanyagú szarmata szerszámkövek kőzettani és geokémiai vizsgálata (Üllő 5. lelőhely) / Petrographical and geochemical investigation of Sarmatian stone utensils made of basaltic andesite from the site Üllő 5. 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(2), pp. 43-60 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This study reports results of petrographical and geochemical analyses on grinding stones (and fragments of
    grinding stones and other stone stools) from the archaeological site Üllő 5 (Pest County, Hungary). Üllő 5. is
    the largest excavated Sarmatian site: cca. 9000 object on 300000 m2 from the third-fourth century. Altogether
    4133 finds (all made of stone) were surveyed macroscopically, among them 926 grinding stones, millstones,
    fragments of grinding stones and grinders. Most of them (848 pieces) are made from basaltic andesite. The
    present paper reports the investigation of the 848 basaltic andesite finds. After the macroscopical observation of
    the finds; they were grouped and the characteristic samples were further investigated in thin section by
    polarisation microscopy. Additional chemical analyses have been performed. Bulk chemical analysis was
    performed with ICP-ES, ICP-MS and with Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA); some samples were
    analysed with electron microprobe analysis (EPMA). (Table 1.)
    To get more information about the provenance of the archaeological finds we gathered and studied andesite
    samples from natural outcrops of the neighbouring volcanic mountains (Börzsöny, Cserhát, Mátra and Karancs
    Mts.). (Table 1., Fig. 1.) The data were compared with data of analyses found in literature consulted. Most of
    the investigated grinding stones are made of andesite. Among them two major macroscopic groups could be
    separated. The microscopic features of the two andesite-types are almost the same. Additional chemical analyses
    have been performed (ICP-ES, ICP-MS, PGAA and EPMA). On the basis of the analyses of the archaeological
    finds and our gathered comparative samples [i.e. macroscopical, microscopical and chemical examinations] the
    basaltic andesite raw materials are originated from the Cserhát Mts.
    BibTeX:
    @article{PeterdiETAL2009,
      author = {Péterdi, Bálint and Szakmány, György and Judik, Katalin and Dobosi, Gábor},
      title = {Bazaltos andezit nyersanyagú szarmata szerszámkövek kőzettani és geokémiai vizsgálata (Üllő 5. lelőhely) / Petrographical and geochemical investigation of Sarmatian stone utensils made of basaltic andesite from the site Üllő 5.},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {2},
      pages = {43-60},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_2/AM-09-02-PB.pdf}
    }
    
    Péterdi et al.
    Péterdi, Bálint; Szakmány, György; Judik, Katalin; Dobosi, Gábor; Kovács, József; Kasztovszky, Zsolt & Szilágyi, Veronika
    Bazalt anyagú csiszolt kőeszközök kőzettani és geokémiai vizsgálata (Balatonöszöd - Temetői dűlő lelőhely) / Petrographical and geochemical investigation of polished stone tools made of basalt from the site Balatonőszöd - Temetői dűlő (Hungary) 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(1), pp. 33-68 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The present study reports results of petrographical and geochemical analyses on polished stone artefacts (stone
    axes etc.) and stone tools from the archaeological site Balatonöszöd ? Temetői dűlő (Hungary). Balatonöszöd ?
    Temetői dűlő is the largest excavated and longest-lived site of the Baden Culture in Hungary (more than 20.000
    m2) (Fig. 1.). In the site objects of the Balaton-Lasinja Culture (Middle Copper Age) and the Boleraz Culture
    were found too. Altogether 500 finds (made of stone) turned up. The present study reports the results of the
    investigation of 204 finds, all made of basalt. Most of the finds made of basalt belong to the Baden Culture.
    Almost all finds made of basalt are stone axes, but most of them are only pre-forms, or fragments, their material
    is weathered. (Handaxes, grinding stones, objects whose function is not known, boulders of raw material and
    cores of shaft-hole axes can also be found.)
    According to their macroscopic and microscopic features (stage of the weathering, mineral composition, texture)
    two type of basaltic rocks can be separated among the finds.
    On the basis of our analyses [i.e. macroscopical, microscopical and chemical examinations (bulk-rock chemistry
    (PGAA, ICP-ES, ICP-MS) and mineral chemistry (EPMA) of olivine, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, iron-titanoxides
    (titanomagnetite), spinel inclusions in olivine, leucite (in the first type of basalt)], compared with data of
    analyses found in the literature consulted, with the help of multivariant dataprocessing ? the basaltic raw
    material of the first type of the archaeological finds is originated most probable from the basaltic rocks of
    Hegyestű. The raw material of the second type of the archaeological finds is mainly similar to the basaltic rocks
    of Haláp and Uzsa (Fig. 20.), but can not be identified with them. Further investigations (i.e. more data of
    mineral chemistry) are needed for safety exclusion of the basaltic rocks of Selmecbánya (Banská Stiavnica,
    Slovakia) (in the case of the first type of the archaeological finds); and Diszel (Hajagoshegy) and Sarata (Muntii
    Persanii, Romania) (in the case of the second type of the archaeological finds). However, we can exclude
    Selmecbánya (Banská Stiavnica, Slovakia) and Sarata (Muntii Persanii, Romania) because of their significant
    distance from the archaeological site.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Peterdi2011_1,
      author = {Péterdi, Bálint and Szakmány, György and Judik, Katalin and Dobosi, Gábor and Kovács, József and Kasztovszky, Zsolt and Szilágyi, Veronika},
      title = {Bazalt anyagú csiszolt kőeszközök kőzettani és geokémiai vizsgálata (Balatonöszöd - Temetői dűlő lelőhely) / Petrographical and geochemical investigation of polished stone tools made of basalt from the site Balatonőszöd - Temetői dűlő (Hungary)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {1},
      pages = {33-68},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_1/AM-11-01-PB.pdf}
    }
    
    Péterdi et al.
    Péterdi, Bálint; T. Biró, Katalin; Tóth, Zoltán; Bertalan, Éva; Horváth, Zsolt; Freiler, Ágnes; Beke, Zsuzsanna & Budai, Ferenc
    Domoszló: őrlő- és malomkő nyersanyagkitermelőhely és műhely a Mátrában: első régészeti elterjedés-vizsgálatok / Domoszló: millstone and quernstone exploitation and workshop site in the Mátra Mts: first studies on archaeological distribution 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(4), pp. 219-236 
    article URL 
    Abstract: A multi-period exploitation site for both millstones and grinding stones is presented here. Located in the Mátra Mountains (NE Hungary), in the village of Domoszló, andesite bombs were locally processed for this purpose. Traces of millstone and grinding stone production were systematically studied by non-invasive documentation techniques. The current work is focussing on petrographical characterisation and first distribution studies. The most important and still open questions concern the full temporal range of operation and the distribution of the products of the Domoszló workshop.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Peterdi_et_al_2016_4,
      author = {Péterdi, Bálint and T. Biró, Katalin and Tóth, Zoltán and Bertalan, Éva and Horváth, Zsolt and Freiler, Ágnes and Beke, Zsuzsanna and Budai, Ferenc},
      title = {Domoszló: őrlő- és malomkő nyersanyagkitermelőhely és műhely a Mátrában: első régészeti elterjedés-vizsgálatok / Domoszló: millstone and quernstone exploitation and workshop site in the Mátra Mts: first studies on archaeological distribution},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {4},
      pages = {219-236},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_4/AM-2016-4-PB.pdf}
    }
    
    Přichystal
    Přichystal, Antonín
    Classification of lithic raw materials used for prehistoric chipped artefacts in general and siliceous sediments (silicites) in particular: the Czech proposal / Javaslat a pattintott kőeszközök készítésére használt kőeszközök osztályozására 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(3), pp. 177-182 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Lithic raw materials for chipped artefacts can be divided into five groups: a) siliceous sediments (silicites); b)
    minerals of SiO2; c) natural glasses; d) clastic silica sediments; e) other rocks. Special attention has been
    devoted to the most important group of siliceous sediments. It is proposed to use one-word term silicite as the
    comprehensive one for all varieties such is chert, flint, spongolite, radiolarite, lydite, limnic silicite. As the flint
    should be called only the silicite originating in Upper Cretaceous chalk (and may be in Lowermost Tertiary ?
    Danian limestones). Typical feature of silicites is a presence of microfossils in contradiction to minerals of SiO2
    that include quartz, rock crystal, chalcedony, opal and their coloured varieties (smoky quartz, citrine, jasper,
    agate etc.) and occur as filling of cavities in igneous rocks, hydrothermal veins or products of intensive
    weathering. Natural glasses suitable for chipping are represented by obsidian, pitchstone and tektites. Clastic
    (detrital) silica rocks are composed especially of quartz or chert clasts and incorporate quartz sandstones,
    orthoquartzites and chert breccias. The group of other rocks comprises for example porcellanites and hornfelses
    (thermally metamorphosed sediments), silicified woods, fine grained acid volcanics, silicified fossils etc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Prichy2010_3,
      author = {Přichystal, Antonín},
      title = {Classification of lithic raw materials used for prehistoric chipped artefacts in general and siliceous sediments (silicites) in particular: the Czech proposal / Javaslat a pattintott kőeszközök készítésére használt kőeszközök osztályozására},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {3},
      pages = {177-182},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_3/AM-10-03-AP.pdf}
    }
    
    Regenye
    Regenye, Judit
    Celebrating Kati, the friend, colleague and editor / Kati, a barátunk, kollégánk és szerkesztőnk köszöntésére 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(1), pp. 3-8 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Regenye2016_1,
      author = {Regenye, Judit},
      title = {Celebrating Kati, the friend, colleague and editor / Kati, a barátunk, kollégánk és szerkesztőnk köszöntésére},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3-8},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_1/AM-2016-1-RJ.pdf}
    }
    
    Regenye
    Regenye, Judit
    A vizsgálandó közép-dunántúli újkőkori kerámia és környezete/ Neolithic pottery from Transdanubia to be investigated in the framework of the project. 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(2), pp. 16-23 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Transdanubia, strictly speaking the Balaton region played a very important role in the neolithisation of the
    central and western parts of Europe. On the inspiration of the population group that had arrived to Southern
    Transdanubia from the Balkan (Starčevo culture), and the Mesolithic autochthonous population of the Balaton
    region developed a specific Neolithic culture, which spread in an astonishingly short time over the loess areas
    of Europe. This culture is called Linear Pottery culture. The process was going on in the second half of the 6th
    millennium BC.
    The first farming communities lived on the bank of the lake, usually in swampy areas. Their lifestyle preserved
    much from the Mesolithic, farming could be only a supplementary activity. In the developed Neolithic, the
    villages can be found on loess areas next to watercourses or springs where the soil was soft and easy to turn.
    Neolithic period in Hungary coincided with the Atlantic climatic period when warm and humid climate
    dominated in Europe. It was a period rich in forests and waters. Closed, mixed deciduous forests covered the
    land, the tiny Neolithic villages composed of a few houses existed as islands in the thick woods. The fields were
    cleared out from the forests beside the villages.
    The cultural impact coming from the south (through delivery of population) happened again at the very
    beginning of the 5th millennium BC. At that time the settlements of the Sopot culture appeared on the scene and
    subsisted for a short time in Transdanubia. On the basis of these influences and on the basis of existing local
    population Lengyel culture emerged, extending over large parts of Central Europe.
    Clusters of settlements were characteristic of both the Linear Pottery culture and the Lengyel culture in the 5th
    millennium BC. The clusters were separated by uninhabited forest zones. The groups shared these forested
    areas, which, at the same time, acted as natural boundaries. There is a characteristic feature that the sites of the
    two cultures are usually not found in the same environment. Both cultures were farming cultures, they cultivated
    the land and bred cattle, both used the same raw material sources but with a different order of importance.
    According to their impact in the archaeological record, cultivation and horticulture were seemingly more
    important for the Linear Pottery culture, while cattle breeding and stone acquisition and processing dominated
    in the Lengyel culture. The sites to be investigated in the framework of the project: Vörs-Máriaasszonysziget
    (Excavation of Cs. M. Aradi 1990., Zs. M. Virág, K. Biró, N. Kalicz). Settlement of the Starčevo culture; Tihany-
    Apáti (Excavation of P. Rainer 2002). Settlement of the Starčevo culture; Kup-Egyes (Excavation of S. Mithay
    1974; K. Biró, J. Regenye 2000-2003). Settlement of the Linear Pottery and the Lengyel culture.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Regenye2005,
      author = {Regenye, Judit},
      title = {A vizsgálandó közép-dunántúli újkőkori kerámia és környezete/ Neolithic pottery from Transdanubia to be investigated in the framework of the project.},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {2},
      pages = {16-23},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_2/AM-2005-2-RJ.pdf}
    }
    
    Ringer et al.
    Ringer, István; Barkóczy, Péter & Kovács, Árpád
    A sárospataki ágyúöntő műhely régészeti kutatása és a régészeti leletanyag metallurgiai vizsgálata / Archaeological Research of the Sárospatak Gun Foundry and the Metallurgical Study of the Finds 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(4), pp. 351?370 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The Rákóczi Museum of the Hungarian National Museum revealed a cannon casting foundry in the territory of
    the castle of Sárospatak. The excavation started at the summer of 2006. A great amount of findings revealed
    from the metallurgical, alloying and casting processes of the foundry. The Archaeometallurgical Research
    Group of the University of Miskolc examines the microstructure and the chemical composition of these findings.
    The aim of this research work to complete the knowledge of the contemporary literature, and reconstruct the
    technological processes of the foundry. In this article the current status of the examination is introduced.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ringeretal2011_4,
      author = {Ringer, István and Barkóczy, Péter and Kovács, Árpád},
      title = {A sárospataki ágyúöntő műhely régészeti kutatása és a régészeti leletanyag metallurgiai vizsgálata / Archaeological Research of the Sárospatak Gun Foundry and the Metallurgical Study of the Finds},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {4},
      pages = {351?370},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_4/AM-11-04-RI.pdf}
    }
    
    Ruggeri
    Ruggeri, Anna
    Építő és díszítő kövek megóvása és konzerválása eredeti környezetben. Előzetes eredmények a nagyharsányi római villa műemléki kőzettani kutatásából / Preservation and conservation of building and decorative stones from excavation context. 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(3), pp. 49-52 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The Nagyharsány Roman villa is one of the finest that came to light in Hungarian territory. The first archaeological
    surveys and excavations were started in 1959 by László Papp and continued later by Ferenc Fülep in the 1960?s and
    1980?s. A new research project was started in 2006, including petrographic studies of materials, with a purpose of
    preservation in situ. Aerial photographs helped to provide an estimation of the real dimensions and disposition of
    different annexed units.
    The villa was built during the 2nd/3rd century AD on the place of a former Roman settlement and it has been
    continuously occupied till the 5th century. Rich decorative elements like mural paintings and mosaics have been found
    and are included in the petrographic investigation. Restoring interventions on wall?s remains have been executed
    during 1980?s using local building stone and modern mortar.
    The aims of the present project is to try to identify the origin of the used materials and provide conservation?s
    guidelines, starting from a detailed petrographic description of materials. Three different fieldworks and samplings
    have been performed from the villa during last months, collecting a total of 50. 10 samples have been taken from rich
    decorative elements found in the villa during excavations; these include 4 samples from mural paintings and 6 from
    mosaic tesserae.
    Petrographic and mineralogical investigations have been already conducted on some of those samples, also supported
    by X ray diffraction analysis. Further samplings, relative petrographic studies and possible comparisons with Italian
    Roman sites will enrich the study, in order to better understand materials used by Romans in Pannonia and their
    decay.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ruggeri2007,
      author = {Anna Ruggeri},
      title = {Építő és díszítő kövek megóvása és konzerválása eredeti környezetben. Előzetes eredmények a nagyharsányi római villa műemléki kőzettani kutatásából / Preservation and conservation of building and decorative stones from excavation context.},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {3},
      pages = {49-52},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_3/AM-07-03-AR.pdf}
    }
    
    Ryzhov et al.
    Ryzhov, Sergej; Stepanchuk, Vadim & Sapozhnikov, Igor
    Raw Material Provenance in the Palaeolithic of Ukraine: State of Problem, Current Approaches and First Results 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(4), pp. 17-25 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The territory of Ukraine is fairly rich in siliceous raw materials though their spatial distribution is uneven. Accordingly to geological data, good quality isotropic rocks suitable for knapping are especially abundant in Transcarpathia, the Dniester valley, North and North-Eastern Ukraine, and Crimea. Though areas of the main concentrations of potential outcrops of raw materials and areas intensively occupied by Palaeolithic man generally coincide, Late Middle and Upper Palaeolithic sites demonstrate somewhat different trends in spatial distribution, and form several geographical groups. The problem of raw material provenance and acquisition is still poorly elaborated not only for the Ukrainian Palaeolithic sites, but for Stone and Aeneolithic Ages, in general. The main problem is the lack of a systematic survey of available sources and further comparisons with archaeological lithic series, both macroscopic and analytical. Pioneering and highly valuable works of V. Petrougne reveal several types of flint resources on the Right-bank Ukraine (areas westwards from Dnieper). Considering the experience of a long-year program on the study of raw material base in adjacent countries, a row of specific characteristics is proposed to be involved in course of the systematic description of either natural outcrops or archaeological assemblages. A special attention is paid to several instances of availability and acquisition of flint resources in a regional context, i.e. Kanev and Zaporizhia areas in the Middle Dnieper, Bolshaia Vys? in Southern Bug basin, and the River Biyuk-Karasu area in Eastern Crimea.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RyzhovETAL2005,
      author = {Ryzhov, Sergej and Stepanchuk, Vadim and Sapozhnikov, Igor},
      title = {Raw Material Provenance in the Palaeolithic of Ukraine: State of Problem, Current Approaches and First Results},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {4},
      pages = {17-25},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_4/AM-2005-4-RYZ.pdf}
    }
    
    Rácz
    Rácz, Béla
    Double interpretation of rock names in the western geological terminology compared to the former Soviet and current Russian-Ukrainian practice; terminological suggestions / Kőzetnevek kettős értelmezése a nyugati és az egykori szovjet, mai orosz-ukrán geológiai szakirodalomban, terminológiai javaslatok 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(3), pp. 203-208 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This paper summarises siliceous rock terminology practice currently in use for the Transcarpathian Regions of
    Ukraine (=Kárpátalja). It is published in full text bilingual form for AM.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Racz2010_3a,
      author = {Rácz, Béla},
      title = {Double interpretation of rock names in the western geological terminology compared to the former Soviet and current Russian-Ukrainian practice; terminological suggestions / Kőzetnevek kettős értelmezése a nyugati és az egykori szovjet, mai orosz-ukrán geológiai szakirodalomban, terminológiai javaslatok},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {3},
      pages = {203-208},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_3/AM-10-03-RBen.pdf}
    }
    
    Rácz
    Rácz, Béla
    Kőzetnevek kettős értelmezése a nyugati és az egykori szovjet, mai orosz-ukrán geológiai szakirodalomban, terminológiai javaslatok / Double interpretation of rock names in the western geological terminology compared to the former Soviet and current Russian-Ukrainian practice; terminological suggestions 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(3), pp. 203-208 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This paper summarises siliceous rock terminology practice currently in use for the Transcarpathian Regions of
    Ukraine (=Kárpátalja). It is published in full text bilingual form for AM.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Racz2010_3b,
      author = {Rácz, Béla},
      title = {Kőzetnevek kettős értelmezése a nyugati és az egykori szovjet, mai orosz-ukrán geológiai szakirodalomban, terminológiai javaslatok / Double interpretation of rock names in the western geological terminology compared to the former Soviet and current Russian-Ukrainian practice; terminological suggestions},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {3},
      pages = {203-208},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_3/AM-10-03-RBhu.pdf}
    }
    
    Rácz
    Rácz, Béla
    Pattintott kőeszköz-nyersanyagok felhasználásának előzetes eredményei a paleolitikumban a mai Kárpátalja területén / Preliminary results of the survey of lithic resources in Transcarpathia, Ukraine 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(2), pp. 47-54 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Transcarpathia has got a lot of paleolithic sites. The raw material of the stone tools from these sites are very
    varied. The toolmaker masters had used more often the local raw material, for example opalits, obsidian,
    andesite and quartzite (siliceous sandstone). The territory of Transcarpathia can be devided into four regions
    according to the raw material. Thanks to the hitherto investigations it succeed to identify the potential
    geological locality of some type of raw material. Among the further tasks it can be mention more field-work,
    detailed microscopial and chemical researches.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Racz2008,
      author = {Rácz, Béla},
      title = {Pattintott kőeszköz-nyersanyagok felhasználásának előzetes eredményei a paleolitikumban a mai Kárpátalja területén / Preliminary results of the survey of lithic resources in Transcarpathia, Ukraine},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {2},
      pages = {47-54},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_2/AM-08-02-RB.pdf}
    }
    
    Saliari and Draganits
    Saliari, Konstantina & Draganits, Erich
    Early Bronze Age bone tubes from the Aegean: archaeological context, use and distribution / Korabronzkori csont csövecskék az Égeikumból: régészeti kontextus, használat és elterjedés 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(3), pp. 179-192 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    The present paper presents Early Bronze Age bone tubes from the Aegean, focusing on issues related to their
    archaeological context, stylistic patterns, use and distribution. The aim of this study is to collect and re-evaluate
    the available information, in order to provide a basis for the study of these bone tubes, based on a review of the
    existing literature. In total, 104 bone tubes have been included in this study, of which 99 come from modern
    Greece and 5 from Turkey. They principally occur during different phases of the Early Bronze Age II. The
    archaeological evidence illustrates considerable differences among the bone tubes from the islands and the
    continental sites. Of all bone tubes, 31.5% were found on the mainland and 63% on the islands; 5.5% are of
    unknown provenance. On mainland sites, 91% of the tubes were found in settlements, 3% from graves and the
    rest from unknown context, whereas on islands 78% were unearthed from cemeteries and 11% from residential
    contexts and further 11% from unknown provenance or context. The contexts and different shapes probably
    indicate that tubes served multiple purposes. Although the most common interpretation in the literature explain
    them as pigment containers, only a fraction of them are found associated with pigments. None of the bone tubes
    from the mainland contained pigments, but ca. 21% of those from the islands do. Altogether, 46% of the bone
    tubes exhibit incised decoration on the external surface of the bone.
    Kivonat
    Ez a tanulmány az Égeikum korabronzkorában megjelenő csont csövecskékkel foglalkozik, ezek régészeti
    kontextusával, megjelenési formáival, használatával és elterjedésével. Megkíséreltük összegyűjteni és
    újraértékelni az eddigi eredményeket a szakirodalom alapján. Összesen 104 darab csont csövecske szerepel a
    jegyzékünkben, 99 a mai Görögország, 5 pedig Törökország területéről. Leginkább a korabronzkor II.
    periódusából ismerjük őket. A régészeti anyag tanúsága szerint jelentős különbség van a szigetek és a
    kontinentális lelőhelyek anyaga között. Az ismertetett darabok közül 31,5% került elő a kontinentális
    környezetből, 63% a szigetekről és 5.5% ismeretlen körülmények között került elő. A szárazföldi lelőhelyek
    anyagában a csontcsövek inkább telepről, kisebb arányban sírokból kerülnek elő, míg a szigeteken gyakrabban
    kerülnek elő temetőkből és csak kisebb arányban lakó környezetből. Az eltérő környezet és forma arra utal, hogy
    a csövecskéket különböző célokra használhatták. A szakirodalom leginkább festéktartóként értelmezi ezeket a
    tárgyakat, de csak egy részüket találtuk festékanyaggal összefüggésben. A szárazföldi csontcsövekben nem volt
    festék, de a szigeteken talált példányok közül 21%-ban volt festékanyag. A csontcsövecskék jelentős részét (46%)
    bekarcolt dekoráció díszíti a csont külső felszínén.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Saliari&Draganits2013_3,
      author = {Saliari, Konstantina and Draganits, Erich},
      title = {Early Bronze Age bone tubes from the Aegean: archaeological context, use and distribution / Korabronzkori csont csövecskék az Égeikumból: régészeti kontextus, használat és elterjedés},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {3},
      pages = {179-192},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_3/AM-13-03-KS.pdf}
    }
    
    Salimbeni
    Salimbeni, Renzo
    Laser Technologies in Cultural Heritage Conservation 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(1), pp. 34-40 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The potential of laser techniques in conservation has needed a long development period to be fully
    demonstrated. The possibility to achieve a very precise and selective removal of deteriorated materials was
    implemented through a series of interdisciplinary studies focussed on laser ablation of specific materials. A
    suitable choice of the laser types and of the operating parameters could optimise the cleaning results, avoiding
    side effects while preserving the historical layers behind deposits and encrustation. An extensive validation
    carried out on a number of renowned masterpieces has definitely spread the interest of the conservation
    community for laser techniques in many European countries. The paper reviews the development of specific
    laser cleaning techniques for stone, metals, pigments and organic substances, which require different choices
    of laser wavelength and pulse width.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Salimbeni2006,
      author = {Salimbeni, Renzo},
      title = {Laser Technologies in Cultural Heritage Conservation},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {1},
      pages = {34-40},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_1/AM-2006-1-RS.pdf}
    }
    
    Shalev et al.
    Shalev, Sariel; Kovács, Tibor & T. Biró, Katalin
    Investigation of early copper-based alloys from the collection of the Hungarian National Museum / Korai rézötvözetek vizsgálata a Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum gy?jteményéb?l 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(2), pp. 105-116 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    The data presented here are results of a pilot project initiated by Ivan Ordentlich in 2001 on early bronze and
    copper axes from the collection of the Hungarian National Museum. At the same time, a similar series of
    samples were analysed from Romania. Our aim is to make the data available as a starting point for
    comprehensive studies.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Shalevetal2012_2,
      author = {Shalev, Sariel and Kovács, Tibor and T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {Investigation of early copper-based alloys from the collection of the Hungarian National Museum / Korai rézötvözetek vizsgálata a Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum gy?jteményéb?l},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {2},
      pages = {105-116},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_2/AM-12-02-SH.pdf}
    }
    
    Shimada
    Shimada, Kazutaka
    From gathering to mining: prehistoric human activities around obsidian sources in Central Japan / Nyersanyag beszerzés a gyűjtéstől a bányászatig: az őskori közösségek tevékenysége az obszidián nyersanyagforrások környezetében Japán középső részén 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(4), pp. 229?246 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The present paper discusses changes in obsidian procurement activities and circulation systems between the
    Upper Palaeolithic and the Jomon Periods. The obsidian source distribution in the Japanese Islands and
    obsidian provenance analysis in archaeology are overviewed as backgrounds of the study. The archaeological
    record from the Central Highlands obsidian source area in central Japan suggests that distinct changes in
    prehistoric human activities and social relations with regard to the obsidian source exploitation occurred. Chief
    among these were changes 1) in site distribution patterns in and around the Central Highlands, 2) from the
    gathering of obsidian exposed on the ground surface to the mining of obsidian from underground deposits, 3)
    from various types of landscape use around the source area to specialized landscape use in mining activities,
    and 4) from obsidian circulation systems dependent on procurement with high transport costs, which was
    basically embedded in mobility strategies, to exchange systems with low transport costs based on mining and
    sophisticated social relations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Shimada2012_4,
      author = {Shimada, Kazutaka},
      title = {From gathering to mining: prehistoric human activities around obsidian sources in Central Japan / Nyersanyag beszerzés a gyűjtéstől a bányászatig: az őskori közösségek tevékenysége az obszidián nyersanyagforrások környezetében Japán középső részén},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {4},
      pages = {229?246},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_4/AM-12-04-KS.pdf}
    }
    
    Simonyi
    Simonyi, Erika
    Sötét idők falvai - 8-11. századi települések a Kárpát-medencében (Konferenciabeszámoló) 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(2), pp. 38-39 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Simonyi2006,
      author = {Simonyi, Erika},
      title = {Sötét idők falvai - 8-11. századi települések a Kárpát-medencében (Konferenciabeszámoló)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {2},
      pages = {38-39},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_2/AM-2006-2-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Sipos et al.
    Sipos, György; Kiss, Tímea; Páll, Dávid Gergely; Tóth, Orsolya; Schubert, Gábor & Tóth, Mária
    Mintagyűjtés, minta-előkészítés, mintaveszteség TL kormeghatározás során / Sampling, sample treatment and sample loss during TL dating 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(2), pp. 131-136 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Concerning archaeometrical research sampling has always been a hot issue in the relationship of the owner or
    the person who is in charge of the studied object and the archaeometrical expert. This is also true of course in
    the case of luminescence dating, which usually requires sample extraction by drilling from the studied object. As
    a consequence it is considered to be important to inform the archaeological and restorer community on the
    necessary amount of sample for performing a valuable analysis. This way the size of the expected damage can be
    determined, and thus future compromises between the two parties during the sampling procedure might be
    facilitated. In the present short communication therefore we outline the process of sampling and sample
    treatment, and based on our previous experience we attempt to determine the amount of sample loss during
    these. Based on the necessary amount of treated sample for the direct measurements and the calculated ratio of
    sample loss, we also determine the preferable or minimum amount of material that should be extracted during
    sampling.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SiposETAL2010_2,
      author = {Sipos, György and Kiss, Tímea and Páll, Dávid Gergely and Tóth, Orsolya and Schubert, Gábor and Tóth, Mária},
      title = {Mintagyűjtés, minta-előkészítés, mintaveszteség TL kormeghatározás során / Sampling, sample treatment and sample loss during TL dating},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {2},
      pages = {131-136},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_2/AM-10-02-SGY.pdf}
    }
    
    Sipos and Papp
    Sipos, György & Papp, Szilárd
    Terrakotta műalkotások eredetiségvizsgálata és kormeghatározása termolumineszcens módszerrel, Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest / Thermoluminescent authenticity testing and dating of terracotta artefacts, Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(1), pp. 61-74 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The Collection of Old Sculptures, Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest owns a widely acknowledged selection of
    terracotta sculptures. In our research we investigated the age of 22 artefacts with the means of
    thermoluminescence. The main question was whether the studied sculptures are of Renaissance, Baroque or
    Modern age.
    Equivalent dose values were determined by using the Multiple Aliquot Additive Dose Protocol. Environmental
    dose rate was calculated on the basis of ?XRF and ICP-AES measurements and estimation of material
    parameters. As a consequence the error of the received ages was around 20%. However, modern copies could
    be filtered with great confidence, and in most of the cases thermoluminescence enabled the differentiation of
    Renaissance and Baroque artworks.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sipos2009,
      author = {Sipos, György and Papp, Szilárd},
      title = {Terrakotta műalkotások eredetiségvizsgálata és kormeghatározása termolumineszcens módszerrel, Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest / Thermoluminescent authenticity testing and dating of terracotta artefacts, Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {1},
      pages = {61-74},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_1/AM-09-01-SGY.PDF}
    }
    
    Solt et al.
    Solt, Péter; Don, György & Fegyvári, Tamás
    Telkibánya környéki bányakutatások / Investigation of historical mines around Telkibánya 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(1), pp. 77-87 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The Telkibánya area belongs to the Eperjes-Tokaj-Szalánc Mountains Miocene volcanic complex zone.
    Volcanism with caldera structures from Badenian up to Sarmatian produced dacite, andesite, rhyolite, perlite
    and basalt. Polymetallic ore with Au-Ag mineralization connected to K-metasomatic events and breccia dykes,
    post volcanic hydrothermal activity forming limnoquartzite and kaoline.
    Kaoline for pottery, red and black clays for pigments and dyestuff, quartz, minerals for jewels, obsidian pebbles,
    different silica occurrences (hydroquartzite, limnoquartzite, opal etc.) for stone-tools attracted and effected the
    interest of ancient cultures in the area. Since the 10th century intensive gold and silver mining activity is well
    documented in the area. After a period of surface prospecting (pits and ditches) soon complex system of shafts
    together with cracking-, milling-, pulverising- and smelting of noble-metal industry were developed, and
    Telkibánya became from the early 14th century a royal mining town. In the 15th century after a tragic crumbling
    and mine disaster - connected to a heavy earthquake - for about a couple of years all the works stopped here.
    The last documented silver product was 7062 kg in 1881. Prospection continued in the middle and at the end of
    the 20th century.
    Fieldwork and excavations revealed more than thousand pits and over 80 shafts. Lots of ruins (miner's houses,
    mills, shafts, pits, etc.) are waiting for systematic scientific excavations, some of them deserve preservation and
    reconstruction because of their geological-, archaeological-, mining-historical- and industrial importance and
    interest for study, education and tourism.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SoltETAL2007,
      author = {Solt, Péter and Don, György and Fegyvári, Tamás},
      title = {Telkibánya környéki bányakutatások / Investigation of historical mines around Telkibánya},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {1},
      pages = {77-87},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_1/AM-2007-01-SP.pdf}
    }
    
    Soós
    Soós, Eszter
    Császárkori ipari (?) tevékenység nyomai a Hernád völgyében / Signs of Roman Age Industry in the Hernád-Valley 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8, pp. 329?336 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Outside of Csörsz-trench, North-East Hungary lays the Hernád-valley and its settlement history from the Roman
    Age is still slightly unknown. Among the Hernád to Kassa is the road no.3., and during its rehabilitation and the
    large-scale rescue excavations settlements from Roman Age were found which were opening new perspectives in
    the region?s exploration.
    In occurrence Hernádvécse-Nagy rét 4-5-6-7. and occurrence Garadna-Elkerülő út 1, settlement segments were
    found from the Roman Age with differently constructed houses, furnaces, ovens, and pits for all kind of foods,
    waste, cooking. In these occurrences industrial zones are separated from the residential area, where specific
    objects were found in small groups (10-20 pieces/groups). These small furnaces (grouped, sometimes ordered in
    a line) show the same structure: the intently burned square lateral walls filled with charcoal, the huge burned
    stone and beam pieces intimate constant industrial activity in excess of the cottage industry.
    Sparsely and less but similar furnaces were found in the north-eastern Carpathians earlier. The exploration
    neglected these object-types because of the unclarified function and inappropriate date of ceramic ware.
    Explanation for its use as pits for drying or charcoal burning has been suggested. The analogy that they were
    found outside of the Carpathians insures the connection with iron-working.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Soos2011_4,
      author = {Soós, Eszter},
      title = {Császárkori ipari (?) tevékenység nyomai a Hernád völgyében / Signs of Roman Age Industry in the Hernád-Valley},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      pages = {329?336},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_4/AM-11-04-SE.pdf}
    }
    
    Stepanchuk and Petrougne
    Stepanchuk, Vadim & Petrougne, Victor
    Raw Materials as a Source for Tracing Migration: the case of UP Assemblages of Mira in Middle Dnieper Area 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(4), pp. 38-45 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The report presents the first results of the investigation of the composition of rocks used at the new EUP open-air site of Mira in the Middle Dnieper area, Eastern Europe, Ukraine. The petrographic study of ca. 300 samples of flint and stone artifacts coming from layers I and II/2 was made with a polarizing microscope.
    The quantitatively predominant flints (subunits Ia1-3 and, probably, Ia4) of the uppermost archaic UP layer of the site (Mira: I) had Eastern Carpathian origins and were seemingly collected somewhere on the territory of modern Romania. Lithics of subunits Ia-b and Ib are quantitatively less significant, but their peculiarities allow to define their exact origins in the area of modern Kosteshti town in the Prut valley (subunit Ia-b(A)); area of modern Soroki town in the Dniester valley (subunit Ia-b(B)); area of River Bakshala mouth in the Southern Bug valley (subunit Ia-b(V)); the Ingulets valley (subunit Ia-b(G-1)); area of modern towns of Nikopol and Marganets in the Lower Dnieper valley (unit Ib). The paragenetic association of zeolitised tuffs (subunit IIIa), actinolitites (subunit VIIa), amphibolites (subunit VIIb), and effusives (unit IV) from Mira: I assemblage points to Carpathian origins of certain exotic varieties of non-siliceous rocks. The sandstone of subunit IIa, the quartz milonite-ultramilonite of subunit VIa, migmatite or gneiss (unit VIII), and probably quartz-diabase (unit V) have local origins. The flint raw material of the lower occupation Mira: II/2 (subunit Ia5) provides grounds to regard it as western, at least Volhynian type.
    The typomorphic peculiarities of flints and non-siliceous rocks allow a rather precise tracing of a West-to-East movement of the occupants of Mira: I. The migration started somewhere on the territory of modern Romania and passed almost in a longitudinal direction through the valleys of Rivers Prut, Dniester, South Bug, Ingulets, and, finally, stopped at the Dnieper. The quantitative prevalence of the most remote raw materials points to the notion of a comparatively rapid movement from the Carpathians to the Dnieper.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Stepanchuk2005,
      author = {Stepanchuk, Vadim and Petrougne, Victor},
      title = {Raw Materials as a Source for Tracing Migration: the case of UP Assemblages of Mira in Middle Dnieper Area},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {4},
      pages = {38-45},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_4/AM-2005-4-STEP.pdf}
    }
    
    Stuber et al.
    Stuber, István; Szabó, Lőrinc Márk; Szenthe, Gergely; Korom, Csaba; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Eleki, Ferenc & Eleki, Nándor
    The Application of a True 3D Medical Stereophotogrammetry Measuring System in Archeology / 3D sztereofotogrammetriai orvosi mérőrendszer alkalmazási lehetőségei a régészetben 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(4), pp. 287?292 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Recently, in the digitization of works of art, the application of fusion optic (white light) scanners and the
    identification of picture elements have shown a rising trend, besides laser procedures. In most cases, these
    procedures use the digital 2D photos of the objects for presentations and to create the surface texture of the
    models. They visualise the processed data in 3D perspective, which is a reason why they require a tool fleet and
    huge storage capacity. One of the most important characteristics of the 3D measuring system presented by us is
    that it enables data collection, measurement and visualisation directly in 3D. This method has adapted the
    methods applied by a branch of geodesy mainly to conduct a spatial measure the digital and microscopic
    photographs. The output device of the system is compatible with the real photo making processes either
    anaglyph, or stereoscopic, or polarized or shuttered. In the present paper, some fields of application of the
    cluster of programmes of the medical microscopic system have been analysed from an archaeological point of
    view.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Stuberetal2012_4,
      author = {Stuber, István and Szabó, Lőrinc Márk and Szenthe, Gergely and Korom, Csaba and Varga, Zsuzsanna, and Eleki, Ferenc, and Eleki, Nándor},
      title = {The Application of a True 3D Medical Stereophotogrammetry Measuring System in Archeology / 3D sztereofotogrammetriai orvosi mérőrendszer alkalmazási lehetőségei a régészetben},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {4},
      pages = {287?292},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_4/AM-12-04-SZL.pdf}
    }
    
    Svingor
    Svingor, Éva
    A C-14 kormeghatározás alapjai és problémái / Radiocarbon dating: basics and problems 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(3), pp. 135-146 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Any material which is composed of carbon originated from the atmosphere may be dated. The radiocarbon age
    of a sample is obtained by measurement of the residual radioactivity. A radiocarbon age, termed a conventional
    radiocarbon age (or CRA) is obtained using a set of parameters. A time-independent level of 14C activity for the
    past is assumed in the measurement of a CRA. The activity of this hypothetical level of 14C activity is equal to the
    activity of the absolute international radiocarbon standard. A CRA embraces the following recommended
    conventions:
    ? a half-life of 5568 years;
    ? the use of Oxalic acid I or II;
    ? correction for sample isotopic fractionation (?13C) to a normalized or base value of -25.0?
    ? the use of 1950 AD as 0 BP, i.e. all 14C ages head back in time from 1950;
    ? the assumption that all 14C reservoirs have remained constant through time.
    The CRA is accompanied by a standard error, based on the statistic error of the measurements of the sample,
    standard and background, the ?13C, the uncertainty of the equipment, partly the sample pretreatment. The
    statistical uncertainty of the age determination, i.e. the standard error of the CRA, is given as ? one sigma
    deviation. The atmospheric 14C concentration is not constant in time and space, so the conventional 14C ages
    have to be converted/transformed to a calibrated age range (on the historical timescale). The error in years BP
    (yr BP) on the estimated 14C age (CRA) must be also transformed to give the corresponding error on the
    calendar year scale. The CRA can be estimated using a Gaussian model. After calibration the resulted stochastic
    model for the calibrated age is no longer Gaussian; it is often multimodal and asymmetric. The net effect is that
    often the calibrated result has a greater uncertainty and this uncertainty cannot be presented as a simple ? term;
    rather, the result must be quoted in the form of a range, from t1 to t2 within 1? or 2? confidential level.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Svingor2012_3,
      author = {Svingor, Éva},
      title = {A C-14 kormeghatározás alapjai és problémái / Radiocarbon dating: basics and problems},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {3},
      pages = {135-146},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_3/AM-12-03-SE.pdf}
    }
    
    Svingor et al.
    Svingor, Éva; Mogyorósi, Magdolna; Futó, István; Veres, Mihály; Molnár, Mihály & Rinyu, László
    A debreceni gáztöltésű proporcionális számlálócsöves (GPC) C-14 labor nemzetközi összeméréseinek értékelése / Overview of the international intercomparisions of the Gas Proportional Counting (GPC) C-14 Laboratory, Debrecen, Hungary 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(1), pp. 9-18 
    article URL 
    Abstract: An intercomparison is the best scientific tool to determine the current status of laboratory comparability. It is a
    foundation for formal quality control at an individual laboratory level, fosters a harmonization amongst laboratories
    and provides an independent and verifiable measure of interlaboratory comparability for the user. The
    ATOMKI GPC laboratory took part in the last three International Radiocarbon Intercomparison (TIRI, FIRI,
    VIRI). The samples? activities spanned the activity range from ?modern? to ?close to background?, and they
    represented a wide scale of materials. Altogether 29 samples were analyzed during the courses. Six of them were
    ?modern?, three were ?close to background? and the age of 20 samples varied from 1600 BP to 19 000 BP. In
    this time span 14 of our measured data agreed with the consensus values at 1?, 5 of them at 2? confidence level.
    The difference between the consensus and measured values was a bit larger than 2? for TIRI L (whalebone). This
    sample belonged to the special samples. It was sent to check the minimum carbon quantity for measurements and
    it contained cc 0.5 g C. The ?close to background? means for us 35?40 000 BP.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SvingorETAL2016_1,
      author = {Svingor, Éva and Mogyorósi, Magdolna and Futó, István and Veres, Mihály and Molnár, Mihály and Rinyu, László},
      title = {A debreceni gáztöltésű proporcionális számlálócsöves (GPC) C-14 labor nemzetközi összeméréseinek értékelése / Overview of the international intercomparisions of the Gas Proportional Counting (GPC) C-14 Laboratory, Debrecen, Hungary},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {1},
      pages = {9-18},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_1/AM-2016-1-SE.pdf}
    }
    
    Szabó
    Szabó, Géza
    Leletanyag intenzitásvizsgálatok a Szülejmán szultán szigetvári türbéjéhez tartozó kaszaba helyének meghatározásához / Intesity research of archaeological finds to define the position of kasaba belonging to Suleiman?s türbe in Szigetvár 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(2), pp. 89-102 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    Talking about non-destructive archaeology in Hungary became modish after the turn of the Millenium. However this method is not even recent in our country. Its first and most significant representative can be considered as the father of the Hungarian archaeology itself, Flóris Rómer. He has discovered and described hundreds of sites without moving a spadeful soil. After all non-detructive researching of archaeological sites has huge traditions in England. In the island state, one of the most organised and unmitigated between the rampant instrumental field projects in the 1990?s, belonged to the University of Bradford. In this projects Gerry McDonnel led researches in Bilsdale, North-Yorkshire, which is a medieval mining district, reach in iron- and lead ore. Here the collection of datas for intensity measurments were made in the valley of River Rye, which was formerly suitable for transportation, on nature reservation territories, on pastures of farmlands and between houses of a holiday resort, near to the scheduled monument of Rievaulx abbey, in which project I could participate.
    Using of these experiences I often tried to answer archaeological questions with intentisity measurement of on surface collectable finds. I mainly used this method even in financial reasons or if it was not possible to make instrumental researches or excavations, because of field circumstances. Recently we used this measurement combined with geophysical researches in the search for Suleiman?s türbe in Szigetvár-Vineyard, where we wanted to clear the disagreements about the territory and to define the extension of the site and its structure as well. Our observations and the measured datas combined with the reinterpreted sources showed, that the 16-17. century settlement with two mahalles and a protecting trench, can be identified as the Ottoman Period settlement, Turbék, the center of the estate (vakuf) which was founded to the maintenance of Suleiman sultan?s tomb. The türbe could be on a different place, presumably on the outskirts of todays chapel in Turbék.
    The results of intensity researches, completed with statistical and geophysical methods on the grounds of presented examples, show that this cheap and simple method can significantly help to identify the expansion and the structure of a site, or to clear controversial questions. With this method excavations can be easier prepared and are also more purposefully planable.
    Kivonat
    Magyarországon az ezredforduló után vált divatossá az úgynevezett roncsolásmentes régészetről beszélni. Pedig a metódus hazánkban sem teljesen újkeletű. Első és legjelentősebb képviselőjének magát a magyar régészet atyját, Rómer Flórist tekinthetjük. Ő lelőhelyek százait fedezte fel, írta le egyetlen ásónyi föld megmozgatása nélkül. A régészeti lelőhelyek mai értelemben vett roncsolásmentes kutatásának azonban Angliában vannak különösen nagy hagyományai. A szigetországban az 1990-es években felfutó terepi műszeres projektek közül az egyik legjobban szervezett és a legteljesebb volt a bradfordi egyetemé. Ennek keretében Gerry McDonnell Észak-Yorkshire-ben, a vas- és ólomércekben gazdag középkori bányavidék, Bilsdale területén vezetett kutatást. Itt egykor a szállításra is alkalmas Rye folyó völgyében fekvő Rievaulx apátság közelében műemléki és természetvédelmi területen, farmergazdaságok legelőin, az üdülőtelepülés házai között folyt a leletelőfordulások intenzitásának mérésével kombinált adatgyűjtés, amelybe sikerült bekapcsolódnom.
    Az angliai tapasztalatokat felhasználva idehaza is többször a felszínen gyűjthető leletanyagok előfordulása intenzitásának mérésével próbáltam régészeti kérdésekre választ adni. Főként akkor használtam ezt az eljárást, amikor akár anyagi okokból, akár a helyszíni körülmények miatt nem volt lehetőség a műszeres vizsgálatokra vagy a feltárásra. Legutóbb Szigetváron Szülejmán szultán egykori türbéjének keresése során, a szőlőhegyi romterülettel kapcsolatos véleménykülönbségek tisztázására, a lelőhely kiterjedésének, szerkezetének meghatározására végeztünk a felszínen található régészeti leletek intenzitásának megfigyelésére geofizikai vizsgálatokkal kombinált méréseket. Megfigyeléseink és a mért adatok tükrében újraértelmezett írott források egyaránt arra mutatnak, hogy a turbéki szőlőhegyen megfigyelt, árokkal is védett 16-17. századi település a két mahalle-ből álló török kori Turbékkal, Szülejmán szultán sírhelye fenntartására létrehozott vallásalapítvány (vakuf) birtokainak központjával azonosítható. A türbe pedig ettől eltérő helyszínen, feltehetően a mai turbéki kápolna környékén lehetett.
    A statisztikai és geofizikai eszközökkel kiegészített leletanyag intenzitásvizsgálatok eredményei a bemutatott példák alapján jól szemléltetik, hogy ez az olcsó és egyszerű módszer jelentős mértékben segíthet egy-egy lelőhely kiterjedésének, szerkezetének megismerésében, esetleg vitás kérdések tisztázásában is. Vele az ásatás előkészítése is könnyebb, célirányosabban tervezhető.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Szabo2015_2,
      author = {Szabó, Géza},
      title = {Leletanyag intenzitásvizsgálatok a Szülejmán szultán szigetvári türbéjéhez tartozó kaszaba helyének meghatározásához / Intesity research of archaeological finds to define the position of kasaba belonging to Suleiman?s türbe in Szigetvár},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {2},
      pages = {89-102},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_2/AM-2015-2-SZG.pdf}
    }
    
    Szabó
    Szabó, Géza
    A Kárpát-medencei archaeometallurgiai kutatások eredményei, aktuális kérdései a 21. század elején, különös tekintettel a bronz- és vasgyártás társadalmi hátterének változásaira / Recent advances and new questions of archaeometallurgical research in the Carpathian Basin at the begining of the 21st century, with special emphasis on the change in the social background of bronze and iron artefacts 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(2), pp. 75-96 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Recently, archaeological research has focused more and more on the material, metallurgy and processing of
    copper and its alloys, particularly bronze and also of iron. The literature usually arranges metals and metal
    artefacts, also labelling the great archaeological ages, according to their material and chronology. In our study,
    we follow a different approach: we review the observations regarding the two metals side by side, in order to
    point out the most important features that show their role in archaeological research and in sociological
    processes.
    The use of native copper as jewellery (like small pearls, bracelets) can be observed ubiquitously, already from
    the late Neolithic Age. It became really common and significant, however, in the Carpathian Basin, in the in the
    middle period of the separate Copper Age, an era based on the native copper deposits, when even the commonly
    used tools were made of it in greater numbers. The most typical example of copper usage is the treasure from
    Szeged-Szillér, found in 1881. Microscopic examination of the segments showed a homogeneous texture,
    indicating that the artefacts were made of high purity copper. In the archaeological practice, it is only observed
    on artefacts made of native metals (Szabó 1998). Further examination of the finds from Szillér, also indicates
    that besides hammering the native metals, the technique of smelting was also used and in order to further
    improve the utility of metal tools, the crystallite structure of the metal was modified by cooling. According to our
    measurements, this improved the 60-86 HV hardness of smelted copper to as much as 128 HV.
    The evolution of manufacturing already alloyed copper tools, bronze artefacts, utilizing various technological
    solutions, has reached a level, also in our area, at latest by the early Iron Age, when individual types of products
    were assembled from mass produced pieces, using the same toolkits. This can be traced by the analysis of stamps
    on the cistas found in Kurd, but it is further supported by the examination of the hanging ear of a kettle found in
    Regöly. The double cross-shaped piece was made with the same form, as the one found in a grave in Ártánd or
    another found in grave No. 696 in Hallstatt.
    These relatively cheap and simple comparative studies, defined by measures based on technological features,
    can be extended to other types of artefacts of the era as well, particularly to the finds from the Hallstatt
    cemetery, which is of great significance regarding the European research. Based on the ornaments on the rich
    bronze finds from this site, it can also be assumed that these artefacts were made processed by the same toolkit.
    The pieces made in the same manufacture, might be recognised by the examination of detailed ornaments, which
    are thus hard to copy by free hand, like birds, horses and other frequent animal figures. In case of carefully
    designed geometric motifs, the smaller, recurrent errors might be helpful in the identification. The historical and
    ethnical changes in the background of the emerging mass production in the second half of the 7th century BC, on
    the boundary of Bronze Age and Iron Age in the Carpathian Basin, are implied by the fact that antecedents of
    both these products and the technologies used during their production point towards the Anatolian Peninsula.
    By the population leaving this area in multiple waves for the Carpathian area, for the Balkans, for Italy, or for
    the Western Mediterranean Basin, Europe was occupied by closely related peoples. Because of the sparsely
    located copper deposits, in the great territorial unity of the Urnfield culture, it was important to have a central
    system for directing and organising the distribution of stocks. Societies based on iron instead of bronze, could
    purchase this much more common ore nearly anywhere, thus it is not that important anymore to maintain the
    former great cultural unity, knowing the technology of iron smelting. Europe-wide, the same demand is satisfied
    by artefacts, strongly Orientalist in their design, technology and decoration, or even produced straight away inGreece or Anatolia, found in the much richer tumulus of the elite than before. The new centres, more or less independent from each other, but covering whole Europe as a dense network, have emerged at the sites of
    strategically important deposits (e.g. iron ore, salt). Only the Roman conquest creates a bigger territorial unity
    in the area again, and this also meant the central organisation of mining and supplying of the Empire with
    stocks. During the Migration Period, metallurgy is based on the local deposits of smaller territories, again. In
    Hungary, mining and metallurgy could only be centralised in the 13th century, in parallel with the emergence of
    water power usage. Although it resulted in poorer quality, but it also helped the evolution of mass production
    and increased the royal incomes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Szabo2012_2,
      author = {Szabó, Géza},
      title = {A Kárpát-medencei archaeometallurgiai kutatások eredményei, aktuális kérdései a 21. század elején, különös tekintettel a bronz- és vasgyártás társadalmi hátterének változásaira / Recent advances and new questions of archaeometallurgical research in the Carpathian Basin at the begining of the 21st century, with special emphasis on the change in the social background of bronze and iron artefacts},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {2},
      pages = {75-96},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_2/AM-12-02-SZG.pdf}
    }
    
    Szabó
    Szabó, Géza
    Az archaeometallurgai kutatások gyakorlati és etikai kérdései / Practical and ethical issues of archaeometallurgic research 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(2), pp. 111-122 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Archaeology has made use of the opportunities provided by science and technical research to solve historical
    problems since the first third of the 19th century. Today, the rapidly growing amount of data and the variety of
    opportunities for testing archaeological samples has increased the proportion and significance of specialized
    interdisciplinary research more strongly than ever before.
    In parallel with the emergence of technical opportunities, besides the many tasks, there is an increased
    responsibility incumbent on the researchers. The followings are going to review the path made by archaeometric
    research so far and practical and ethical issues considered to be the most important in the present situation from
    the perspective of an archaeologist examining archaeological metal founds in the daily practice. During
    archaeometallurgic research, four basic problems have emerged, requiring attention and possibly urgent
    solution, of which the first two are more professional, while the other two are more methodical, ethical issues:
    ? Over the past decades through the development of new technical tools, methods of measurement are not
    consistent with the measured results of previous research data; (Fig. 1)
    ? Even in today's modern circumstances, there is a clear difference in data obtained by the same devices in
    different labs; (Fig. 2)
    ? there are some studies, which appear to stand only for themselves, where no philosophy can be found in the
    background, but the measurements are simply desultory, or at least not perfectly designed;
    ? Experiments and results of the tests can in many cases not be tracked, and in this way, these are not
    available for scientific research, or only in a limited form.
    Raising these fundamental issues are particularly important because better designed experiments create an
    opportunity for a more efficient operation even under tight financial conditions, and on the other hand, because
    it is considered to be a primary objective to avoid unnecessary moving, possibly destroying ancient artifacts. It
    would be greatly aided by a wide-spread practice, that a single sample would be taken for subsequent
    examination from each metal find even before the restoration, from where it causes the smallest damage, but
    gives a good representation of the object, and is suitable for the testing of material structure and composition.
    This would possibly avoid further damage resulting from investigation the artworks. A similar register as
    already available for archaeological finds, would make it possible to lend these samples, further facilitating
    accessibility for the scientific community. Until this optimal situation is reached, however, it should be regarded
    as essential to revert the results of measurement to the institute preserving the objects, and data are added to the
    register.
    Review of the results of previous research clarifies, that data measured by different processes can only be
    compared with criticism. While designing new experiments, it is a professional and ethical responsibility to take
    into account the metallographic regularities of the raw material and method of preparation of the concrete
    object. It would be advisable to develop a uniform sampling protocol, a global register of samples and
    experimental results, and determining the scope of finds requiring archaeometallurgic examination.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Szabo2010_2,
      author = {Szabó, Géza},
      title = {Az archaeometallurgai kutatások gyakorlati és etikai kérdései / Practical and ethical issues of archaeometallurgic research},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {2},
      pages = {111-122},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_2/AM-10-02-SZG.pdf}
    }
    
    Szabó et al.
    Szabó, Géza; Kunfalvi, Péter & Békefi, Mónika
    Archeometallurgiai és 3D lézerszkenneres vizsgálatok a hasfalvi korong lokális és interregionális kapcsolataihoz / Archaeometallurgical and 3D laser scanning investigations to the local and interregional connections of the Hasfalva disc 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(4), pp. 245-258 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The well-known Hasfalva Disc is one of the most exciting bronze find of the Carpathian Basin. Its identical analogy was found in Balk?kra, Sweden. Through the analysis we looked for such methods that make possible to observe the identical details or the differences of these two objects. We have focused on the attributions of the drum which can be originated from the manufacturing process. These attributions can confirm whether the objects were made in the same workshop or not. At the same time they can help to gain a better understanding of the usage of these discs.
    Through the analysis of the Hasfalva Disc, we have observed repetitive moulding flaws on both sides of the rectangular extensions in several cases. These little burrs are standing in 45 degree and their existence implies that the object was moulded in a vertical position, with its wheel downwards. The position of the object during the moulding reveals the function of the pyramidal ribs, which was placed in the vertical axis of the elements. Previous research concluded that they have brace functions. Our opinion is that beside the decorating function, they were used as a funnel through the moulding process. With 3D scanning we proved that the elements were curved after the moulding process. Just like the additional punching, this explains the existence of the line marks on the back of the parts and the numeration of the elements. These were essential for the assemblage of the disc. Our observations about the making process and the results of the measurements prove that the elements of the Hasfalva Disc?s and the Balkakra Disc?s frame were made by serial production, with the same technique and that they were assembled in the same way, in the same workshop. Altogether we conclude that the elements made by serial production, the miniaturized object from Vulci and the two distant finding places indicate a route, which connected North Italy and Scandinavia through the Carpathian Basin. This route was not only supporting the trade, but it was sustaining the interregional exchange of different cultural elements.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Szabo_et_al_2016_4,
      author = {Szabó, Géza and Kunfalvi, Péter and Békefi, Mónika},
      title = {Archeometallurgiai és 3D lézerszkenneres vizsgálatok a hasfalvi korong lokális és interregionális kapcsolataihoz / Archaeometallurgical and 3D laser scanning investigations to the local and interregional connections of the Hasfalva disc},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {4},
      pages = {245-258},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_4/AM-2016-4-SZG.pdf}
    }
    
    Szakmány
    Szakmány, György
    Magyarországi csiszolt kőeszközök nyersanyagtípusai az eddigi archeometriai kutatások eredményei alapján / Types of polished stone tool raw materials in Hungary 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(1), pp. 11-30 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In Hungary, a systematic archaeometric approach for the sourcing of the raw materials of the prehistoric
    polished stone tools was initiated only recently. Polished and ground stone implements are quite common
    artefacts from the early Neolithic until the Copper Age, however scientific analyses were applied on them only
    during the last 15 years. Since then, about 2000 polished stone tools from several Hungarian archaeological
    sites of different ages have been investigated. The methods employed are partly invasive (petrographic thinsectioning,
    XRD). Recently the main effort is directed towards developing a non-destructive protocol (PGAA,
    MS).
    The results revealed that the most common raw materials employed for the polished stone tools in Hungary are
    the following: greenschist-metabasite varieties from different localities, among which are the Bohemian Massif
    or Felsőcsatár, basalt of Plio-Pleistocene age from the Little Hungarian Plain, the Balaton-Highland and the
    Karancs-Medves territory; moreover Lower Cretaceous basalt from Mecsek Mts., dolerite-metadoleritemetamicrogabbro
    from Szarvaskő, and, probably, from the Maros-valley or the Vardar Zone, alkaline doleritetephrite-
    phonolite from the Mecsek Mts.; the provenance of hornfels, whose outcrop is still unknown, might be
    searched in the Eastern-South-eastern zone of the Carpathian Basin; serpentinite originates from the Penninic
    Unit of Eastern Alps and, probably, the Gogolów-Jordanów Mts.; the source of nephrite are probably the
    Gogolów-Jordanów Mts., whilst blueschist can be found on the territory of SE-Slovakia. In addition, the
    analyses revealed that several other polished stone tools are made from rarer raw material types, e.g.:
    metagabbro, amphibolite, andesite and other intermediary-acidic volcanic-metavolcanic and dyke-rocks,
    ultrabasic rocks, HP metamorphites (jadeitite, eclogite), 'white stone', limestone, marl, sandstone, siltstone.
    The results showed that these rocks clearly indicate three main geological areas of provenance, which can be
    useful, from an archaeological point of view, to reveal precise directions of cultural interactions occurred in the
    territory of Hungary during the prehistoric period: (1) the Transdanubian region, (2) the Northern-Northeastern
    region and (3) Trans-Tisza region.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Szakmany2009,
      author = {Szakmány, György},
      title = {Magyarországi csiszolt kőeszközök nyersanyagtípusai az eddigi archeometriai kutatások eredményei alapján / Types of polished stone tool raw materials in Hungary},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {1},
      pages = {11-30},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_1/AM-09-01-SZGY.PDF}
    }
    
    Szakmány and Bajnóczi
    Szakmány, György & Bajnóczi, Bernadett
    Beszámoló a Magyar Tudomány Ünnepe eseményeiről / MTA X. Osztály: Archeometriai Munkabizottság alakult 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(2), pp. 69 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{SzakmanyBajnoczi2008,
      author = {Szakmány, György and Bajnóczi, Bernadett},
      title = {Beszámoló a Magyar Tudomány Ünnepe eseményeiről / MTA X. Osztály: Archeometriai Munkabizottság alakult},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {2},
      pages = {69},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_2/AM-08-02-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Szakmány et al.
    Szakmány, György; Gherdán, Katalin & Starnini, Elisabetta
    Kora neolitikus kerámia készítés Magyarországon: a Körös és a Starc^evo kultúra kerámiáinak összehasonlító archeometriai vizsgálata 2004 Archeometriai Műhely
    1(1), pp. 28-31 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This paper summarizes the archaeological context, objectives, methods and the preliminary results of an archaeometrical research project that started some years ago in order to characterize the oldest pottery production of Hungary from Early Neolithic sites of the Körös-Starčevo Culture (dated to the first half and middle of the VI millennium cal BC in a comparative study. To reach this goal, different scientific techniques - including petrography, X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (XRF), X-Ray diffraction analysis (XRD), SEM and electron-microprobe analysis - were used.
    Starevo culture represents the north-westernmost aspect of the large Early Neolithic archaeological complex of the Balcans, which comprises towards the north-east the Körös culture and furthermore eastward, the Criş culture. In Hungary the Körös culture spreads in the Great Hungarian Plain, while Starčevo occupies the southern part of Transdanubia, reaching its northernmost borders at lake Balaton (Kalicz et al., 1998). These cultures show strong similarities in their material culture. The characteristic pottery of the period is homogenous in form and macroscopic features over a wide area, suggesting a high degree of cultural contacts and transmission of technological skills. Representative pottery samples were studied from five different Neolithic settlements of the Körös Culture and compared to those coming from one Starčevo Culture site, namely Vörs. Moreover other fired clay artefacts of the Körös Culture (net weights, plaster) were also studied.
    Both Körös and Starčevo pottery products have a fine-grained, dominantly serial fabric, with a porous texture, containing vegetal tempering material, probably chaff. In some samples rounded, pebble-like, almost opaque inclusions can also be found. Petrography of ceramics and geochemistry of nodules suggest that argillaceous silt or silty clay was used as raw material for manufacturing pottery. Macroscopically, all the potsherds have a "sandwich-like" structure (black core and brownish red margin). Compositional differences between the core and the margins show that ceramics were fired at low temperature (maximum 700-750 °C) with short soaking times and high heating rate.
    Data available so far seem to confirm the great homogeneity - already noticed at stylistic level - of the ceramic production of the Early Neolithic in Hungary. Probably local clay sources were exploited for pottery production throughout a long period, most probably indicating cultural transmission within groups belonging to a traditionally structured, technologically stable society.
    This research is conducted in the framework of the Hungarian-Italian Intergovernmental Science&Technology Co-operation Program 2004-2007, Project "Archaeometry of the first ceramic pirotechnology in the Carpathian Basin".
    BibTeX:
    @article{SzakmanyETAL2004,
      author = {Szakmány, György and Gherdán, Katalin and Elisabetta Starnini},
      title = {Kora neolitikus kerámia készítés Magyarországon: a Körös és a Starc^evo kultúra kerámiáinak összehasonlító archeometriai vizsgálata},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {1},
      number = {1},
      pages = {28-31},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2004_1/AM-2004-SZGY.pdf}
    }
    
    Szakmány et al.
    Szakmány, György; Józsa, Sándor; Bendő, Zsolt; Kasztovszky, Zsolt & Horváth, Ferenc
    Magyarországon előkerült hornfels (mész-szilikát szaruszirt) anyagú csiszolt kőeszközök nyersanyaglelőhelyének felkutatása / Discovering the provenance of hornfels polished stone tools in Hungary 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(1), pp. 43-54 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Hornfels was one of the most popular raw materials to make prehistoric polished stone tools in the whole Carpathian
    Basin and its environs, especially in their South-Eastern part. The provenance of the raw material was
    unknown for a long time. Researchers have thought the provenance on the territories of Southern Carpathians
    and/or Apuseni mountains on the basis of the distribution of the hornfels stone tools. Petrologically this type of
    hornfels is dominantly composed of diopside, basic plagioclase, less K-feldspar, rare scapolite and biotite. Accessories
    are apatite, titanite, allanite, zircon, and occasionally pirrhotite. As regards the chemical composition of
    hornfels have high Ca and relatively high Al-content, the alkalis are only in few amount. After a long time searching
    for the provenance of hornfels, similar rock types have been found in SW part of Rusca Mts. on the environs
    of village Novákfalva (Glimboca), moreover on the South part of Apuseni Mts. on a North-South valley near the
    village Obersia (Obâr?a). On both territories hornfels were formed on the contact zone of banatite subvolcanic
    rocks and high Ca-content clayish Cretaceous Gosau-facies sediments. As a result of our work we could discover
    and localize the provenance of a special rock type, the hornfels, which was a widely used raw material for polished
    stone tools in the studied area.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SzakmanyETAL2016_1,
      author = {Szakmány, György and Józsa, Sándor and Bendő, Zsolt and Kasztovszky, Zsolt and Horváth, Ferenc},
      title = {Magyarországon előkerült hornfels (mész-szilikát szaruszirt) anyagú csiszolt kőeszközök nyersanyaglelőhelyének felkutatása / Discovering the provenance of hornfels polished stone tools in Hungary},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {1},
      pages = {43-54},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_1/AM-2016-1-SzGy.pdf}
    }
    
    Szakmány and Nagy
    Szakmány, György & Nagy, Borbála
    Balatonlelle - Felső-Gamász lelőhelyről előkerült késő rézkori vörös homokkő őrlőkövek petrográfiai vizsgálatának eredményei / Results of petrographical analysis of red sandstone grinders from the Late Copper Age site Balatonlelle - Felső-Gamász 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(3), pp. 13-21 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The authors studied petrographic aspects of Late Copper Age grinding stones from the Balatonlelle?Felső-Gamász locality. The raw material of the studied grinding stones is red-grayish, red or white, fine to coarse grained sandstone and sandstone pebbles. All samples are litharenite and have similar clast composition; they consist predominantly of monocrystalline quartz of volcanic origin as well as acidic recrystallized or felsitic volcanite and rarer pyroclastite clasts. There are some polyquartz, mica (muscovite and baueritized-chloritized biotite), opaque minerals, low-grade metamorphites (metasediments) and subordinately strongly altered feldspars, zircon, rutile, tourmaline moreover granitoide clasts in the sandstones. The clasts are cemented with small amount of silica, clay, hematite and locally chlorite. The quantitative and qualitative distribution of clasts of the sandstones suggest that the raw material of studied grinding stones originated from coarse-medium grained sandstone beds of the Balatonfelvidék Sandstone Formation occurring on the surface in the Balaton Highland.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SzakmanyNagy2005,
      author = {Szakmány, György and Nagy, Borbála},
      title = {Balatonlelle - Felső-Gamász lelőhelyről előkerült késő rézkori vörös homokkő őrlőkövek petrográfiai vizsgálatának eredményei / Results of petrographical analysis of red sandstone grinders from the Late Copper Age site Balatonlelle - Felső-Gamász},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {3},
      pages = {13-21},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_3/AM-2005-3-SZGY.pdf}
    }
    
    Szakmány and Nagy-Szabó
    Szakmány, György & Nagy-Szabó, Tibor
    Zalalövőről származó római kori malomkövek archeometriai vizsgálati eredményei / Results of archaeometrical analysis of Roman millstones from Zalalövő 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(1), pp. 85-98 
    article URL 
    Abstract: 109 pieces of Roman age millstones from Zalalövő (Roman name is Salla) were studied archaeometrically.
    Authors made detailed macroscopic and polarising microscopic description moreover representative samples
    were chemically analysed. The most important raw materials of the millstones are vesicular basalt, originated
    highly probably from Ság-hegy (near Celldömölk). Other important raw materials were potassic volcanic rock
    types, andesite-trachiandesite-latite, these raw materials originated from Gleichenberg (Steyr-basin, Austria).
    The origin of the raw materials of rarely occurred basaltic tuff is questionable.
    The archaeometric results have high importance in archaeological point of view, namely these raw materials
    were imported from quite close geological localities, which show local commercial procedures as regards
    millstones. Possibly the millstones were finally formed in the quarries, and the ready millstones were delivered
    to the town, but there are no archaeological proofs for this due to the later intensive quarrying of the raw
    materials.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Szakmany2011_1,
      author = {Szakmány, György and Nagy-Szabó, Tibor},
      title = {Zalalövőről származó római kori malomkövek archeometriai vizsgálati eredményei / Results of archaeometrical analysis of Roman millstones from Zalalövő},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {1},
      pages = {85-98},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_1/AM-11-01-SZGY.pdf}
    }
    
    Szakmány and Starnini
    Szakmány, Gy. & Starnini, E.
    Archaeometric research on the first pottery production in the Carpathian Basin: manufacturing traditions of the Early Neolithic, Körös Culture ceramics 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(2), pp. 05-20 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The paper presents the results of an archaeometric study on the first pottery production of the earliest farmers
    of the Carpathian Basin. The ceramic samples belong to the Early Neolithic Körös Culture, radiocarbon dated
    to the beginning of the 7th millennium uncal. BP. The samples comprise both sherds and soils, as potential raw
    materials, which were collected from surroundings of the Neolithic sites from various geological deposits. In
    addition, some samples from later Neolithic phases were analysed in order to study possible technological
    changes trough time.
    This research represents the very first archaeometric study for the Körös Culture in Hungary. The methods of
    investigation include a petrographic study of thin sections under a polarising microscope, combined with
    mineralogical (XRD), geochemical (XRF, NAA) and SEM-EDS analyses. This paper will present and discuss
    mainly the results of petrographic analysis of clayey sediments and pottery, which allowed us to establish that
    Early Neolithic potters exploited local clay deposits of the Körös river, with the addition of vegetal temper.
    Among the possible raw materials, only those with no or very little primary carbonates were selected for pottery
    production. The ceramic fabrics of the various sites are very similar. Well-defined groups cannot be
    distinguished, but sherds belong to the same fabric group, which could be subdivided into four subgroups on the
    basis of minor textural differences. Finally, some ceramic samples of the Linear Pottery Culture from the same
    area are compared to those of the Körös Culture, which show technological changes in the pottery production
    through time.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SzakmanyStarnini2007,
      author = {Szakmány, Gy. and Starnini, E.},
      title = {Archaeometric research on the first pottery production in the Carpathian Basin: manufacturing traditions of the Early Neolithic, Körös Culture ceramics},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {2},
      pages = {05-20},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_2/AM-2007-02-SZGY.pdf}
    }
    
    Szakmány et al.
    Szakmány, Gy.; Starnini, E.; Horváth, F. & Bradák, B.
    Gorzsa késő neolit tell településről előkerült kőeszközök archeometriai vizsgálatának előzetes eredményei (Tisza kultúra, DK Magyarország) / Investigating trade and exchange patterns in Prehistory - Gorzsa 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(3), pp. 13-26 
    article URL 
    Abstract: A multidisciplinary study of the stone tool assemblage from the Late Neolithic, tell settlement of
    Hódmezővásárhely-Gorzsa (Tisza Culture) is in progress, involving traditional typological classification of
    instruments combined with functional analyses and archaeometric analyses for the study of raw material
    provenance. The site lies at the confluence of the Tisza and Maros rivers in the Great Hungarian Plain, where
    stone resources are not directly available and had to be acquired from distant areas. In terms of absolute
    chronology, 14C calibrated dates place the occupation of the tell roughly between 4970-4380 Cal BC.
    During several seasons of excavations, conducted from 1978 to 1996, ca 1,000 square meters of the tell
    settlement were investigated and about 820 stone artefacts were collected. This paper is provide a preliminary
    report on the archaeometric analyses of the polished and ground stone assemblage from this tell-site.
    Raw material determination was conducted starting with macroscopic and petrographic microscopic studies in
    thin section, together with magnetic susceptibility measurements.
    The dominant raw material types of the polished, cutting edged stone tools are hornfels, basalt, basic intrusive
    and dyke rocks (dolerite-metadolerite-metamicrogabbro), moreover several other rock types were used
    subordinately. Among the grinding stones and abrasive implements, the most important raw materials are
    different types of sandstones, andesite, granitoide-metagranitoide, mica rich metasedimentary rocks, quartzite
    and limestone.
    Studies of ceramics and chipped stone tools have shown that the tell Gorzsa had extensive cultural and economic
    relationships with neighbouring sites and archaeological cultures. Provenance studies of the rocks employed for
    the stone assemblage suggest similar results, enlarging the range of possible cultural connections.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SzakmanyETAL2008,
      author = {Szakmány, Gy. and Starnini, E. and Horváth, F. and Bradák, B.},
      title = {Gorzsa késő neolit tell településről előkerült kőeszközök archeometriai vizsgálatának előzetes eredményei (Tisza kultúra, DK Magyarország) / Investigating trade and exchange patterns in Prehistory - Gorzsa},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {3},
      pages = {13-26},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_3/AM-08-03-SZGY.pdf}
    }
    
    Szakmány et al.
    Szakmány, György; T. Biró, Katalin; Kristály Ferenc; BendHo) Zsolt; Kasztovszky Zsolt & Norbert, Zajzon
    Távolsági import csiszolt kHo)eszközök nagynyomású metamorfitokból Magyarországon / Long distance import of polished stone artefacts: HP metamorphites in Hungary 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(1), pp. 83-92 
    article URL 
    Abstract: First archaeometric results of polished stone tools made from high pressure metaophiolites occurring in
    territory of Hungary are presented here. Three complete, very well polished stone tools were found from this
    extra-long distance (ELD) raw material. Two of them originate from the Ebenhöch collection of the Hungarian
    National Museum, the third originates from the Miháldy collection of the Laczkó Dezső Museum, Veszprém. The
    stone tools are small or middle size, the shape of two of them are very characteristic elongated triangle, the third
    is flat chisel. The analyses on these extremely rare and valuable pieces were performed exclusively by nondestructive
    methods, namely macroscopic petrography, magnetic susceptibility measurements, XRD in parallel
    beam geometry (with Göbel mirror), a special non-destructive SEM-EDX technique (developed in the ELTE
    FFI), and PGAA. Our results show that the studied stone tools are fit to the types of HP stone tools of
    metaophiolitic origin occurring in the Po-valley and its environs so they are ELD import tools form either the
    redeposited Oligocene conglomerate in NW footwall of Appennines or from the W-Alps around MonViso
    environs.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SzakmanyETAL2013_1,
      author = {Szakmány, György, and T. Biró, Katalin, and Kristály Ferenc, and BendHo) Zsolt, and Kasztovszky Zsolt, and
    Zajzon Norbert}, title = {Távolsági import csiszolt kHo)eszközök nagynyomású metamorfitokból Magyarországon / Long distance import of polished stone artefacts: HP metamorphites in Hungary}, journal = {Archeometriai Műhely}, year = {2013}, volume = {10}, number = {1}, pages = {83-92}, url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_1/AM-13-01-SZGY.pdf} }
    Szappanos
    Szappanos, Bálint
    Egy mocsaras terület holocén fejlődéstörténete Alsópáhok mellett malakológiai vizsgálatok alapján / Development of a marshland area in the Holocene based on the malacological examinations near Alsópáhok 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(2), pp. 163-174 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Finds from the Chalcolitic, Roman and Migration Periods were turned up on the archaeological site of
    Alsópáhok-Hévízdomb II. The area which was examined by me was only the region where the population of
    Balaton-Lasinja-culture lived. It can be stated according to the collected malacological samples on the
    archaeological site that the area went through a wetting phase, which finally became a paludal environment.
    The calcareous plates precipitated on the stems and leaves of small plants which turned up after the elutriation
    and the significant proliferation of the species Oxyloma elegans represents the rich presence of phytocoenosis on
    the waterside. It is followed by a drier period, the frutescent phytocoenosis falls back, and a wet open meadow
    emerges. The Chalcolithic people could settle down close to this area.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Szappanos2011_2,
      author = {Szappanos, Bálint},
      title = {Egy mocsaras terület holocén fejlődéstörténete Alsópáhok mellett malakológiai vizsgálatok alapján / Development of a marshland area in the Holocene based on the malacological examinations near Alsópáhok},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {2},
      pages = {163-174},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_2/AM-11-02-SZB.pdf}
    }
    
    Szebenyi et al.
    Szebenyi, Tamás; Fintor, Krisztián; Raucsik, Béla; Bozsó, Gábor & Tóth, Mária
    Archeometriai vizsgálatok Üllő 5. lelőhelyről származó pecsételt töredékeken / Archaeometric analysis of potsherds with stamped ornamentation from Üllő 5. 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(1), pp. 39-46 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    Archaeometric analysis carried out on ceramics from a Sarmatian settlement can open new ways in the study of the Barbaricum. Petrographic, XRD and WDXRF analyses of stamped ceramics from Üllő 5 is provided as an example. The main goal of this study is to investigate the archaeological hypothesis, which includes two assumptions: firstly, the stamped bowls were not made locally at the site and secondly the 49 stamped bowls found at the site form a heterogeneous group in terms of raw materials, implying that these vessels may have been made by several other workshops. Fifteen samples, including sherds of brick red and gray bowls with stamped ornamentation and a rim of a locally made pot as a reference, were chosen for the analyses. The results show that the aluminium rich raw material of the locally made pot is different from the calcium rich raw material of the stamped samples. This result may suggest that the stamped bowls were not made in Üllő 5. Concerning the heterogeneity of the raw materials of the stamped bowls, it seems that there are two main compositional groups. Even though the trace element composition of the samples is similar, the main elements analysis showed that five samples are richer in CaO than the others. Therefore, it can be assumed that the two groups may have originated from two different regions. It is also intriguing that higher CaO content also appears in the raw materials of brick red and gray bowls. These results seem to support, at least partially, the archaeological assumption.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Szebenyietal2014_1,
      author = {Szebenyi, Tamás and Fintor, Krisztián and Raucsik, Béla and Bozsó, Gábor and Tóth, Mária},
      title = {Archeometriai vizsgálatok Üllő 5. lelőhelyről származó pecsételt töredékeken / Archaeometric analysis of potsherds with stamped ornamentation from Üllő 5.},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {1},
      pages = {39-46},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_1/AM-14-01-SZT.pdf}
    }
    
    Szekszárdi
    Szekszárdi, Adrienn
    A vizsgálati lehetőségek áttekintése a Tokaji-hegységi limnokvarciton és limnoopaliton, a pattintott kőeszközök eredetének azonositása céljából 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(4), pp. 56-71 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The Tokaj Mountain is an excellent place for collecting chipped stone tools due to rich local siliceous rock deposits. The rocks in question are limnoquartzite and limnoopalite. The occurrence of the above minerals is connected to a well-delineated area. Because of the excellent physical properties and easy reach, surface or near surface outcrops, they were a favourite raw material for Palaeolithic tool making. Limnoquartzites and limnoopalites are characteristic raw materials of the Tokaj Mountains. Deposition of these minerals (rocks) is connected to the Miocene intermediate and acidic volcanic and post-volcanic activity. Detailed mineralogical analysis of these silica rock types has already been started, but the archaeometric methods necessary for locating smaller depositional environments have not yet been found. Further future analyses are still needed in order to solve this problem. The subject of this paper is to define the possible methods for the classification of both the local silica rocks and the flint tools prepared from these materials according to the place of origin.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Szekszardi2005,
      author = {Szekszárdi, Adrienn},
      title = {A vizsgálati lehetőségek áttekintése a Tokaji-hegységi limnokvarciton és limnoopaliton, a pattintott kőeszközök eredetének azonositása céljából},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {4},
      pages = {56-71},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_4/AM-2005-4-SZA.pdf}
    }
    
    Szekszárdi et al.
    Szekszárdi, Adrienn; Szakmány, György & T. Biró, Katalin
    Tokaji-hegységi limnokvarcit-limnoopalit nyersanyagok és pattintott kőeszközök archeometriai vizsgálata I..: földtani viszonyok, petrográfia / Archaeometric analysis on limnic quartzite? I. 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(1), pp. 1-18 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The Late-Badenian-Sarmatian siliceous sediments from limnic basins of the Tokaj Mountains were commonly
    used for chipped stone tools in prehistory. These sediments have perfect physical and mechanical properties for
    the purpose. Due to the richness of the outcrops, they were accessible to the inhabitants of the area. Studying
    these tools helps to understand the history of the culture in this region. For this purpose is necessary to describe
    the outcrops and identify the rock types (generally with petrographical analysis).
    The main goals of this study are comparing the limnic-quartzite, limnoopalite raw materials to chipped stone
    tools made from the same rock types, identifying the sources of the artefacts, extending the range of the technical
    methods and working out the methodology to identify the quarries of the stone tools made from limnic quartzite
    or limnoopalite. To approach these goals petrological, geochemical, mineralogical analysis of the artefacts and
    the raw materials were made and the results were compared. Macroscopic and microscopic descriptions were
    used as petrological analysis methods. XRF, NAA, PGAA were used as geochemical analysis and XRD, FTIR as
    mineralogical methods. There is a clear relationship between raw materials and artefacts studied, according to
    the results of this study. A quarry could be assigned for most of the artefacts. The knowledge about the sorting
    method of raw materials for the stone tools was extended. Evidence for the suggestion of sorting parameters
    (phase/rate of silification, chalcedony content, opaline content) were found. Petrographic and mineralogic
    methods were useful to identify the source of the stone tools and to extend the technologic knowledge. The
    geochemical methods should be successful for further exploration.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Szekszardi2010_1,
      author = {Szekszárdi, Adrienn and Szakmány, György and T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {Tokaji-hegységi limnokvarcit-limnoopalit nyersanyagok és pattintott kőeszközök archeometriai vizsgálata I..: földtani viszonyok, petrográfia / Archaeometric analysis on limnic quartzite? I.},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-18},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_1/AM-10-01-SZA.pdf}
    }
    
    Szikszai
    Szikszai, Zita
    Örökségtudományi Laboratórium kiépítése az MTA Atomkiban (GINOP-2.3.3-15-2016-00029) az E-RIHS együttműködés kapcsán 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(4), pp. 291 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Szikszai_2016_4,
      author = {Szikszai, Zita},
      title = {Örökségtudományi Laboratórium kiépítése az MTA Atomkiban (GINOP-2.3.3-15-2016-00029) az E-RIHS együttműködés kapcsán},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {4},
      pages = {291},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_4/AM-2016-4-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Szikszai
    Szikszai, Zita
    Izotóp-klimatológiai és környezetkutató (IKER) központ az MTA Atomki-ban: a recens és paleo-környezetgeokémiai kutatás-fejlesztési irányok megerősítése? GINOP-2.3.2-15-2016-00009
    291-292
    2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(4), pp. 291-292 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Szikszai_2_2016_4,
      author = {Szikszai, Zita},
      title = {Izotóp-klimatológiai és környezetkutató (IKER) központ az MTA Atomki-ban: a recens és paleo-környezetgeokémiai kutatás-fejlesztési irányok megerősítése? GINOP-2.3.2-15-2016-00009
    291-292}, journal = {Archeometriai Műhely}, year = {2016}, volume = {13}, number = {4}, pages = {291-292}, url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_4/AM-2016-4-kozl.pdf} }
    Szilágyi
    Szilágyi, Veronika
    Beszámoló a 10th European Meeting on Ancient Ceramics (10-13 September 2009, London, UK) konferenciáról 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(2), pp. 63-64 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Szilagyi2009,
      author = {Szilágyi, Veronika},
      title = {Beszámoló a 10th European Meeting on Ancient Ceramics (10-13 September 2009, London, UK) konferenciáról},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {2},
      pages = {63-64},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_2/AM-09-02-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Szilágyi
    Szilágyi, Veronika
    Beszámoló a 37. Nemzetközi Archeometriai Szimpóziumról (37th International Symposium on Archaeometry, 12-16 May 2008, Siena, Italy) 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(3), pp. 81-82 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Szilagyi2008,
      author = {Szilágyi, Veronika},
      title = {Beszámoló a 37. Nemzetközi Archeometriai Szimpóziumról (37th International Symposium on Archaeometry, 12-16 May 2008, Siena, Italy)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {3},
      pages = {81-82},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_3/AM-08-03-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Szilágyi
    Szilágyi, Veronika
    Könyvismertető - B. Fabbri - S. Gualtieri - F. Amato: Sulle orme dei primi ceramisti - On the traces of early potter 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(3), pp. 61 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Szilagyi2007,
      author = {Szilágyi, Veronika},
      title = {Könyvismertető - B. Fabbri - S. Gualtieri - F. Amato: Sulle orme dei primi ceramisti - On the traces of early potter},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {3},
      pages = {61},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_3/AM-07-03-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Szilágyi
    Szilágyi, Veronika
    Könyvismertetés - Az agyagművesség évezredei a Kárpát-medencében. Szerk. Holló Szilvia Andrea és Szulovszky János 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(3), pp. 43-44 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Szilagyi2006,
      author = {Szilágyi, Veronika},
      title = {Könyvismertetés - Az agyagművesség évezredei a Kárpát-medencében. Szerk. Holló Szilvia Andrea és Szulovszky János},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {3},
      pages = {43-44},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_3/AM-2006-3-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Szilágyi et al.
    Szilágyi, Veronika; Kis, Zoltán & Szentmiklósi, László
    Neutron imaging for archaeometry /A neutronos képalkotás archeometriai alkalmazása 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(3), pp. 157-172 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This paper gives an overview of neutron imaging applied to cultural heritage science. After introducing the potential of non-destructive imaging techniques (both with neutrons and X-rays), principles of neutron absorption radiography (NR) and tomography (NT) are described and compared to the corresponding X-ray radiography (XR) and tomography (XT). Examples of archaeometric applications made with NR/NT and presented hereafter are related to three major topics: (1) The technological studies investigate the details of the manufacturing method. (2) The functional studies determine the utilization of the objects by examination of the internal content (residues). (3) The corrosion or conservation studies focus on the preservation state and methods of the object. Neutron imaging is proved to be a powerful non-invasive tool in archaeometry, especially for the visualization of organic contents inside metals or less-dense matrices. Synergies between X-ray and neutron imaging are also highlighted.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Szilagyi&al_2016_3,
      author = {Szilágyi, Veronika and Kis, Zoltán and Szentmiklósi, László},
      title = {Neutron imaging for archaeometry /A neutronos képalkotás archeometriai alkalmazása},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {3},
      pages = {157-172},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_3/AM-2016-3-SZV.pdf}
    }
    
    Szilágyi and Szakmány
    Szilágyi, Veronika & Szakmány, György
    Petrographic and geochemical study of ceramics of Neolithic settlements on the northern boundary of the Great Hungarian Plain - Tiszaszőlős-Domaháza (Körös Culture) and Füzesabony-Gubakút (ALP Culture, Szatmár Group) 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(3), pp. 31-46 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The investigations and results presented here were carried out in the framework of a DAAD-MÖB bilateral project. As
    a part of the complex aim of this project, a limited sample collection (containing ceramics, floor and daub) from two
    Neolithic archaeological sites, Tiszaszőlős-Domaháza and Füzesabony-Gubakút, was investigated. In addition to this
    archaeological sample group, geological samples (near surface clayey soils/sediments) were collected from the vicinity
    of the sites to find the most likely sources of raw materials for pottery making. Both ceramic and sediment samples
    were subjected to the same methodological research (microscopic petrographic and instrumental chemical
    investigations). In this way comparable data could be gained.
    One aim of our research was to make a comparison between the ceramic (and other clay derivative) finds of the two
    Neolithic sites (Tiszaszőlős-Domaháza is connected to the Körös, while Füzesabony-Gubakút to the Alföld Linear
    Pottery Culture). It became clear that ? despite the different cultures ? the two pottery assemblages show significant
    technological similarities to each other and to ceramic material from the Körös Culture. The other aim of our research
    was to identify the most probable sources of raw materials for pottery making and to characterise the pottery
    manufacturing process. The results show that Early Neolithic potters probably made their pots directly (without any
    washing or cleaning) from the local alluvial clayey sediment which they could collect from topographic depressions of
    the landscape in the vicinity of the sites. They added variable sized plant remnants to this paste as a temper. Then the
    hand fashioned vessels were fired at a relatively low (700?750°C) temperature in an atmospherically non-controlled
    firing place. A floor remnant from Tiszaszőlős-Domaháza was made of a more carbonatic raw material than the pots.
    On the one hand, our results can help to define the pottery traditions of these two Neolithic sites from an
    archaeological point of view. On the other hand, they can extend the presently sporadic raw data on archaeometrical
    ceramic investigations of this archaeological era.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SzilagyiSzakmany2007,
      author = {Szilágyi, Veronika and Szakmány, György},
      title = {Petrographic and geochemical study of ceramics of Neolithic settlements on the northern boundary of the Great Hungarian Plain - Tiszaszőlős-Domaháza (Körös Culture) and Füzesabony-Gubakút (ALP Culture, Szatmár Group)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {3},
      pages = {31-46},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_3/AM-07-03-SZV.pdf}
    }
    
    Szilágyi et al.
    Szilágyi, Veronika; Szakmány, György & Gyarmati, János
    Inka kori kerámiák petrográfiai vizsgálatának előzetes eredményei (Paria, Bolívia) / Preliminary results of petrographic investigations of Inka pottery (Paria, Bolivia) 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(2), pp. 42-47 
    article URL 
    Abstract: As Inkas were one of the most important culture of South America before the Spanish colonisation it is a
    challenging task to investigate their ceramics. In spite of the lots of finds we have quite limited knowledge about
    their life. This especially holds true of archaeometrical examinations of the pottery.
    There are several facts – for example unified manufacturing, forming and decorating process of pottery – that
    suggest high level organisation of the Inka Empire ranging over 900 000 km2.
    The subject of our research is the archaeometrical-petrographical investigation of pot sherds excavated in a
    provincial centre of the Inka Empire (Paria), in recent Bolivia. Preliminary observations were carried out on
    the collection of sporadic surface ceramic finds. The gained results can furnish basic data to further systematic
    investigations of the excavated finds. The authors’ main goal is to identify the used raw materials and to
    characterise ceramic making technology (raw material preparation, firing).
    The basic method of pottery investigation is the microscopic petrographic observation. The result of this
    examination in general was that the Inka ceramics of Paria are well-fired ones (red in the whole cross-section)
    with hiatal fabric and medial porosity. Main grain size is diverse (50—1000 ?m) and fabric is often oriented.
    Classification of the sherds was based on the mineralogical composition of the non plastic inclusions. Three
    main groups could be distinguished. The first petrographic group of pottery is characterised by angular mineral
    fragments (quartz, feldspar, biotite) as non-plastics, rock fragments are rare. The second group contains
    dominantly clasts of variations of acidic-neutral volcanic-volcanoclastic rocks (isotropic glassy matrix with fine
    lath-shaped feldspar crysts, glass shards or pumiceous-glassy matrix with phenocrystals) and in addition the
    above mentioned mineral fragments. The non-plastics of the third petrographic group mainly consist of well
    rounded siltstone lithofragments and in minor quantity the same mineral clasts as the former groups. The
    inhomogeneous fabric of these pot sherds shows weak elaboration of the raw material. There is one pottery
    fragment in the collection not fitting into the above mentioned groups which contains foliated metamorphites as
    non-plastic inclusions.
    The three petrographic groups have a similar non-plastic composition in respect of volcanic mineral and/or
    rock fragments. This characteristic suggests that the raw material of these potteries could derive from different
    deposits of the same geological setting. Although the possibility of different origin can not be precluded. In
    contrast with the former groups the mentioned unique sherd represents a ceramic type with a metamorphic
    derived raw material and this feature unambigously distinguishes it from the other groups of pottery. In the light
    of this fact this sherd can be interpreted as a fragment of imported product.
    The further aim of our research is to carry out a complex mineralogical-petrographical-geochemical
    investigation of the ceramic collection and to compare the material of pottery with local sediments and
    volcanics.
    This work was supported by the National Research Found (OTKA) No. T-047048 to Gyarmati János.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SzilagyiETAL2005,
      author = {Szilágyi, Veronika and Szakmány, György and Gyarmati, János},
      title = {Inka kori kerámiák petrográfiai vizsgálatának előzetes eredményei (Paria, Bolívia) / Preliminary results of petrographic investigations of Inka pottery (Paria, Bolivia)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {2},
      pages = {42-47},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_2/AM-2005-2-SZV.pdf}
    }
    
    Szilágyi et al.
    Szilágyi, Veronika; Szakmány, György; T. Biró, Katalin; Taubald, Heinrich; Tóth, Mária; Balázs, Réka; Leno, Viktoria; Zöldföldi, Judit & Csengeri, Piroska
    Előtanulmányok a lelőhely specifikus kerámia nyersanyag mintavételezés stratégiájának kidolgozásához a középső neolit Bükki kultúra finomkerámiájának archeometriai vizsgálata kapcsán / Prospecting for archaeological pottery provenance? 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(1), pp. 69-84 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Provenance investigation of archaeological pottery means determining the sources of natural or artificial
    mixture of raw materials, and requires tracking the steps of a complex manufacturing process. The basic step is
    to sample the possible raw materials and to compare them with the pottery. It is a fundamental task to develop
    an effective sampling strategy for ceramic raw materials according to the conditions of the different
    archaeological sites.
    This paper discusses the problems of geological fieldwork during the investigation of Middle Neolithic Bükk
    Culture (c. 5200-5000 B.C.) fine pottery in Hungary. Improving our knowledge on appropriate sampling
    strategy, this study showed two sites with similar geology and slightly different geomorphological position which
    gave different results. The variable influence of the local geology on the near-surface sediments may be the
    underlying reason. Therefore, provenance analysis of archaeological ceramics should be supported by proper
    petrological-mineralogical-geochemical and sedimentological databases, built on systematic sampling and
    investigation of local near-surface sediments. For Neolithic pottery in Hungary we are creating for this purpose
    the CeraMIS database as an initial set of information. Such a dataset can help to better understand the natural
    variability of the potential raw materials of a certain area and help to determine the local or non-local origin of
    pottery.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Szilagyi2011_1,
      author = {Szilágyi, Veronika and Szakmány, György and T. Biró, Katalin and Heinrich Taubald and Tóth, Mária and Balázs, Réka and Viktoria Leno and Zöldföldi, Judit and Csengeri, Piroska},
      title = {Előtanulmányok a lelőhely specifikus kerámia nyersanyag mintavételezés stratégiájának kidolgozásához a középső neolit Bükki kultúra finomkerámiájának archeometriai vizsgálata kapcsán / Prospecting for archaeological pottery provenance?},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {1},
      pages = {69-84},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_1/AM-11-01-SZV.pdf}
    }
    
    Szilágyi et al.
    Szilágyi, Veronika; Szakmány, György; Wolf, Mária & Weiszburg, Tamás
    Az edelényi, X. századi település kerámia lelet-együttesének archeometriai vizsgálata 2004 Archeometriai Műhely
    1(1), pp. 34-39 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The earthwork of Borsod on the castle hill lies on the bank of river Bódva in the town of Edelény 30 km North of Miskolc, North-East Hungary. Excavations were going on here from 1987 to 1999. Archaeological research has proved that ramparts strengthened by a wooden structure, serving as walls of the fortress, were built at the end of the 10th, or at the beginning of the 11th century, at the time of the foundation of the Hungarian State. The fortress functioned as the county town of the newly formed Borsod County of the new state. There was a Hungarian village in the 10th century on the castle hill before the building of the earthwork. This settlement burnt down and eleven houses destroyed by the fire were found. Under the ruins a great variety of archaeological finds came to light among which pottery has an overriding importance. More than 100 complete pots, intact or deformed, were found. Up to now only pots coming from graves could give information on contemporary Hungarian pottery technology. It is now the first time that there is possibility for analysis of ceramics of a closed collection from that period. Besides typological and chronological classifications of the pottery assemblage archaeometrical examinations are also being carried out in order to gain information on pottery making technology and possibly on trade relations. We hope that our results will help to complete our present knowledge on pottery technology of the Hungarians of the 10 th century.
    53 samples chosen from the pottery assemblage through macroscopic examinations were examined by petrographic (polarising) microscope and X-ray powder diffraction (XPD). The aim of the petrographic study was to classify ceramics on the basis of fabric and, where possible, to identify the origin of temper. Tempering material dominantly consists of quartz (monocrystalline quartz, policrystalline quartz, quartz with undulatory extinction) and feldspar (K-feldspar, plagioclase), and low grade metamorphic lithofragments. In addition to this, mica (muscovite), sedimentary (radiolarite, argillaceous rock fragments) and magmatic (extrusive rocks, felsitic quartz, fissure filling chalcedony) lithofragments were found in small quantities. Tourmaline, epidote, amphibole, pyroxene, biotite and opaque minerals appear as accessories. There are few ceramics that contain carbonate or carbonatized temper or that have got a black clay matrix related probably to a clay rich in organic matter. Most ceramics have got hiatal fabric with few exceptions of serial fabric. XPD was applied in order to identify clay matrix and new mineral phases produced by secondary refiring (conflagration). Clay matrix consists of mica (~10?) type mineral(s). Analysis of temper proved the microscopical observations (quartz and feldspar).
    To sum up, it can be stated that temper of ceramics is mostly polimict (metamorphic, magmatic and sedimentary), and a little part of it is monomict (granitoid magmatic). Such a varied composition of rock fragments suggests that the area of provenance was the gathering ground of river Bódva that have got a complex geology. It can be detected that some samples were exposed to a conflagration.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SzilagyiETAL2004,
      author = {Szilágyi, Veronika and Szakmány, György and Wolf, Mária and Weiszburg, Tamás},
      title = {Az edelényi, X. századi település kerámia lelet-együttesének archeometriai vizsgálata},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {1},
      number = {1},
      pages = {34-39},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2004_1/AM-2004-SZV.pdf}
    }
    
    Szilágyi et al.
    Szilágyi, V.; T. Biró, K.; Csengeri, P.; S. Koós, J.; Szakmány, Gy.; Tóth, M. & Taubald, H.
    Előzetes eredmények a bükki kultúra finomkerámiájának nyersanyag azonosítási és technológiai vizsgálatából / Bükk pottery - Master craftsmen of the Stone Age 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(3), pp. 27-40 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Prehistoric pottery used to serve mainly, almost exclusively, simple everyday needs. It is rarely transported
    beyond tribal/cultural boundaries over large distances. The fineware of artistic beauty and high craftsmanship
    of the Middle Neolithic Bükk culture could be an exception to that rule, since the known distribution of the Bükk
    culture fine pottery extends far over the territory occupied by the cultural group.
    Our investigations focused on some basic questions of fine Bükk pottery. The subjects of the research were
    ceramic finds and comparative raw material samples from some important sites of the Bükk culture (Aggtelek-
    Baradla cave, Borsod (Edelény)-Derékegyháza, Felsővadász-Várdomb and Sajószentpéter-Kövecses). Our aim
    was to find out whether special raw materials were selected and/or individual recipes were applied for the
    production of fine Bükk pottery, and if it is possible to fingerprint Bükk wares by archaeometrical methods,
    which will be of essential help in the study of Bükk 'exports', established by stylistic/archaeological methods. The
    framework of the archaeometrical study involved polarising microscopic petrographic observations,
    mineralogical characterisation by XRD method and instrumental geochemical investigation using XRF.
    Although the investigated sample collection was limited and covered only few sites, our research yielded the first
    archaeometrical data on high quality Bükk finewares. It became clear that the representative fine ceramic
    fragments can be clearly distinguished from both the coarser ware and some of the comparative local sediments.
    In addition, the complete fine-ware collection shows inhomogeneity (two quality types) concerning its raw
    material. The results of our complex petro-mineralogical and geochemical investigation provided basic
    knowledge for the further archaeometrical research of Bükk finewares. In addition, it is very probable that the
    determination of the provenance and the description of the making technology can be possible.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SzilagyiETAL2008,
      author = {Szilágyi, V. and T. Biró, K. and Csengeri, P. and S. Koós, J. and Szakmány, Gy. and Tóth, M. and Taubald, H.},
      title = {Előzetes eredmények a bükki kultúra finomkerámiájának nyersanyag azonosítási és technológiai vizsgálatából / Bükk pottery - Master craftsmen of the Stone Age},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {3},
      pages = {27-40},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_3/AM-08-03-SZV.pdf}
    }
    
    Székely
    Székely, Balázs
    A lassú víz és a part ? az Archeometriai Műhely a Scopus adatbázisában / AM in Scopus 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(2), pp. 161-162 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Szekely2010_2,
      author = {Székely, Balázs},
      title = {A lassú víz és a part ? az Archeometriai Műhely a Scopus adatbázisában / AM in Scopus},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {2},
      pages = {161-162},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_2/AM-10-02-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Székely
    Székely, Balázs
    Két érdekes archeometriai szakmai találkozó Ausztriában / Two interesting archaeometry events in Austria 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(4), pp. 72-73 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Szekely2009_4,
      author = {Székely, Balázs},
      title = {Két érdekes archeometriai szakmai találkozó Ausztriában / Two interesting archaeometry events in Austria},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {4},
      pages = {72-73},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_4/AM-09-04-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Székely
    Székely, Balázs
    Ahol októberben mindnyájunknak ott kellene lennünk: Róma, Re.Se.A.R.C.H. Workshop 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(1), pp. 73-74 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Szekely2008a,
      author = {Székely, Balázs},
      title = {Ahol októberben mindnyájunknak ott kellene lennünk: Róma, Re.Se.A.R.C.H. Workshop},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {1},
      pages = {73-74},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_1/AM-08-01-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Székely
    Székely, Balázs
    Archeometriai szekció az European Geosciences Union tavaszi bécsi konferenciáján 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(2), pp. 70 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Szekely2008b,
      author = {Székely, Balázs},
      title = {Archeometriai szekció az European Geosciences Union tavaszi bécsi konferenciáján},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {2},
      pages = {70},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_2/AM-08-02-SZB-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Székely et al.
    Székely, Balázs; Molnár, Gábor & Pattantyús Á., Miklós
    Különböző leletfelderítési módszerek találkozása térben és időben Badacsonytomajon (Villa Rustica) / Encounter of various prospecting techniques in time and space; case study of Villa Rustica at Badacsonytomaj 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(3), pp. 31-40 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Most of the geophysical methods are well-suited to detect shallow archaeological objects. However, the signal
    can be muted by the noise caused by the anthropogeneous debris covering the objects.
    In our study area, in the outskirts of the town of Badacsonytomaj, the Roman archaeological site "Villa
    Rustica", recognised earlier, has been covered by a 2 m thick earth dump in the second half of the 20th century.
    In the uncovered part of the site ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements revealed structures in the soil.
    More to the east, remnants, sometimes contours of buildings have been traced in the GPR images. The southern
    part of the area was not suitable for measurements because of the inhomogeneous dumps.
    According to our assumption, such features can also be traced on archive aerial photographs, taken for military
    mapping purposes, shot before the accumulation of dumps reveal archaeological features in the latter area, too.
    Commonly, the aerial photographs are evaluated visually to delineate indications of archaeological features.
    Our evaluation has been cross-checked by GPR measurements. The GPR results were not known to the observer
    during the visual evaluation. The evaluation results of several orthorectified aerial images were then integrated
    in GIS together with the indications of the GPR images. The position of remnants revealed by the GPR
    correlated strongly with the lineaments. One may expect that such lineaments indicate archaeological features
    in the non-measurable area, too. Consequently, this area is not suitable for commercial development because of
    the plausible presence of archaeological features.
    This combination of techniques may be useful at archaeological sites where parts of the area are not
    measurable, but archive aerial photographs exist predating the change in the land use.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SzekelyETAL2006,
      author = {Székely, Balázs and Molnár, Gábor and Pattantyús Á., Miklós},
      title = {Különböző leletfelderítési módszerek találkozása térben és időben Badacsonytomajon (Villa Rustica) / Encounter of various prospecting techniques in time and space; case study of Villa Rustica at Badacsonytomaj},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {3},
      pages = {31-40},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_3/AM-2006-03-SZB.pdf}
    }
    
    Sánta
    Sánta, Gábor
    Koszideri és halomsíros bronztárgyak komplex vizsgálata ? Összetétel, fázisok és korróziós felületek / Complex Study of Bronze Objects from Koszider and Tumulus Period ?Composition, Phases And Corrosion 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(4), pp. 305?320 
    article URL 
    Abstract: An archaeometallurgical project have founded between the Archaeological department of Szeged University and
    MTA ATOMKI (Nuclear Research Institute of Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen) in 2007 (Sánta et al.
    2007), which has followed in 2010 in Slovenia among the CHARISMA European Archaeometry Program. Our
    group (Gábor Sánta, Zsófia Kertész PhD, ®iga ©mit PhD, Imre Uzonyi PhD, Lajos Daróczi, David Jezerąek,
    László Csedreki) have won measurement time (4 days) in the laboratory of Joľef ©tefan Institute next to
    Ljubljana, Slovenia. We measured 39 objects from the Middle and Late Bronze Age and one piece with
    questionable dating. In February, 2011 the group completed the earlier results with other measurements made in
    the Debrecen laboratory of ATOMKI. We have measured cross-sections of some typical object to get answers
    about the inner phases of bronze, the corrosion and tin-enrichment on the surface. Our results refine the
    methods of bronze archaeometallurgy and reveal the complexity of the problem. This is a preliminary report
    about our results based on a conference presentation in Miskolc, 16-18. May 2011. A multi-author paper will be
    published soon.
    Members of the group in the 2010-2011 session: Gábor Sánta, Zsófia Kertész PhD, ®iga ©mit PhD, Imre Uzonyi
    PhD, Lajos Daróczi, David Jezerąek, László Csedreki.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Santa2011_4,
      author = {Sánta, Gábor},
      title = {Koszideri és halomsíros bronztárgyak komplex vizsgálata ? Összetétel, fázisok és korróziós felületek / Complex Study of Bronze Objects from Koszider and Tumulus Period ?Composition, Phases And Corrosion},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {4},
      pages = {305?320},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_4/AM-11-04-SG.pdf}
    }
    
    Sánta and Uzonyi
    Sánta, Gábor & Uzonyi, Imre
    A halomsíros kultúra néhány dél-alföldi bronztárgyának analitikai vizsgálata / Analytical Study of Late Bronze Age Metal objects. First steps and perspectives 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(3), pp. 19-30 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The main point of the complex cultural changes during the transition from Middle to Late Bronze Age was the
    appearance of Tumulus culture in the Danube-Tisza region. In this culture people buried the dead beneath burial
    mounds made from stone and soil. According to our present knowledge we believe that the ethnically inhomogeneous
    Tumulus culture was made homogenous by commerce (especially bronze commerce).
    The custom of hiding depots was typical of the final period of Middle Bronze Age called Koszider-phase. During the
    Tumulus period the practice of hiding depots came to its end, bronze objects were put into graves. It would be
    important to analyze the relation between the Koszider and Tumulus metallurgy. Were these commercial roots and
    exchange of goods discontinued during the time of cultural changes?
    We chose chiefly the microPIXE and SEM-EDX method for elemental analysis. Examined 6 Tumulus bronze objects
    came to light from two Bronze Age cemeteries of the Southern Great Plain. Created elemental distribution maps and
    determined average compositions.
    Our project is a long-term investigation including elemental analysis, mineralogical, archaeological and metallurgical
    researches.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SantaUzonyi2007,
      author = {Sánta, Gábor and Uzonyi, Imre},
      title = {A halomsíros kultúra néhány dél-alföldi bronztárgyának analitikai vizsgálata / Analytical Study of Late Bronze Age Metal objects. First steps and perspectives},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {3},
      pages = {19-30},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_3/AM-07-03-SG.pdf}
    }
    
    Sánta
    Sánta, Zsombor
    Nagyfelbontású repülési idő diffraktométer a Budapesti Neutron Kutatóközpontban / TOF powder diffractometer at the Budapest Neutron Center 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(2), pp. 22-26 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The TOF neutron diffractometer installed at the Budapest Research Reactor in collaboration with the Hahn-
    Meitner Institute is ready for preliminary measurements; it will become usable to its full capabilities only with
    the large-surface detector. The instrument with wide range of variable diffraction parameters and with the
    intense thermal neutron beam is capable to get full diffraction spectra as well as to study the Bragg peaks in
    high resolution mode, i.e. to identify crystalline (mineral and metal) materials and investigate the preparation
    mode of objects.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Santa2006,
      author = {Sánta, Zsombor},
      title = {Nagyfelbontású repülési idő diffraktométer a Budapesti Neutron Kutatóközpontban / TOF powder diffractometer at the Budapest Neutron Center},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {2},
      pages = {22-26},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_2/AM-2006-2-SZS.pdf}
    }
    
    Sárközy
    Sárközy, Gabriella
    Megemlékezés Éri Istvánról / Commemoration: István Éri 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(2), pp. 107-110 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sarkozy2010_2,
      author = {Sárközy, Gabriella},
      title = {Megemlékezés Éri Istvánról / Commemoration: István Éri},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {2},
      pages = {107-110},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_2/AM-10-02-SG.pdf}
    }
    
    Sümegi
    Sümegi, Pál
    Archeomalakológiai vizsgálatok Magyarországon / Archaeomalacological research in Hungary 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(2), pp. 101-116 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This paper presents the history of the archaeomalacological researches in Hungary. In Hungary and, in fact, in
    the whole Carpathian Basin the first archeomalacological investigations were carried out by the royal geologist
    Heinrich Wolf (1867) in the 1860ies. Following this, further studies were made by Henrik Horusitzky (1870-
    1944) and Tivadar Kormos (1881-1946) of the Department of Agrogeology, Royal Geological Institute,
    Budapest, followed by the inventories of Kálmán Czógler (1884-1952) from Szeged and Mihály Rotarides (1893-
    1950). These experts processed materials from loess layers collected within the Carpathian Basin, as well as
    from the Holocene layers and mollusc specimens and remains found in archaeological sites, but these materials
    were all collected selectively. After Second World War the pioneers of modern Hungarian archaeomalacology
    such as Andor Horváth from 1954 and Endre Krolopp from 1958 onwards have processed materials from
    several archaeological sites. Even so the archaeomalacological studies of the archaeological sites have been
    started from only the 1980ies on the basis of the investigation of the followers of Professor Endre Krolopp.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sumegi2011_2a,
      author = {Sümegi, Pál},
      title = {Archeomalakológiai vizsgálatok Magyarországon / Archaeomalacological research in Hungary},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {2},
      pages = {101-116},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_2/AM-11-02-SP1.pdf}
    }
    
    Sümegi
    Sümegi, Pál
    Kis- balatoni és balatoni fúrások archeomalakológiai vizsgálatának eredményei / The results of the archaeomalacological investigaton of the core sequences from Balaton and Little Balaton basins 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(2), pp. 137-156 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Lake Balaton is the largest freshwater lake in Central Europe, with an open water surface of ca. 600 km2. It is
    77 km long and 8 to 14 km wide, with an average depth of only 3 to 4 m. Between the Tihany Peninsula and the
    village of Szántód, Lake Balaton is at its most narrow, with a distance of only 1.5 km. The northernmost part of
    this strait, the so-called ?Tihany well? is the deepest part of the lacustrine basin with a depth of 11.6 metres.
    Some independent neotectonic catchment basins, one of them, the area of the Kis-Balaton, is located west of the
    basin system of Lake Balaton, the second one, the area of Szigliget bay can be found northern basin system of
    Lake Balaton. Historical data and maps show that, up until the beginning of the 19th century, this extensive
    swamp used to be part of a larger unregulated lake system of Lake Balaton. This paper presents the results of a
    multidisciplinary palaeoecological and geoarchaeological study implemented on sedimentary sequences,
    including three undisturbed cores, of Keszthely-Fenékpuszta, Balatonederics and Balatontördemic. The sites
    form a part of the so called Kis-Balaton, Szigliget bay, Tördemic bay and areas situated in the western and
    northern parts of the neotectonic basin system of Lake Balaton. One of the principal aims of this study was to
    shed light on how former human societies and cultures shaped and altered their natural environment based on
    archeomalacological data. Another aim was to reconstruct the original environmental conditions characterizing
    the area preceding the emergence of a productive economy. Although several environmental-historical studies
    about the past 17.000 cal BP years have been carried out in the wider surroundings of the sites, this paper
    mainly focuses on and around the time of settlements from Mesolithic age to the Early Middle Ages.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sumegi2011_2b,
      author = {Sümegi, Pál},
      title = {Kis- balatoni és balatoni fúrások archeomalakológiai vizsgálatának eredményei / The results of the archaeomalacological investigaton of the core sequences from Balaton and Little Balaton basins},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {2},
      pages = {137-156},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_2/AM-11-02-SP2.pdf}
    }
    
    Sümegi et al.
    Sümegi, Pál; Bede, Ádám & Szilágyi, Gábor
    Régészeti geológiai, geoarcheológiai és környezet-történeti elemzések régészeti lelőhelyeken. A földtudományok és a régészet kapcsolata / Analyses of archeological geology, geoarcheology and environmental history on the archeological sites. Contact between earth sciences and archeology 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(2), pp. 135-150 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    Mineralogical, geological and paleontological analyses of archaeological tools and features have started already in the 18th century. These sporadic investigations were followed by systematic geological analysis from the middle of the 19th century. Following the proposals of Flóris Rómer archaeologist at this time in Hungary in the 1860s, geoarchaeological research started at first by the analysis of obsidian stone tools and later by the analysis of kurgans. Nowadays, geoarcheological analyses relate to two different types of archaeological forms, negative and positive exogeological forms. Negative forms were created by human populations in the soil level and bedrock and we analyze and interpret the material of archeological features if they were accumulated in a sedimentary basin. According to these investigations we performed extralocal realized site-catchment analyses. As a result, we could reconstruct the natural environment of more human cultures, among others the regional and local milieu of the Urnfield and Tumulus cultures. Among positive anthropogenic geological forms we introduced the geoarcheological analysis of kurgans. By the magnetic susceptibility analysis of Lyukas-halom (Hajdúnánás?Tiszavasvári), Őr-halom (Sárrétudvari) and Ecse-halom (Karcag?Kunmadaras) we were able to separate the different phases of accumulation of these kurgans. Furthermore, it was also possible to prove the formation of the bedrock and soils that cover the surface of kurgans.
    Kivonat
    A régészeti tárgyak és régészeti objektumok ásványtani, kőzettani, geológiai és őslénytani elemzése már a XVIII. században elkezdődött. Ezeket a szórványos analíziseket a régészeti objektumok rendszeres geológiai vizsgálata követte a XIX. század közepétől. Ezek a vizsgálatok Rómer Flóris régész javaslatára hazánkban is ebben az időszakban ? az 1860-as években ? indultak meg. Előbb az obszidián kőeszközök vizsgálatával, majd a kurgánok elemzésével indultak a geoarcheológiai kutatások. Napjainkban a régészeti lelőhelyeken végzett vizsgálatok kétféle emberi hatásra kialakított, negatív és pozitív exogeológiai formákhoz kötődnek. A negatív formákat a talajszintben és fekü kőzetrétegben alakították ki az egykori emberi közösségek, és a bennük felhalmozódott üledéket, vizsgálati anyagot úgy értelmeztük, mint egy üledékgyűjtő medencében lerakódott vizsgálati objektumot. Ezen adatok nyomán elvégeztük az extralokális realizált erőforráskörzet-elemzést (extralocal realized site-catchment analyses). Ennek nyomán több kultúrának, többek között az urnamezős és a halomsíros kultúráknak is sikerült a regionális és a lokális léptékű környezeti hátterét megrajzolnunk. Az emberi tevékenység nyomán kialakított pozitív geológiai formák közül elsősorban a kurgánok elemzését mutattuk be. A Lyukas-halom (Hajdúnánás?Tiszavasvári), az Őr-halom (Sárrétudvari) és az Ecse-halom (Karcag?Kunmadaras) szelvényeiből kiemelt minták mágneses szuszceptibilitásának elemzésével sikerült a kurgánok két felhalmozási szakaszát és a fekü, valamint a kurgánok felszínét borító talajképződmények fejlődési körülményeinek különbözőségeit elkülöníteni.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sumegi&al2015_2,
      author = {Sümegi, Pál and Bede, Ádám and Szilágyi, Gábor},
      title = {Régészeti geológiai, geoarcheológiai és környezet-történeti elemzések régészeti lelőhelyeken. A földtudományok és a régészet kapcsolata / Analyses of archeological geology, geoarcheology and environmental history on the archeological sites. Contact between earth sciences and archeology},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {2},
      pages = {135-150},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_2/AM-2015-02-SP.pdf}
    }
    
    Sümegi et al.
    Sümegi, Pál; Kozák, János & Csaba, Tóth
    Tiszapolgár ? Kenderföld bronzkori tell kagylóanyagának táplálkozásbiológiai (paleozoológiai) feldolgozása / The feeding biological (paleozoological) investigation on shellfishing from Bronze Age tell at Tiszapolgár ? Kenderföld 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(2), pp. 197-208 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This paper presents a new feeding biological method for analysing prehistoric shellfishing material from Bronze
    Age tell at Tiszapolgár ? Kenderföld. These values are used for determining whether the mussels served as a
    main or only a supplementary food source. This information may also reveal the approximate number of
    individuals the total meat could have provided for on the basis of the nutrition content of the soft material. In
    order to determine the live weight of the animals, along with the weight of their soft material or meat, and the
    derivable energy content, the main biometric parameters of the shells (shell height, shell width, the index of
    flatness = H/W, weight of the shells) should be recorded. These parameters, where possible, were captured with
    the help of a caliper at an accuracy of 0.5 mm. The weight of the shells was recorded using laboratory scales.
    The size and shape variants were used as an input into further analyses. Kiss (1990) has carried out detailed
    morphometric and population ecological investigations on living Unionidae from River Tisza in Hungary and
    found a strong correlation between the width of the shells and the live weight as well as the weight of the soft
    material via regression analysis. Where we could gain a measurement of shell widths, the species-dependent
    empirical formulae of Kiss (1990) were used to calculate the living weight and the derived meat of our studied
    mussels.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sumegi2011_2c,
      author = {Sümegi, Pál and Kozák, János and Tóth Csaba},
      title = {Tiszapolgár ? Kenderföld bronzkori tell kagylóanyagának táplálkozásbiológiai (paleozoológiai) feldolgozása / The feeding biological (paleozoological) investigation on shellfishing from Bronze Age tell at Tiszapolgár ? Kenderföld},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {2},
      pages = {197-208},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_2/AM-11-02-SP3.pdf}
    }
    
    Sümegi et al.
    Sümegi, Pál; Törőcsik, Tünde; Náfrádi, Katalin; Sümegi, P. Balázs; Majkut, Péter; Molnár, Dávid & Tapody, Réka
    Radiocarbon dated complex paleoecological and geoarcheological analyses at the Bodrogkeresztúr?Henye Gravettian site (NE Hungary) / A bodrogkeresztúri Henye-tetői Gravetti lelőhely complex paleoökológiai és geoarcheológiai elemzése 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(1), pp. 31-42 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Many radiocarbon dated loess profiles within Gravettian sites were analysed in the Carpathian Basin during
    last 30 years in LOGRAV (Loess and Gravettian) Project. According to sedimentological, geochemical, malacological,
    charcoal, pollen, phytolith, vertebrate data from 36 radiocarbon dated Upper (Weichselian) Würmian or
    MIS3 ? MIS2 loess profiles this chronological unit determined from the inferred paleoclimatic and paleoecological
    changes embeds a period between 29 000 ? 12 000 uncal (33 500 ? 13 500 cal) BP years which is reconstructed
    such as the exist of the Gravettian culture communities in the Carpathian Basin. One of the most important and
    oldest Gravettian sites can be found on the Henye Hill at Bodrogkeresztúr village. Although the re-evalution of
    the Gravettian culture communities (or ?Gravettian Entity?) reveals several problems in using 14C dates for
    chronological considerations but the radiocarbon dated paleoecological and geoarcheological analyses keep a
    good contact with archeological layer of Gravettian site because a mass of hunted bones can be found in a spruce
    remains rich reddish brown color fossil soil layer material on the top of Henye Hill at Bodrogkeresztúr. This fossil
    soil layer called Upper Tokaj Fossil Soil Horizon which is a lithostratigraphic and paleoecological indicator layer
    for older horizon of the Gravettian sites on the Hungarian Upland region.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SumegiETAL2016_1,
      author = {Sümegi, Pál and Törőcsik, Tünde and Náfrádi, Katalin and Sümegi, P. Balázs and Majkut, Péter and Molnár, Dávid and Tapody, Réka},
      title = {Radiocarbon dated complex paleoecological and geoarcheological analyses at the Bodrogkeresztúr?Henye Gravettian site (NE Hungary) / A bodrogkeresztúri Henye-tetői Gravetti lelőhely complex paleoökológiai és geoarcheológiai elemzése},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {1},
      pages = {31-42},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_1/AM-2016-1-SP.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin
    SACHA - Portal: plans for an on-line information centre on the basis of the IAEA program nuclear technology for cultural heritage / SACHA - Portál: on-line információs szolgáltatás tervezet... 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(4), pp. 263-264 
    article URL 
    Abstract: On the initiative, and with the financial support of the International Atomic Agency (IAEA) a wide international program was launched for the application of nuclear techniques in the protection, and for the scientific analysis of cultural heritage. As part of this initiative, a project webpage was started within the RER 00034 program (?Enhancing the Characterization, Preservation and Protection of Cultural Heritage Artefacts?, 2012-13). This dedicated webpage aimed at presenting partner institutions of the project and their results on the field of the application of nuclear techniques for arts and archaeology in the widest sense. The setting up of the webpage was financially supported by the IAEA and the technical and informatical background was provided by our Cypriot colleagues (Yiannis Parpottas and Demetris Kaolis). Acknowledging the usefulness of the webpage but also pointing at problems in contents, access and maintenance, on the closing meeting of the subsequent RER 0039 program (?Extending and Diversifying the Application of Nuclear Technology in Cultural Heritage?) the project participants suggested an expert meeting to evaluate and possibly enhance the project webpage. The solution suggested is a complete re-organisation and extension of the webpage, from a specific project webpage to the level of a portal establishing contacts between analysts and heritage experts. We hope that SACHA-portal (Scientific Approaches to Cultural Heritage Artefacts) will be implemented during the current year (2016).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biro2015_4,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {SACHA - Portal: plans for an on-line information centre on the basis of the IAEA program nuclear technology for cultural heritage / SACHA - Portál: on-line információs szolgáltatás tervezet...},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {4},
      pages = {263-264},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_4/AM-2015-4-TBK.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin
    39. Nemzetközi Archeometriai Szimpózium (2012. május 28. ? június 1, Leuven, Belgium) / 39th International Symposium on Archaeometry 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(1), pp. 1-4 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The 39th International Symposium on Archaeometry (ISA) took place in Leuven, Belgium, between 28th May and
    1st of June, 2012. According to the tradition of the AM since 2004, the Hungarian-related workspresented on the
    conference were introduced to Hungarian professionals on the meeting of the Archaeometry Working Group of
    the HAS and the Archaeometry Workshop on the 15th of November at the Research Centre for Astronomy and
    Earth Sciences of the HAS. The papers in the current issue of the Archaeometry Workshop were compiled from
    the material of contributions to ISA 39.
    More details on the conference are presented below.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biro2013_1a,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {39. Nemzetközi Archeometriai Szimpózium (2012. május 28. ? június 1, Leuven, Belgium) / 39th International Symposium on Archaeometry},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-4},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_1/AM-13-01-TBK.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin
    Archeometriai Műhely X. évfolyam 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(1), pp. 93 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biro2013_1b,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {Archeometriai Műhely X. évfolyam},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1},
      pages = {93},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_1/AM-13-01-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin
    Lektorok: Az Archeometriai Műhely 2013. évfolyamának lektorai 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(4), pp. 314 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biró2-2013_4,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {Lektorok: Az Archeometriai Műhely 2013. évfolyamának lektorai},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {4},
      pages = {314},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_4/AM-13-04-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin
    Konferencia beszámoló. ?Stories Written in Stone?. International Symposium on Chert and other Knappable Materials. 2013. augusztus 20-24 Iasi, Romania 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(4), pp. 313 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biró2013_4,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {Konferencia beszámoló. ?Stories Written in Stone?. International Symposium on Chert and other Knappable Materials. 2013. augusztus 20-24 Iasi, Romania},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {4},
      pages = {313},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_4/AM-13-04-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin
    Magyarországi kovakőzetek kutatása. /Investigation of siliceous rocks in Hungary / Investigation of Siliceous Rocks in Hungary 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(3), pp. 211?218 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Siliceous rocks, used for the production of chipped stone artefacts, represent one of the most important raw
    materials in prehistory. Their use is of primary importance in the Palaeolithic period and also very significant
    as markers of territoriality, trade and contacts in the younger periods of prehistory. The investigation of
    siliceous rocks in Hungary should involve rocks which crop out on the current territory of Hungary as well as
    rocks known and used here in prehistory, originating from more distant areas. The paper summarises actual
    problems of siliceous rock studies and their role in interpreting archaeological lithic material as we know today.
    Special attention is paid to problematic issues.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biro2011_3,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {Magyarországi kovakőzetek kutatása. /Investigation of siliceous rocks in Hungary / Investigation of Siliceous Rocks in Hungary},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {3},
      pages = {211?218},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_3/AM-11-03-TBK.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin
    5. Petroarcheológiai Szeminárium, 2011 november 24, Brno / Participant?s report on the 5th Petroarchaeological Seminar, Brno 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(4), pp. 371 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biro2011_4,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {5. Petroarcheológiai Szeminárium, 2011 november 24, Brno / Participant?s report on the 5th Petroarchaeological Seminar, Brno},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {4},
      pages = {371},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_4/AM-11-04-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin
    Két digitális konferenciakötet 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(1), pp. 106 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biro2010_1,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {Két digitális konferenciakötet},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {1},
      pages = {106},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_1/AM-10-01-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin
    Régi-új elektronikus kiadványok: IRTO/IRAMTO teljes szöveggel / Industrial Archaeology / Industrial Archaeology and Archaeometry Newsletter available in full text electronical version 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(2), pp. 161 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biro2010_2,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {Régi-új elektronikus kiadványok: IRTO/IRAMTO teljes szöveggel / Industrial Archaeology / Industrial Archaeology and Archaeometry Newsletter available in full text electronical version},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {2},
      pages = {161},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_2/AM-10-02-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin
    Terminological practice for siliceous rocks in Hungary from petroarchaeological point of view / Kovakőzetek terminológiája: magyarországi gyakorlat petroarcheológiai szempontból 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(3), pp. 195-202 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The terminology of siliceous rocks is an important issue for archaeometry, in the first place, petroarchaeology.
    It is imperative that scientific communications should use sound nomenclature with stable disciplinary
    background that are recognised and acknowledged by scholars of other disciplines and other countries as well.
    This paper aims at summarising the Hungarian practice on the basis of mapping geology, lithostratigraphic
    units and petroarchaeological practice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biro2010_3,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {Terminological practice for siliceous rocks in Hungary from petroarchaeological point of view / Kovakőzetek terminológiája: magyarországi gyakorlat petroarcheológiai szempontból},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {3},
      pages = {195-202},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_3/AM-10-03-TBK.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin
    Petrogenetical grouping of the most important siliceous sediments (A fontosabb kovaüledékek petrogenetikai osztályozása). After Balogh 1991. 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(3) 
    electronic URL 
    BibTeX:
    @electronic{Biro2010_3-appendix,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {Petrogenetical grouping of the most important siliceous sediments (A fontosabb kovaüledékek petrogenetikai osztályozása). After Balogh 1991.},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {3},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_3/AM-10-03-appendix.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin
    Geokémiai vizsgalati lehetőségek őskori kőeszközökön / Potentials of geochemical investigation of prehistoric stone tools 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(1), pp. 05-10 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Lithic implements are the most conspicuous finds of the earliest period of human history. The versatile potentials
    of their investigation - typology, technology, determination of provenance and the investigation of traces of use
    make them a primary source for the research. Archaeology in its classical sense as well as 'new archaeology',
    inclined to apply (natural) scientific methods in their argumentation both strive for exploiting this basis of
    information reflecting the skills, expertise, needs, action radius and system of connections of our ancestors. The
    choice of raw materials for the lithic implements reflect the high level of 'applied geological' expertise of these
    people. The selected raw materials are often rare and special rock and mineral types, the selection of which was
    most conscious. High quality requirements offer us the possibility to use provenance data in reconstructing
    supply areas and long distance trade.
    The cognisance of significant raw material types and their source areas formed an essential part of the basic
    knowledge of prehistoric peoples and should be accordingly known to students of this period. Provenance
    studies can be based upon a parallel and constantly widening study of both the archaeological material and the
    raw material sources. In this process, geochemical investigations have a key role.
    This paper will present some classical examples on the application of geochemical methods on stone tools,
    questions solved or still open. The aspects of the analysts and the archaeologists are often in conflict with each
    other and may have an element of the irrational as well: the investigations should be complete, exact, multielemental;
    at the same time, non-destructive and 'cheap', at least not expensive. Interpretation should be
    accurate and technical but also understandable for lay persons and it is regarded best when the support existing
    preconceptions. In the slimy zone of interdisciplinary activities it is very easy to make mistakes that will have a
    serious effect of the interpretation of the results. Obvious ways for the solution include rising the level of
    education, working together and publish results fast and accurately.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biro2009a,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {Geokémiai vizsgalati lehetőségek őskori kőeszközökön / Potentials of geochemical investigation of prehistoric stone tools},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {1},
      pages = {05-10},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_1/AM-09-01-TBK.PDF}
    }
    
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin
    Megjelent: EMAC'07 Budapest 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(2), pp. 64 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biro2009b,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {Megjelent: EMAC'07 Budapest},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {2},
      pages = {64},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_2/AM-09-02-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin
    Megjelent: Moreau, J-F. and Auger, R. and Chabot, J. and Herzog, A., eds. (2009): Proceedings ISA 2006 36th International Symposium on Archaeometry, 2-6 May Quebec City, Canada CELAT, Université Laval Québec pp.1-504 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(2), pp. 62 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biro2009c,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {Megjelent: Moreau, J-F. and Auger, R. and Chabot, J. and Herzog, A., eds. (2009): Proceedings ISA 2006 36th International Symposium on Archaeometry, 2-6 May Quebec City, Canada CELAT, Université Laval Québec pp.1-504},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {2},
      pages = {62},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_2/AM-09-02-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin
    "Black Box" meeting at Sárospatak. Editorial preface to AM 2008/1 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(1), pp. 01-2 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In the framework of the Ancient Charm Project (Analysis by Neutron resonant Capture Imaging and other Emerging
    Neutron Techniques: new Cultural Heritage and Archaeological Research Methods, http://ancient-charm.neutroneu.
    net/ach), imaging potentials of non-destructive neutron analytical methods are evaluated for archaeological
    applications. Prior to working on real archaeological specimens, so-called 'black boxes' were constructed (and
    characterised) for tests of the various methods. This issue of Archaeometry Workshop is dedicated to the study of these
    experimental test objects on the basis of a workshop held in November 2007 at Sárospatak.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biro2008,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {"Black Box" meeting at Sárospatak. Editorial preface to AM 2008/1},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {1},
      pages = {01-2},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_1/AM-08-01-TBK.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin
    Vértes László és a nyersanyag kutatások / Vértes and raw material studies 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(2), pp. 17-22 
    article URL 
    Abstract: László Vértes had an encyclopaedical knowledge on natural history, especially earth sciences. Consequently, he
    could initiate and achieve important progress in the study of raw materials of prehistoric stone artefacts as well.
    He was perfectly aware of the significance of provenance studies in tracing prehistoric connections and
    structure of society. Together with several co-authors, he published a number of important sites with detailed
    description of the raw material used. Together with Lajos Tóth, performed and published the first instance of
    high-tech analysis with archaeometrical purposes, locating and fingerprinting a specific regional lithic raw
    material, Szeletian felsitic porphyry.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biro2008b,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {Vértes László és a nyersanyag kutatások / Vértes and raw material studies},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {2},
      pages = {17-22},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_2/AM-08-02-TBK.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin
    GENUS - Kretzoi Miklós és a múzeumi informatika / GENUS database - Miklós Kretzoi and museum informatics 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(1), pp. 55-58 
    article URL 
    Abstract: One of the many fields of interest pursued by Miklós Kretzoi is vertebrate taxonomy. He used to collect evidences
    on Mammalian species and genera since 1927. The tangible result of this activity is a monograph published in
    2000 entitled Index generum et subgenerum Mammalium. In course of the work preceding the publication of the
    monograph the data set was organised into a database and made available on internet for three years as part of
    the contributions of the Hungarian National Museum to the database project of the NIIF (National Information
    Infrastructure Project), under the name of GENUS database. With major modifications in the HNM informatical
    system, the availability of the databases ceased.
    Following the publication of the monograph and in honour of Miklós Kretzoi, on the occasion of the 100th
    anniversary of his birth, we revitalised the database in another system at the server of the Archaeocomp
    association (www.ace.hu/GENUS). At the same time, some key statistical data were collected that were put
    forward by him but which he could not accomplish any more.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biro2007a,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {GENUS - Kretzoi Miklós és a múzeumi informatika / GENUS database - Miklós Kretzoi and museum informatics},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {1},
      pages = {55-58},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_1/AM-2007-01-TBK.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin
    Könyvismertető - Szakáll Sándor szerk., Az ásványok és az ember a mai Magyarország területén a XVIII. század végéig. 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(3), pp. 62 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biro2007b,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {Könyvismertető - Szakáll Sándor szerk., Az ásványok és az ember a mai Magyarország területén a XVIII. század végéig.},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {3},
      pages = {62},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_3/AM-07-03-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin
    Könyvismertetés - Körlin, Gabriele--Weisgerber, Gerd eds., Stone Age- Mining Age. Proceedings of the VIIIth Flint Symposium 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(3), pp. 44-45 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biro2006konyv,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {Könyvismertetés - Körlin, Gabriele--Weisgerber, Gerd eds., Stone Age- Mining Age. Proceedings of the VIIIth Flint Symposium},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {3},
      pages = {44-45},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_3/AM-2006-3-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin
    Az "Erosion and Humidity" program keretében végzett kutatások: Magyarország / Hungarian activities in the framework of the project "Erosion and Humidity" 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(3), pp. 22-25 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In the frames of E&H in Hungary, research on prehistoric and modern construction materials were performed. The focus of research was on classsical building materials, potentially used in different way by prehistoric people (for polished stone tools and other utensils, e.g., grinders, quernstones). Prehistoric building materials (daub) was also investigated. The centre of interest was an important industrial and scientific enterprise of the early 20th century, the sample collection on active stone quarries of coeval Hungary extending now to the territory of 8 countries. In the catalogue published by F. Schafarzik in 1904, altogether 3178 quarries from 2515 localities were presented, by rock type, availability, petrological description, use. Among these, approximately 1000 quarries belong to the territory of present-day Hungary. To all of the rocks suitable for carving (that is, with the exception of loose sedimentary rocks), samples fashioned into regular cubes were attached, worked in different manner on all sides. This sample collection used to serve mainly commercial interest.Unfortunately, during the time passed, most of the cubes were lost. A considerable portion however was preserved, mainly in the Budapest Polytechnical University.
    In course of the one-year project, 112 stone quarries mentioned in the Schafarzik-catalogue have been visited. We took GPS coordinates, photos and samples. The samples were inspected for possible use in prehistoric and historical times; potential prehistoric raw materials were sampled and further investigated by petrographical and geochemical methods. Possible historical use of the raw materials was noted. We have also visited other quarries and raw material sources known to be important in prehistoric times for special series of analysis, like glassy andesite, varieties of silex, sandstone and clay/loam for daub (prehistoric construction material). Part of the Schafarzik quarries could have served as quarries in the historical, archaeological and prehistoric periods. These quarries were paid special attention to. We cleaned and registered available Schafarzik-cubes at the Budapest Polytechnical University, put them in dust-free boxes. This work is not finished yet. We have deposited newly collected specimens from the quarries in the comparative raw material collection of the Hungarian National Museum (Litotéka), inventorised them and selected samples for further petrographical, chemical etc. analyses.Data from the Schafarzik-catalogue was extracted and registered on Excel-sheets. The most important pieces of information was organised into a web-based data retrieval system with suitable structure to convey field survey and collection data information. The comparative raw materials were inventorised into a new Oracle-based documentation system. Former comparative raw material data (published in two catalogue volumes in 1991 and 2000, respectively) were also retrospectively migrated to this inventory system. Documentation photos on the quarries and the cubes were archived on DVDs and selected characteristic images incorporated to the website.
    Different types of instrumental analyses were performed both on prehistoric archaeological finds and comparative raw material samples. The analytical techniques involved petrographical thin sections, electron microprobe, promt-gamma activation analysis, neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, ICP-MS. Mineral-chemistry methods were applied on a series of andesite samples, both on archaeological material and quarry samples, for the first time in support of archaeological provenance studies in Hungary. The evaluation of most of the analytical results is still in progress and will be published in the near future.
    Some of the potential/known prehistoric quarries were not in use by 1904 already. Notably, flint mines were definitely out of general interest.In the framework of the project, geophysical survey and excavation was devoted to Nagytevel-Quarry (modern limestone quarry with flint nodules; only occurrence of s.s. flint in Hungary. Mining activity was proved here and research is to be continued.
    The most important data derived from the Schafarzik-catalogue are displayed on a bilingual interactive web site, www.ace.hu/schaf, together with project activity results.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biro2005,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {Az "Erosion and Humidity" program keretében végzett kutatások: Magyarország / Hungarian activities in the framework of the project "Erosion and Humidity"},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {3},
      pages = {22-25},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_3/AM-2005-TBK.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin
    Gyűjtemény és adatbázis: eszközök a pattintott kőeszköz nyersanyag azonosítás szolgálatában / Collection-and-Database Approach in the Study of Lithic Raw Material Provenance 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(4), pp. 46-51 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The study of the raw material of chipped stone artefacts is one of the most efficient means for the investigation of the action radius and the system of connections of Palaeolithic and Prehistoric communities. Our ancestors had an excellent knowledge on their environment and the availability and physical qualities of the raw materials suitable for producing their tools. The relevant knowledge formed part of the basic intellectual wealth concerning subsistence.
    The surface morphology and, as a consequence, accessibility of the sources has changed essentially. Only part of the former sources of raw materials can be reached and even the existing sources are seemingly disappearing. It was in the last of minutes that a team in the Hungarian Geological Institute lead by József Fülöp started a general survey for the collection of applicable prehistoric raw material sources in the 1980-ies. As a result of this survey, most of the raw materials sources previously unknown to international petroarchaeological research were spotted and mapped, reference samples collected. In 1986, on the basis of the collected material, a special reference collection was founded in the Hungarian National Museum called Lithotheca. The collection is systematically increased ever since. In the first years, the collection supported almost exclusively chipped stone raw material studies that was extended first towards polished stone tools and recently also other stone utensils. Regionally, the focus of interest is basically the Carpathian basin and raw materials used within this geographical unit, but in the case of high quality raw materials important in prehistoric trade, the scope extends world-wide.

    So far, several articles, two printed catalogue volumes, an illustrated bilingual homepage and database on several platforms has been made. The collection serves as an established reference tool, offering valuable material also for different exhibitions. We are gradually increasing the applied instrumental analyses on the material of the collection and control samples of petroarchaeological projects on selected archaeological finds also contribute to the increase of the Collection.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Biro2005c,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {Gyűjtemény és adatbázis: eszközök a pattintott kőeszköz nyersanyag azonosítás szolgálatában / Collection-and-Database Approach in the Study of Lithic Raw Material Provenance},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {4},
      pages = {46-51},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_4/AM-2005-4-TBK.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin
    Könyvismertetés / Book review Bánffy Eszter: The 6th Millennium BC Boundary in Western Transdanubia and its Role in the Central European Neolithic Transition. Varia Archaeologica Hungarica, 2004 pp. 1-451, ill. 1-174. 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(3), pp. 26 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biro2005konyv,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {Könyvismertetés / Book review Bánffy Eszter: The 6th Millennium BC Boundary in Western Transdanubia and its Role in the Central European Neolithic Transition. Varia Archaeologica Hungarica, 2004 pp. 1-451, ill. 1-174.},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {3},
      pages = {26},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_3/AM-2005-3-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin
    Rövid beszámoló a 34. Nemzetközi Archeometriai Szimpóziumról 2004 Archeometriai Műhely
    1(1), pp. 01-2 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The 34th ISA Conference in Zaragoza attracted a large attention and considerable participation of Hungarian scientists, both from Hungary and also abroad. It seemed a good idea to present the contribution of Hungarians in the framework of the Archaeometry Workshop of the HNM; also, the papers serve a good starting point for the new e-journal.
    The stable interest and large participation is undoubtedly rooted in the possibility to host ISA in Budapest (1998); a lot of new projects, intensification of training and acceptance of archaeometry as standard means for archaeological investigations are among the benefits. The editors of this new journal intend to serve the same objectives by launching this periodical.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biro2004a,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {Rövid beszámoló a 34. Nemzetközi Archeometriai Szimpóziumról},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {1},
      number = {1},
      pages = {01-2},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2004_1/AM-2004-ISA34.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin
    A kárpáti obszidiánok: legenda és valóság 2004 Archeometriai Műhely
    1(1), pp. 03-8 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This paper is intended to give a review on the study of Carpathian Obsidian. The name implies the only source region in Central Europe, for long, the only source of archaeological obsidian in Continental Europe. Their archaeological, as well as geological research started in the sixties of the 19th century by the activity of pioneering personalities of Hungarian archaeology, geology and archaeometry. By the late 1970-ies, separation of Carpathian obsidian sources from other sources of European and other Mediterranean sources could be achieved (investigations of Warren and Williams), and intensive studies continued in the past decades. In spite of several publications devoted to the subject, there are still a lot of clearly erroneous views lingering in technical literature concerning the location of the sources and allocation of archaeological specimens.
    The first review of the author on the Carpathian obsidian was published in 1981: in the meantime, several research groups performed smaller or bigger research series on related finds, using various methods of analysis (NAA, EDS, XRF, FTD, PIXE-PIGE and recently, PGAA). Collection of obsidian distribution was completed using reference data as well as analysis of various assemblages dating from Middle Palaeolithic to Iron Age. Distribution maps were compiled for specific periods using percentage values. Access strategies, political implications could be claimed on the basis of changes in distribution areas.
    The present study contains a review of recent achievements, prepared for the project IGCP-442 (Raw Materials of Neolithic Artifacts) as well as in the frames of the project "Raw material atlas Non-metallic prehistoric raw materials on the territory of Hungary and adjacent regions" (OTKA- T 025086).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biro2004b,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {A kárpáti obszidiánok: legenda és valóság},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {1},
      number = {1},
      pages = {03-8},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2004_1/AM-2004-TBK.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró et al.
    T. Biró, Katalin; Józsa, Sándor; J. Szabó, Katalin & M. Virág, Zsuzsanna
    Duna: a nagy szállítószalag / Danube: the big prehistoric conveyor belt 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(1), pp. 33-50 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The Danube is one of the largest rivers in Europe. It is transecting several countries and mountains from its
    sources in the Black Wood till its estuary at the Black Sea. Along the Danube, there was always a great
    movement of people as well as mineral substances. Recent investigations into the load of the river (gravel beds)
    fortunately met with petroarchaeological investigation of prehistoric settlement along the Danube in the
    environs of Budapest. On the Budapest-Nánási út settlement of the younger period of the Middle Neolithic TLPC
    (Trandanubian Linearband Pottery Culture) culture, an unusually large amount of pebble material was found
    clearly in secondary, anthropogenic context. Many of them showed intensive traces of utilisation. The variety of
    pebble material allowed us to include the Danube as a major transporter and source of raw materials. Recent
    petrographic and morphologic characterisation studies of the Danube pebbles at the gravel pits of Dunavarsány
    offer the possibility to compare lithological character and morphological features of the outcrops and the site.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biroetal2013_1,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin and Józsa, Sándor and J. Szabó, Katalin and M. Virág, Zsuzsanna},
      title = {Duna: a nagy szállítószalag / Danube: the big prehistoric conveyor belt},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1},
      pages = {33-50},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_1/AM-13-01-TBKetal.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró et al.
    T. Biró, Katalin; Szabó, Lőrinc Márk; Szentmiklósi, László; Korom, Csaba & Salamon, István
    3D visualisation and multidisciplinary analytical techniques on cultural heritage objects from the collection of the Hungarian National Museum / 3D megjelenítési technikák és lehetséges archeometriai alkalmazásuk a Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum műtárgyain 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(4), pp. 243-250 
    article URL 
    Abstract: 3D visualisation techniques can serve archaeometric provenance studies by supporting non-destructive characterisation methods. In this paper, specific gravity measurements supported by 3D imaging techniques will be considered. The subject of analysis is so-called ?greenstone? axes, all of them items of high prestige transported by long distance trade networks in prehistory. The 3D images obtained by (1) laser scanning (2) image matching methods help us fully document the artefacts and furthermore calculate the volume exactly. The advantages and drawbacks of these imaging techniques will be considered in respect of ?greenstone? characterisation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biro&al2014_4,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin and Szabó, Lőrinc Márk and Szentmiklósi, László and Korom, Csaba and Salamon, István},
      title = {3D visualisation and multidisciplinary analytical techniques on cultural heritage objects from the collection of the Hungarian National Museum / 3D megjelenítési technikák és lehetséges archeometriai alkalmazásuk a Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum műtárgyain},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {4},
      pages = {243-250},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_4/AM-2014-4-TBK.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró and Szilágyi
    T. Biró, K. & Szilágyi, V.
    Annotated bibliography of Hungarian pottery archaeometrical studies / Magyarországi kerámia-archeometriai kutatások bibliográfiája 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(2), pp. 55-78 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{BiroSzilagyi2007,
      author = {T. Biró, K. and Szilágyi, V.},
      title = {Annotated bibliography of Hungarian pottery archaeometrical studies / Magyarországi kerámia-archeometriai kutatások bibliográfiája},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {2},
      pages = {55-78},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_2/AM-2007-02-annot.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró et al.
    T. Biró, Katalin; Szilágyi, Veronika & Kasztovszky, Zsolt
    Új adatok a Kárpát-medence régészeti radiolarit forrásainak ismeretéhez / New data on the characterisation of radiolarite sources of the Carpathian Basin 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(3), pp. 25-44 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Radiolarite is a siliceous rock formed in the bathyal region - deep sea and ocean environment. It is composed of
    Radiolaria, unicellular organisms with siliceous skeletal elements. Radiolarians as a taxon have a long range,
    they are known since the Palaeozoic till recent times. In rock-forming quantities, however, they are typical of the
    Mesozoic period.
    As raw material for chipped stone tools, radiolarite is frequently used. On the average, it is the most frequent
    component of lithic inventories in Hungary and even more, in Transdanubia. There are macroscopically
    separable types among the radiolarites, mainly on the basis of colour and other physical properties. They are
    currently named after the most characteristic geological source locality. It remains a question though, how
    much the 'raw material types' represent really different sources; how variability within each source is reflected
    in the archaeological lithic material and how much we can separate regional varieties, supported by objective
    methods of analysis. It is also imperative to know radiolarites from sources outside the present territory of
    Hungary that may have played a role in the raw material supply and 'fingerprint' the individual sources and
    regions.
    One of the basic aims of the current TéT project was to get more information on these issues. The paper
    presented will survey current state of art in respect of radiolarite sourcing studies in the Carpathian Basin as a
    result of the Croatian-Hungarian collaboration project. As a result, new analytical data and characteristic
    major element distributions of radiolarite raw materials from Gerecse, Bakony and Mecsek mountains are
    published. By the comparison with chemical data on archaeological radiolarite artefacts from sites in Hungary,
    Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, preliminary suggestions for the provenance of archaeological radiolarites
    are provided. Stone tools of sites in the Gerecse and at Nadap are possibly originated from the Gerecse source.
    Radiolarite artefacts of site Vörs may be related to raw material of Bakony. Archaeological finds of Szálka site
    have similar chemical character to the Mecsek raw materials. Chert artefacts of Fajsz can not be directly
    connected neither to the Mecsek nor to the Gerecse source. Chipped stone tools from Croatia and Bosnia can
    not be compared chemically to the radiolarite types of Hungary. However, the carbonate-free Bosnian
    radiolarite seems to serve as a potential ?new? raw material source. o serve as a potential ?new? raw material
    source.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BiroETAL2009_3,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin and Szilágyi, Veronika and Kasztovszky, Zsolt},
      title = {Új adatok a Kárpát-medence régészeti radiolarit forrásainak ismeretéhez / New data on the characterisation of radiolarite sources of the Carpathian Basin},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {3},
      pages = {25-44},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_3/AM-09-03-TBK.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró et al.
    T. Biró, Katalin; Székely, Balázs; Svingor, Éva & Járó, Márta
    Az Archeometriai Műhely szerkesztőbizottságának új tagjai / New members of the Editorial Board 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(1), pp. 57-60 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{BiroETAL2012_1,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin and Székely, Balázs and Svingor, Éva and Járó, Márta},
      title = {Az Archeometriai Műhely szerkesztőbizottságának új tagjai / New members of the Editorial Board},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {1},
      pages = {57-60},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_1/AM-12-01-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró et al.
    T. Biró, Katalin; Tóth, Erzsébet; Dúzs, Krisztina & Puszta, Sándor
    Új eredmények a Tata, Kálvária-dombi kovabánya kutatásában / News from H-3 (Kálvária-Domb (Calvary Hill), Tata) 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(4), pp. 237-244 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Tata-Kálváriadomb is one of the oldest known ?flint mines? in Hungary. It was excavated in the 1960-ies by J. Fülöp and E. Bácskay. It had already been included in the first European flint mine catalogue. The archaeological age of the exploitation was attributed to the Late Copper Age Baden Culture, based on the evidence of pottery fragments found in the extraction pits. The site is equally famous for its geological features (Upper Triassic-Lower Cretaceous sedimentary sequence) and is open to public as a geological park, including the flint extraction pits (developed on Jurassic radiolarite).
    Recent conservation work in the geological park has led to the discovery of new mining features in 2015. A test trench on the bedrock surface, 42 meters from the old pits yielded at least three antler tools with cutmarks and a new mining pit for the radiolarite. The antler tools were suitable for radiocarbon dating performed in the ATOMKI, Debrecen by M. Molnár and his team and extended the known period of use of the mine to the Late Neolithic period/Early Copper Age Lengyel Culture. We are aiming at further excavations on the Tata site.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biro_et_al_2016_4,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin and Tóth, Erzsébet and Dúzs, Krisztina and Puszta, Sándor},
      title = {Új eredmények a Tata, Kálvária-dombi kovabánya kutatásában / News from H-3 (Kálvária-Domb (Calvary Hill), Tata)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {4},
      pages = {237-244},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_4/AM-2016-4-TBK.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin szerk.
    Archeometria és Kognitív régészeti Konferencia, Miskolc 2011.05.16-17
    Miskolci Akadémiai Bizottság, Miskolci Egyetem és az Archeometriai Műhely szervezésében (I)
    Archaeometry and Congitive Archaeology, Miskolc 16-17.05.2011
    Conference organised by the Miskolc Committee of the HAS, the Miskolc University and the Archaeometry Workshop of the Hungarian Archaeological and Art Historical Society (I)
    2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(3), pp. 211-282 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biroed2011_3,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin szerk.},
      title = {Archeometria és Kognitív régészeti Konferencia, Miskolc 2011.05.16-17
    Miskolci Akadémiai Bizottság, Miskolci Egyetem és az Archeometriai Műhely szervezésében (I)
    Archaeometry and Congitive Archaeology, Miskolc 16-17.05.2011
    Conference organised by the Miskolc Committee of the HAS, the Miskolc University and the Archaeometry Workshop of the Hungarian Archaeological and Art Historical Society (I)}, journal = {Archeometriai Műhely}, year = {2011}, volume = {8}, number = {3}, pages = {211-282}, url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_3/2011_3_tartalom.html} }
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin szerk.
    Archeometria és Kognitív régészeti Konferencia, Miskolc 2011.05.16-17
    Miskolci Akadémiai Bizottság, Miskolci Egyetem és az Archeometriai Műhely szervezésében (I)
    Archaeometry and Congitive Archaeology, Miskolc 16-17.05.2011
    Conference organised by the Miskolc Committee of the HAS, the Miskolc University and the Archaeometry Workshop of the Hungarian Archaeological and Art Historical Society (II)
    2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(4), pp. 285-370 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biroed2011_4,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin szerk.},
      title = {Archeometria és Kognitív régészeti Konferencia, Miskolc 2011.05.16-17
    Miskolci Akadémiai Bizottság, Miskolci Egyetem és az Archeometriai Műhely szervezésében (I)
    Archaeometry and Congitive Archaeology, Miskolc 16-17.05.2011
    Conference organised by the Miskolc Committee of the HAS, the Miskolc University and the Archaeometry Workshop of the Hungarian Archaeological and Art Historical Society (II)}, journal = {Archeometriai Műhely}, year = {2011}, volume = {8}, number = {4}, pages = {285-370}, url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_4/2011_4_tartalom.html} }
    T. Biró
    T. Biró, Katalin szerk.
    Újkőkori kerámiák távolsági kereskedelme / Long distance trade in Neolithic pottery
    Programzáró ülés / Closing event (I)
    2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(4), pp. 227-258 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biroed2010_4,
      author = {T. Biró, Katalin szerk.},
      title = {Újkőkori kerámiák távolsági kereskedelme / Long distance trade in Neolithic pottery
    Programzáró ülés / Closing event (I)}, journal = {Archeometriai Műhely}, year = {2010}, volume = {7}, number = {4}, pages = {227-258}, url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_4/2010_4_contents.html} }
    T. Dobosi
    T. Dobosi, Viola
    Kódok és lyukszegélykártyák. Vértes László módszere az őskőkori leletek feldolgozására / Codes and punch-cards. Methods used by Vértes for the elaboration of Palaeolithic material 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(2), pp. 01-6 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The scientific elaboration of Palaeolithic materials attracted methods of quantitative analysis from a relatively
    early time. This type of analysis should rely on a unified and consequent method of data acquisition and
    processing. By the application of punch cards, the most modern methodology before the general availability of
    computers, László Vértes set good examples on the largest Hungarian Palaeolithic assemblages of the time, Tata
    and Vértesszőlős.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dobosi2008,
      author = {T. Dobosi, Viola},
      title = {Kódok és lyukszegélykártyák. Vértes László módszere az őskőkori leletek feldolgozására / Codes and punch-cards. Methods used by Vértes for the elaboration of Palaeolithic material},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {2},
      pages = {01-6},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_2/AM-08-02-TDV.pdf}
    }
    
    T. Dobosi
    T. Dobosi, Viola
    Tűzhelyek Vértesszőlősön / Hearth places at the Lower Palaeolithic site Vértesszőlős 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(3), pp. 01-7 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Vértesszőlős, excavated between 1963 and 1968 by László Vértes is still the richest authentically excavated
    Lower Palaeolithic site in Hungary. The finds were embedded partly in calcareous tuff, partly in loess between
    the tuff layers, in undisturbed condition forming intact settlement layers. The varied and large quantity of
    scientific evidence made the minute reconstruction of the living and inorganic environment possible. The
    geomorphological, faunistical and botanical evidence dated the site to the period of the interstadial of the
    second glaciation in Central European sense (Mindel period) till the end of the same glaciation. The absolute
    chronology of this period varies amidst wide boundaries, depending on the applied methods. Among the 8900
    pebble tools found on the site, 5800 could be classified into formal typological categories. The nonstandardised
    tools are basically split pebbles of geometric base forms. The average length of the tools is 26- 28
    mm. Apart from the archaeological material, the most remarkable features of the settlement were fireplaces. On
    both settlement surfaces (Sites I. and III.) several hearths of 30- 40 cm diameter were excavated. According to
    the reconstruction, the fire formed by natural forces on the territory rich in wood was preserved in a special
    manner. The fireplaces, originally constructed of wood, were covered with fatty animal bones cut to 3- 5 cm
    large pieces. This solution gave a more lasting fire, that needed less care and gave more heat. The hearths were
    found close to the walls of the tetarata basins of 10- 12 m diameter or at the deepest points of the basins. On
    some of the burnt bones with better state of preservation we can find cutmarks originating from stone- tools
    during the de- fleshing of the bones.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dobosi2006,
      author = {T. Dobosi, Viola},
      title = {Tűzhelyek Vértesszőlősön / Hearth places at the Lower Palaeolithic site Vértesszőlős},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {3},
      pages = {01-7},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_3/AM-2006-03-TDV.pdf}
    }
    
    Taubald and T. Biró
    Taubald, Heinrich & T. Biró, Katalin
    Archaeometrical analysis of Neolithic pottery and comparison to potential sources of raw materials in the immediate environment of the settlements' - A first summary of the MÖB-DAAD exchange program 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(2), pp. 01-4 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The project we give an account about is the second archaeometrical research project between the Tübingen
    University and the Hungarian National Museum, with contributions from Institute for Geochemical Research,
    Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Isotopes, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Geochemical Research
    Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the Budapest University of Technology and Economics. The first
    project (2001-2002), initiated by Judit Zöldföldi, was centred on the study of Roman marble and yielded
    important data on decorative stones of the Roman empire within the Carpathian Basin (Zöldföldi et al. 2004).
    The second project focussed on pottery, notably the earliest pottery production at various parts of Hungary.
    New excavation material from different geographical and geological environment was selected. Apart from
    pottery proper, we have investigated soil samples from the site environs and the closest likely sources of highquality
    potter's clay. In two field seasons, altogether 10 sites were sampled by shallow hand-drilled boreholes.
    The collected sediments as well as representative number of Early Neolithic, Middle Neolithic and Copper Age
    sherds were investigated by petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical methods. As a result, we could get
    an overview on the variety of earliest prehistoric pottery, regional differences and production techniques. We
    could compare ceramics, daub and local sediments and define different strategies of pottery production and
    give a reference library of data for further studies on pottery petrography. An overview of the project is
    presented here.
    BibTeX:
    @article{TaubaldBiro2007,
      author = {Taubald, Heinrich and T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {Archaeometrical analysis of Neolithic pottery and comparison to potential sources of raw materials in the immediate environment of the settlements' - A first summary of the MÖB-DAAD exchange program},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {2},
      pages = {01-4},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_2/AM-2007-02-HT.pdf}
    }
    
    Taubald and T. Biró
    Taubald, Heinrich & T. Biró, Katalin
    "Archaeometrical analysis of Neolithic pottery and comparison to potential sources of raw materials in their immediate environment" - Application of new analytical, non-destructive X-ray techniques and Sr isotope measurements 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(2), pp. 01-4 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In collaboration of Tübingen University and the Hungarian National Museum, archaeological and geological
    samples from different Neolithic excavation sites and their geographical surroundings will be investigated, the a
    new MÖB-DAAD project lasts from 2005 to 2006. All sites are located in Hungary and have ample scientific
    evidences. State of the art analytical methods will be applied to evaluate the history of pottery production
    (question of on-site production or transportation), usage of raw material (geochemical and/or petrological
    correlation between clay deposits and pottery) and production processes (e.g. firing temperatures, temper).
    Analytical details and applicability of Sr-isotope method and a new non destructive XRF technique are
    described. In addition, different XRF methods are compared, including a non destructive method.
    BibTeX:
    @article{TaubaldBiro2005,
      author = {Taubald, Heinrich and T. Biró, Katalin},
      title = {"Archaeometrical analysis of Neolithic pottery and comparison to potential sources of raw materials in their immediate environment" - Application of new analytical, non-destructive X-ray techniques and Sr isotope measurements},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {2},
      pages = {01-4},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_2/AM-2005-2-HT.pdf}
    }
    
    Teľak-Gregl and Burić
    Teľak-Gregl, Tihomila & Burić, Marcel
    Kora-neolitikus közösségek kőeszközeinek archeometriai vizsgálata Prompt Gamma Aktivációs Analízissel 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(3), pp. 1-4 
    article URL 
    Abstract: After two initial years of work on Hungarian-Croatian project "Archaeometrical research of lithic raw materials
    for early Neolithic prehistoric communities with the help of Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis, with special
    regard to radiolarites and obsidians", this paper brings part of its outcomes: current achievements and guidelines
    for future steps from Croatian perspective. The very first petrographical analyses of Neolithic obsidian and
    radiolarites excavated on Croatian soil were covered with this research. Also, a few accessible samples from
    Bosnia and Herzegovina were also processed for a first time. Authors suggest a potential obsidian data-base in
    which all (or part of) known information of analysed samples would be stored and accessible via Internet.
    BibTeX:
    @article{TezakGregl&Buric2009_3,
      author = {Teľak-Gregl, Tihomila and Burić, Marcel,},
      title = {Kora-neolitikus közösségek kőeszközeinek archeometriai vizsgálata Prompt Gamma Aktivációs Analízissel},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {3},
      pages = {1-4},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_3/AM-09-03-MB.pdf}
    }
    
    Theodoridou
    Theodoridou, Magdalini
    A Székesfehérvári Romkert építőköveinek előzetes petrográfiai vizsgálata a műemlékvédelem problémái szempontjából / Preliminary petrographic investigation of building stones in the Székesfehérvár Ruin Garden, Hungary. 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(3), pp. 53-60 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The Székesfehérvár Ruin Garden is a unique assemblage of cultural heritage in Hungary. It is comprised of a provostal
    church, dedicated to Virgin Mary, royal tombs and related ecclesial and lay buildings. Its construction begun
    approximately in 1018 by King Stephen I, the first King of the Hungary?s Christian kingdom and it used to serve as a
    burial and coronation church for Hungarian Kings. Between the 11th-15th centuries it was reconstructed several times.
    The Turkish occupation (1543-1688) was the beginning of the destruction of the church assemblage, which went on by
    using it as a storage facility and even as a quarry until its final demolition by the current bishop and the municipality
    during the 18th -19th centuries. First excavations were carried out in the 19th century. The National Office for the
    Protection of Historic Monuments started the geological investigation of the territory in 1995. The present research
    takes part in a new microregional research plan of the Hungarian National Museum in frames of science for
    conservation.
    Four fieldworks contributed to a deeper comprehension of the ruins. The existing drawings of the site are modified and
    enhanced in order to help the presentation and documentation of the research. The proposed research topic is based on
    the identification, characterisation and weathering of building stone used in the different phases of the construction.
    The next step of the research was the sampling process. After a macroscopic investigation, the samples were
    specifically treated according to their individual characteristics in order to proceed to the procedure of thin-section
    making. General petrographic characteristics were achieved by microscopic investigation, carried out with polarising
    microscope.
    The main identified rock types are: I) calcareous sandstone and sandy limestone, II) fossiliferous limestone, III) red
    fossiliferous micritic limestone, IV) marble, V) rhyolite and VI) red sandstone.
    In the future, further investigations will lead to the creation of a map depicting the identified lithotypes, a geographical
    map highlighting their possible origins and a map of decay. The research will be completed by the selection of few rock
    types. The main criteria for this selection will be the distribution of the material in the construction and the common
    decay phenomena. Preceding researches that are relevant to the topic will be also taken into account. Further analysis
    will be carried out as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), as well as physical and
    mechanical measurements and tests. The main characteristics will be discussed and correlated to the decay forms, in
    order to achieve a general strategic approach based on a diagnosis that could represent a tool for the conservation of
    the monument.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Theodoridou2007,
      author = {Magdalini Theodoridou},
      title = {A Székesfehérvári Romkert építőköveinek előzetes petrográfiai vizsgálata a műemlékvédelem problémái szempontjából / Preliminary petrographic investigation of building stones in the Székesfehérvár Ruin Garden, Hungary.},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {3},
      pages = {53-60},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_3/AM-07-03-MT.pdf}
    }
    
    Thiele et al.
    Thiele, Ádám; Lengyel, Boglárka & Mráv, Zsolt
    Római kocsi vasalkatrészeinek archeometriai vizsgálata / Archaeometrical Analyses of Iron Parts of a Roman-Age Carriage 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8, pp. 321?328 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Recently, Roman wagon graves have been excavated in Budaörs (Country Pest, Hungary). Archaeometrical
    analyses (metallographic, micro-hardness measurement, microanalysis by SEM-EDX) were carried out in case
    of five iron-part artifacts of a Roman carriage. All of the examined iron parts had different kinds of strain
    (abrasion, bending, etc. stress). On the basis of the results, we tried to answer the question: Did the ancient
    blacksmiths use sufficient iron material and processing technology against the mechanical strain? We can state
    that with some exceptions, regarding most of the iron parts the ancient materials and technologies were suitable
    against the mechanical strain in the light of modern engineering as well.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Thieleetal2011_4,
      author = {Thiele, Ádám and Lengyel, Boglárka and Mráv, Zsolt},
      title = {Római kocsi vasalkatrészeinek archeometriai vizsgálata / Archaeometrical Analyses of Iron Parts of a Roman-Age Carriage},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      pages = {321?328},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_4/AM-11-04-TAetal.pdf}
    }
    
    Thiele and Török
    Thiele, Ádám & Török, Béla
    Vastermelés, vaskihozatal és a kohósított gyepvasércek minimálisan szükséges vastartalma az avar és Árpád-kori vasbucakohászatban / Iron production, iron yield and the minimal iron content of bog iron ores regarding avar and Árpád-age bloomery iron smelting 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(4), pp. 345?350 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This study tries to answer two basic questions of industrial archaeologists arising related to archaeological
    excavations of Avar and Árpád-Age bloomery workshops:
    1. How much iron did a given excavated bloomery workshop produce?
    2. What was the minimal iron content of the bog iron ores used for a successful iron smelting process?
    These questions could be answered using a kind of calculation method firstly, on the basis of the results of
    archaeometrical analyses of excavated bog iron ore and slag samples, secondly, on the basis of the experiences
    of the iron smelting experiments used to reconstruct the period technology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Thiele2011_4,
      author = {Thiele, Ádám and Török, Béla},
      title = {Vastermelés, vaskihozatal és a kohósított gyepvasércek minimálisan szükséges vastartalma az avar és Árpád-kori vasbucakohászatban / Iron production, iron yield and the minimal iron content of bog iron ores regarding avar and Árpád-age bloomery iron smelting},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {4},
      pages = {345?350},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_4/AM-11-04-TA.pdf}
    }
    
    Thiele et al.
    Thiele, Ádám; Török, Béla; Haramza, Márk & Juhász, Gergely Marcell
    A díszít? kovácshegesztés (pattern-welding) szerepe 2-10. századi kard- és késpengékben ? korh?en rekonstruált vasanyagok maratási vizsgálata / The role of pattern-welding in 2-10th century knife and sword blades ? etching tests on reconstructed materials 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(2), pp. 127-136 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Pattern-welding is a well-known technique that was widely employed in sword-manufacturing. The pattern-welding technique derives from piled composites in which the deliberate piling of steel and wrought iron together was employed. During the 2-10th century, the base material for typical pattern-welding was not steel, as it is often supposed, but phosphoric iron; the combination of phosphoric iron and wrought iron or steel was widely used. The surface pattern became visible after etching. In this paper we try to find the answer for the question: In which material combination and etching technology did the most contrastive and visible pattern in pattern-welded objects appear?
    We smelted iron blooms of different base material (phosphoric iron, wrought iron and steel), from which pattern welded specimens were forged. We carried out etching tests on metallographic samples cut out of the pattern welded specimens using six different acids (which could be available in the 2-10th century) under two different conditions concerning acid concentration, temperature and etching time. Macro images were taken of the etched surface. The histograms of the images were analysed using Photoshop CS3. Based on the contrast difference between the two layers and the homogeneity of the colour of each layer a preference list of the material combination and etching technology could be made. The most visible pattern appeared after the etching of the pattern welded sample made of the combination of phosphoric iron and tempered steel using 20% hydrochloric acid for 10sec on 70°C.
    BibTeX:
    @article{THIELE_2014_2,
      author = {Thiele, Ádám and Török, Béla and Haramza, Márk and Juhász, Gergely Marcell},
      title = {A díszít? kovácshegesztés (pattern-welding) szerepe 2-10. századi kard- és késpengékben ? korh?en rekonstruált vasanyagok maratási vizsgálata / The role of pattern-welding in 2-10th century knife and sword blades ? etching tests on reconstructed materials},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {2},
      pages = {127-136},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_2/AM-14-02-TA.pdf}
    }
    
    Thiele et al.
    Thiele, Ádám; Török, Béla & KöltHo), László
    A foszfor szerepe a vas somogyi archeometallurgiájában ? avar és Árpád-kori vaskohászatból származó somogyi salakok SEM-EDS vizsgálata / The role of phosphorus in the archaeometallurgy of iron: SEM-EDS analysis on slag samples from Avar and Árpád-age bloomery workshops of Somogy County 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(1), pp. 13-22 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Based on the archaeometrical investigations carried out on archaeological iron artefacts and iron blooms in
    recent years it can be stated that phosphoric-iron (P-iron, low carbon steel with 0,5-1,5 wt% P) was widely used
    in different parts of the world in the medieval times, however P is an avoided element in the modern industry.
    We have conducted several smelting experiments in the copies of the an excavated, embedded type of furnace
    using P-rich bog iron ores from Somogy County and P-iron with 0,5-2,5 wt% of P was regularly extracted.
    Nevertheless there is only very few archaeometrical evidence of producing and using P-iron in the Carpathianbasin.
    In this study we tried to explore the role of phosphorous in the arhaeometallurgy of iron in the Carpathian basin
    answering the question: was P-iron widely produced in the Carpathian-basin, especially in Somogy County?
    Regarding this question we have carried out SEM-EDS analysis on 12 iron slag samples originating from 5 Avar
    or Árpád-age bloomery workshops. P appeared in 2-5 wt% amount in these samples and a typical
    microstructure of the slag sample was needled tricalcium-phosphate. The slag samples also contained high
    amount of Ca (5-21 wt%) which situated mostly in olivine phase.
    Based on the results of SEM-EDS analysis of the slag samples we can state that P-rich local bog iron ores were
    smelted during the bloomery process but adding limestone to control the P content of the resulted iron bloom
    could be also supposed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Thiele2013_1,
      author = {Thiele, Ádám and Török, Béla and KöltHo), László},
      title = {A foszfor szerepe a vas somogyi archeometallurgiájában ? avar és Árpád-kori vaskohászatból származó somogyi salakok SEM-EDS vizsgálata / The role of phosphorus in the archaeometallurgy of iron: SEM-EDS analysis on slag samples from Avar and Árpád-age bloomery workshops of Somogy County},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1},
      pages = {13-22},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_1/AM-13-01-TA.pdf}
    }
    
    Torma
    Torma, István
    Régészeti vonatkozású helynevek a történelmi Magyarország területén / Locality names with archaeological implications in the territory of historical Hungary 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(2), pp. 67-74 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    The name of the archaeological localities is not a simple label or means for denomination but in many cases means considerable help, especially for old appellations, in locating and classifying the localities. A part of the site names denotes the archaeological locality in itself. This paper deals with such loquacious names. The author has collected, partly from archaeological literature, partly from place-names and old maps, over 5000 denominations from the territory of historical Hungary, for further scientific elaboration.
    Locality names with archaeological implication offer a wide variety of analytical possibilities; this study can present only a taster without claiming completeness. More attention is paid here, illustrated with a large number of instances, to place names, grouped according to archaeological phenomena.
    In the multi-national country, a specific locality may have often had two or three names. Quite frequently, even a detailed local historical study is not adequate to judge, which was the original name. Names adopted from foreign languages can be distorted beyond recognition. The author is drawing attention to specific problems emerging when analysing names of archaeological interest.
    Kivonat
    A régészeti lelőhelyek neve nemcsak azonosító védjegy, hanem különösen a régebbiek esetében elősegíti a pontosabb helyhez kötést. A nevek közül sok önmagában is lelőhelyre utal. A dolgozat az utóbbi típusú nevekkel foglalkozik. A szerző ? további elemző feldolgozás céljából ? a régészeti irodalomból, a földrajzi névgyűjteményekből, a régi térképekről eddig mintegy 5000 régészeti vonatkozású nevet gyűjtött a történeti Magyarország területéről.
    A régészeti vonatkozású helynevek többféle vizsgálati lehetőségéből jelen tanulmányban a teljesség igénye nélkül csak néhányat mutat be. Részletesebben, sok példával illusztrálva tárgyalja a helynevek régészeti objektumok szerinti csoportosítását.
    A soknemzetiségű országban nem ritkán két-háromnyelvű neve is volt egy-egy objektumnak. Nagyon sokszor beható helytörténeti vizsgálattal sem dönthető el, hogy melyik az eredeti név. Az idegenből átvett nevek az idők folyamán szinte a felismerhetetlenségig eltorzultak.
    A szerző felhívja a figyelmet a régészeti vonatkozású helynevek vizsgálatakor jelentkező problémákra is.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Torma2015_2,
      author = {Torma, István},
      title = {Régészeti vonatkozású helynevek a történelmi Magyarország területén / Locality names with archaeological implications in the territory of historical Hungary},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {2},
      pages = {67-74},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_2/AM-15-02-TI.pdf}
    }
    
    Tugya
    Tugya, Beáta
    Könyvismertetés / Book Review
    Környezet ? Ember ? Kultúra: Az alkalmazott természettudományok és a régészet párbeszéde. Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum?Nemzeti Örökségvédelmi Központ 2010. október 6-8-án megrendezett konferenciájának tanulmánykötete
    2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(2), pp. 133-134 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tugya2012_2,
      author = {Tugya, Beáta},
      title = {Könyvismertetés / Book Review
    Környezet ? Ember ? Kultúra: Az alkalmazott természettudományok és a régészet párbeszéde. Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum?Nemzeti Örökségvédelmi Központ 2010. október 6-8-án megrendezett konferenciájának tanulmánykötete}, journal = {Archeometriai Műhely}, year = {2012}, volume = {9}, number = {2}, pages = {133-134}, url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_2/AM-12-02-kozl.pdf} }
    Tugya et al.
    Tugya, Beáta; Kovács, Zsófia E.; Pető, Ákos; Herendi, Orsolya; Sándorné Kovács, Judit; Logan, Melissa K. & Cummings, Linda S.
    Csontvelő felhasználásának bizonyítéka Hódmezővásárhely?Kopáncs I., Olasz-tanya lelőhely (Csongrád megye) badeni település 98/103. számú gödrének kerámiájában / Evidence of bone marrow consumption in the Baden Culture based on the examination of a bowl excavated from pit 98/103 at Hódmezővásárhely?Kopáncs I., Olasz-tanya (Csongrád county) archaeological site 2012 Archeometriai Műhely
    9(1), pp. 39-52 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Settlement features of the Late Copper Age Baden culture at Kopáncs were excavated at the south-western
    boundary of Hódmezővásárhely in the autumn of 2009. Feature (pit) 98/103 yielded a brownish-grey, 11 cm
    high intact bowl with burnt patches, slightly outcurving rim and a body form of an upturned truncated cone,
    tempered with sand and grit. We examined its contents, with the intent of determining the bowl?s function.
    Therefore, we conducted analyses of plant and animal remains as well as organic residue analysis of the vessel.
    The dominance of animal remains was indicated by the bone fragments inside the fill and the absence of
    macrofloral remains. The base fragment of the Baden vessel was examined using Fourier transform infrared
    spectroscopy (FT-IR). Data refer to the one-time presence of bone marrow. In addition to investigating the
    vessel, we collected recent bone marrow samples from cattle (Bos taurus L.), domestic pig (Sus domesticus
    Erxl.), and sheep (Ovis capra L.) species to examine their FT-IR signatures. The bone fragments of the species
    mentioned occurred both inside the vessel and in the feature. FT-IR data suggest the presence of fats and a
    minor peak for non-specific proteins that had been integrated into and accumulated within the vessel?s wall,
    indicating that the vessel was used to process or cook bone marrow, suggesting rendering fat from bones. The
    examination of vessel contents is not yet widespread at Hungarian sites and only a few examples are known in
    connection with the Baden culture. The FT-IR analysis of the organic residues contained within the vessel wall
    from Hódmezővásárhely has added new data, supported by evaluations, to what we have known thus far about
    the culture?s eating habits.
    BibTeX:
    @article{TugyaETAL2012_1,
      author = {Tugya, Beáta and Kovács, Zsófia E. and Pető, Ákos and Herendi, Orsolya and Sándorné Kovács, Judit and Logan, Melissa K. and Cummings, Linda S.},
      title = {Csontvelő felhasználásának bizonyítéka Hódmezővásárhely?Kopáncs I., Olasz-tanya lelőhely (Csongrád megye) badeni település 98/103. számú gödrének kerámiájában / Evidence of bone marrow consumption in the Baden Culture based on the examination of a bowl excavated from pit 98/103 at Hódmezővásárhely?Kopáncs I., Olasz-tanya (Csongrád county) archaeological site},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {9},
      number = {1},
      pages = {39-52},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2012_1/AM-12-01-TB.pdf}
    }
    
    Tugya et al.
    Tugya, Beáta; Nagy, Gábor; Ďurkovič, Éva & Bartosiewicz, László
    Early Iron Age settlement at Győr-Ménfőcsanak?Széles-Földek in the light of archaeozoological finds (Northwest Hungary) / A Győr-Ménfőcsanakon feltárt kora vaskori település az archaeozoológiai leletek tükrében 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(4), pp. 265-278 
    article URL 
    Abstract: By putting it in an archaeological context, the paper deals with the analysis of the Early Iron Age (Ha C-D) animal bone material of the site which has been unearthed at Győr?Ménfőcsanak. The results of archaeological and archaeobotanical examinations are also supported by archaeozoology; the natural environment of the Early Iron Age lowland settlement contained belts of forests and groves, in addition to the cultivated areas. One part of the settlement provided a suitable place for the people for farming and livestock keeping. The inhabitants of the agrarian settlement carried out subsistence farming. In keeping domestic animals, ruminants (cattle 35.7%) and sheep and goats (collectively 29.86%) were prevalent, yet, keeping of hens ? which were rare in those days ? has been proved by not only a few bones but also the eggshell fragments of them. The ratio of animals hunted and fished for barely exceeds 10%, yet, numerous species ? among them the brown bear which is met with sporadically in flatland and even beaver and sturgeon ? can be found.
    BibTeX:
    @article{TugyaETAL2015_4,
      author = {Tugya, Beáta and Nagy, Gábor and Ďurkovič, Éva and Bartosiewicz, László},
      title = {Early Iron Age settlement at Győr-Ménfőcsanak?Széles-Földek in the light of archaeozoological finds (Northwest Hungary) / A Győr-Ménfőcsanakon feltárt kora vaskori település az archaeozoológiai leletek tükrében},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {4},
      pages = {265-278},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_4/AM-2015-4-TB.pdf}
    }
    
    Tuzson
    Tuzson, Eszter
    A fafaj-meghatározás jelentőségéről / On the importance of wood identification 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(4), pp. 259-266 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Wood is one of the most important raw material for fine arts, applied arts, ethnographic and archaeological heritage. The knowledge of the wood material is indispensable for the complete and accurate observation of the artwork, which requires the application and continued enlargement of the knowledge in natural sciences. Written sources on the subject are deficient, therefore, for the dating and provenance determination we must draw conclusiones from the art objects itself. This study presents some examples, drawing attention to the information on wood identification enriching our knowledge about wooden artworks.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tuzson_2016_4,
      author = {Tuzson, Eszter},
      title = {A fafaj-meghatározás jelentőségéről / On the importance of wood identification},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {4},
      pages = {259-266},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_4/AM-2016-4-TE.pdf}
    }
    
    Tóth
    Tóth, Attila J.
    River archaeology - a new field of research 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(1), pp. 61-66 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Toth2006,
      author = {Tóth, Attila J.},
      title = {River archaeology - a new field of research},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {1},
      pages = {61-66},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_1/AM-2006-1-AT.pdf}
    }
    
    Tóth et al.
    Tóth, Mária; Dobosi, Gábor & Bajnóczi, Bernadett
    Vértesszőlősi égett csontok analitikai vizsgálata / Analytical investigation of burned bones from Vértesszőlős 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(3), pp. 08-14 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Black-coloured animal bones found in radial arrangement possibly forming a fire place in the Vértesszőlős I.
    archaeological site were studied to reveal to origin of darkening. Crystallinity index and sizes of crystallites
    calculated from X-ray diffraction profiles of bone apatite are higher in the black-coloured parts than in the
    yellow-coloured portions of the same bones. Increase in crystallinity supports that burning as a short, but
    relatively high temperature heating initiated the recrystallization of bone apatite. Burning, however, might slow
    down further alterations in the burnt bones during diagenesis, since the highest crystallinity index was
    measured in a non-burnt, white-coloured bone found at the Vértesszőlős site. The black- and yellow-coloured
    bone parts have similar chemical composition according to electron microprobe measurements. Staining due to
    pyrite, iron or manganese oxides and hydroxides was not detected. The dark colour of bones is therefore due to
    elemental carbon oxidized from organic carbon during burning, which indicates at least 300 to 350oC heating
    temperature.
    BibTeX:
    @article{TothETAL2006,
      author = {Tóth, Mária and Dobosi, Gábor and Bajnóczi, Bernadett},
      title = {Vértesszőlősi égett csontok analitikai vizsgálata / Analytical investigation of burned bones from Vértesszőlős},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {3},
      pages = {08-14},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_3/AM-2006-03-TM.pdf}
    }
    
    Tóth et al.
    Tóth, Orsolya; Sipos, György & Havas, Zoltán
    TL/OSL kormeghatározás tesztelése római kori bélyeges téglákon / The testing of TL and OSL methods on archeologically accurately dated brick samples 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(1), pp. 13-26 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    In the framework of the present research different techniques used in luminescence dating were tested on known age Roman bricks. The aims of the measurements were to develop a reliable sampling and sample preparation protocol, and to increase the precision of future results. Experiments were performed on 5 bricks, originating from the Roman centre of Aquincum, which could be dated on the basis of specific signs and stamps at a precision of a decade.
    From each brick 6 samples were collected, using 3 different sampling techniques. 2 of the samples were grinded further in an agate mortar. During the sample preparation procedure one of the samples was treated with H2SiF6 in order to separate the quartz content of the anyway polymineralic material. Equivalent dose measurements were made by using TL (thermoluminescence) in most of the cases, however the quartz sample was also measured by the means of OSL (optically stimulated luminescence). During the measurement of dose rates two different techniques were applied to determine the potassium-content of samples: ICP-MS and ?XRF. The results obtained by the combination of different sampling, preparation and measurement techniques were plotted against the known age of the samples.
    Based on the experiments mechanical treatment during sampling greatly affects the intensity of the luminescence signal and therefore the received equivalent dose and age as well. Similarly, extended H2SiF6 acidic treatment also has a considerable effect on the results, and significant differences were experienced when comparing TL and OSL ages, and the K-contents measured by different techniques. Consequently, the best results were yielded in case using the most gentle sampling procedure, excluding additional acid treatment, using TL and K-contents determined by ICP-MS.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tothetal2014_1,
      author = {Tóth, Orsolya and Sipos, György and Havas, Zoltán},
      title = {TL/OSL kormeghatározás tesztelése római kori bélyeges téglákon / The testing of TL and OSL methods on archeologically accurately dated brick samples},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {1},
      pages = {13-26},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_1/AM-14-01-TO.pdf}
    }
    
    Tóth and Márton
    Tóth, Tamás Ferenc & Márton, Zsuzsanna
    Műtárgyak vizsgálata LIBS spektroszkópiával / LIBS analysis of arts objects 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(2), pp. 141-148 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Accurate analysis of arts objects has increasing importance in recent restoration and preservation methods. The
    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) can be used to determine the atomic composition of the surface
    of arts objects by removing a thin layer using laser ablation. The method is non-destructive, quick, accurate,
    easy to handle, and in most cases there is no need for pre-sampling.
    In the present paper it will be shown, that the chemometrical method called Principal Component Analysis
    (PCA) contributes strongly to the evaluation of the LIBS spectra. The so called matrix effect, i.e. the presence
    and interaction of different species in the sample and thus in the plasma, influences the LIBS spectra. It makes
    their evaluation more complicated. On the other hand ? as it is shown below ? it gives opportunity to draw
    additional inferences above the qualitative atomic composition of the sample. With the help of the combined
    LIBS-PCA method we differentiated between pigments of very similar composition (malachite, copper-acetate).
    Aged and fresh (touch dry) paint samples of the same composition have also been distinguished, and differences
    between spectra of paint mixtures differing only in the ratio of the applied pigments have been shown.
    Furthermore, examples for analysis of ceramic glazes and metallic object will be presented.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Toth&Marton2010_2,
      author = {Tóth, Tamás Ferenc and Márton, Zsuzsanna},
      title = {Műtárgyak vizsgálata LIBS spektroszkópiával / LIBS analysis of arts objects},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {2},
      pages = {141-148},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_2/AM-10-02-TM.pdf}
    }
    
    Tóth
    Tóth, Zoltán
    Animal graves in the Early Mediaeval period in the Carpathian Basin / Népvándorláskori állatsírok a Kárpát-medencében 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(3), pp. 237-242 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    Animal graves have no connection with human burials ? even though, their pit was dug inside a cemetery or on
    the border of the cemetery ?, these animals deserved burial on their ?own right?. However, one can not speak of
    animal burials in the Avar Period, because we don?t have information, on whether these burials were connected
    to a burial ritual. The three horse-dog graves of Keszthely ? Belváros from the 5-6th century, as well as the three
    dog graves found at the site of Szarvas 75, Grave 220 at Ártánd?Kapitány dűlő, and the six dog skeletons at the
    site of Orosháza?Bónum téglagyár belong to this group from the Avar Period, in addition to those horse graves,
    which are presumably not connected with human burials. The criterion that distinguishes complete animals
    buried in pits of a settlement from animal graves is, that settlement features were not dug specifically for the
    animals, while animal graves were probably made explicitly for the dead animals.
    Kivonat
    Az állatsírok nem kapcsolódnak az emberi temetkezésekhez ? attól függetlenül, hogy akár a temetőn belül, vagy
    annak a szélén került sor a sírgödrük kiásására ?, ezek az élőlények ?saját jogon? érdemelték ki, hogy eltemették
    őket. Azonban önálló állattemetkezésekről az avar koron belül semmiképpen sem szabad beszélnünk, mivel
    nincsenek információink arról, hogy az állatok elhelyezése a sírgödörben valamilyen temetési rítussal
    összekapcsolódhatott-e vagy sem. Ebbe a csoportba tartozik Keszthely?Belváros 5-6. századból származó,
    példaként bemutatott három ló-kutyasír, valamint az avar korra keltezhető Szarvas 75. számú lelőhelyén talált
    három kutyasír, Ártánd ? Kapitány-dűlő 220. sírja és az Orosháza?Bónum téglagyár lelőhelyén feltárt hat
    kutyacsontváz, illetve azok a lósírok, amelyeknél feltételezhető, hogy emberi temetkezéshez nem kötődnek. A
    településeken feltárt gödrökben elhelyezett egész állatoktól az a tényező különbözteti meg a vizsgált sírokat, hogy
    a települések gödreit nem az állatok számára ásták ki egykor, ezzel szemben az állatsírokat vélhetően az
    elpusztult egyedeknek készítették.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tóth2013_3,
      author = {Tóth, Zoltán},
      title = {Animal graves in the Early Mediaeval period in the Carpathian Basin / Népvándorláskori állatsírok a Kárpát-medencében},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {3},
      pages = {237-242},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_3/AM-13-03-TZ.pdf}
    }
    
    Tóth et al.
    Tóth, Zsuzsanna; Mihály, Judith; Tóth, Attila Lajos & Ilon, Gábor
    Vibrational Spectroscopic and Scanning Electron Microscopic study of pigment raw materials and painted ceramics excavated at Szombathely-Oladi Plató, Hungary 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(2), pp. 103-110 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    Scanning electron microscopic (SEM-EDS), Raman (FT-Raman) and infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic
    investigations were performed on raw pigment materials and polichrome painted ceramic fragments from the
    excavation of Szombathely-Oladi plató and Gór-Kápolnadomb.. In the raw yellow and red pigments we could
    identify goethite and hematite as colouring minerals, respectively. A special raw red pigment was found to be of
    ?pure? hematite. On the ceramic fragments decorated with red, the paint layer proved to be made of cinnabar
    (HgS) mixed with high-purity kaolin.
    The white decoration proved to be pure, homogeneous calcite. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of the
    use of cinnabar (HgS) for decorated pottery in Late Neolithic period in the region of Hungary. The use of
    cinnabar as painting material proved though to be rare among our samples from both archaeological sites.
    Kivonat
    Szombathely-Oladi plató és Gór-Kápolnadomb ásatása során napvilágra kerülő festékrögöket és több színnel
    (vörös, narancs, barna, sárga és fehér) festett kerámiatöredékeket vizsgáltuk pásztázó elektronmikroszkópos
    (SEM-EDS), Raman-spektroszkópiai (FT-Raman) és infravörös (FT-IR) spektroszkópiai módszerekkel. A sárga
    és vörös festékrögökben goethitet, illetve hematitot azonosítottunk. Az egyik jellegzetes vörös festékrög ?tiszta?
    hematit-tömbnek bizonyult. A díszített kerámiákon ? meglepő módon ? vörös festékként nagy tisztaságú kaolinnal
    kevert cinnabaritot (HgS) mutattunk ki. A fehér festékréteg tiszta, homogén kalcitnak bizonyult.
    Tudomásunk szerint először tudtunk cinóbert azonosítani magyarországi késő neolit festett kerámiákon, bár e
    festékanyag alkalmazása meglehetősen ritka a vizsgált minták között mindkét régészeti lelőhelyen.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tóth-en2013_2,
      author = {Tóth, Zsuzsanna and Mihály, Judith and Tóth, Attila Lajos and Ilon, Gábor},
      title = {Vibrational Spectroscopic and Scanning Electron Microscopic study of pigment raw materials and painted ceramics excavated at Szombathely-Oladi Plató, Hungary},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {2},
      pages = {103-110},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_2/AM-13-02-TZS-en.pdf}
    }
    
    Tóth et al.
    Tóth, Zsuzsanna; Mihály, Judith; Tóth, Attila Lajos & Ilon, Gábor
    A ?Szombathely-Oladi Plató? ásatásból származó festékanyagok és festett kerámiák pásztázó elektronmikroszkópos és rezgési spektroszkópiai vizsgálata 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(2), pp. 103-110 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    Scanning electron microscopic (SEM-EDS), Raman (FT-Raman) and infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic
    investigations were performed on raw pigment materials and polichrome painted ceramic fragments from the
    excavation of Szombathely-Oladi plató and Gór-Kápolnadomb. In the raw yellow and red pigments we could
    identify goethite and hematite as colouring minerals, respectively. A special raw red pigment was found to be of
    ?pure? hematite. On the ceramic fragments decorated with red, the paint layer proved to be made of cinnabar
    (HgS) mixed with high-purity kaolin.
    The white decoration proved to be pure, homogeneous calcite. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of the
    use of cinnabar (HgS) for decorated pottery in Late Neolithic period in the region of Hungary. The use of
    cinnabar as painting material proved though to be rare among our samples.
    The full text of this paper is available in the current version of AM in English:
    http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_2/AM-13-02-TZS-en.pdf
    Kivonat
    Szombathely-Oladi plató és Gór-Kápolnadomb ásatása során napvilágra kerülő festékrögöket és több színnel
    (vörös, narancs, barna, sárga és fehér) festett kerámiatöredékeket vizsgáltuk pásztázó elektronmikroszkópos
    (SEM-EDS), Raman-spektroszkópiai (FT-Raman) és infravörös (FT-IR) spektroszkópiai módszerekkel. A sárga
    és vörös festékrögökben goethitet, illetve hematitot azonosítottunk. Az egyik jellegzetes vörös festékrög ?tiszta?
    hematit-tömbnek bizonyult. A díszített kerámiákon ? meglepő módon ? vörös festékként nagy tisztaságú kaolinnal
    kevert cinnabaritot (HgS) mutattunk ki. A fehér festékréteg tiszta, homogén kalcitnak bizonyult.
    Tudomásunk szerint először tudtunk cinóbert azonosítani magyarországi késő neolit festett kerámiákon, bár e
    festékanyag alkalmazása meglehetősen ritka a vizsgált minták között.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tóth-hu2013_2,
      author = {Tóth, Zsuzsanna and Mihály, Judith and Tóth, Attila Lajos and Ilon, Gábor},
      title = {A ?Szombathely-Oladi Plató? ásatásból származó festékanyagok és festett kerámiák pásztázó elektronmikroszkópos és rezgési spektroszkópiai vizsgálata},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {2},
      pages = {103-110},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_2/AM-13-02-TZS.pdf}
    }
    
    Tóth
    Tóth, Zoltán Henrik
    Egy hőkezelési kísérlet a Rátka-hercegkövesi limnokvarciton / Heat-treatment Experiment on the Limnic Quartzite Raw Material of Rátka-Hercegköves / Ein Hitzebehandlungs-Experiment mit dem Limnoquarzit von Rátka-Hercegköves 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(3), pp. 219?224 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In 2002, an excavation was carried out by Dr. Árpád Ringer at the archaeological site Füged vineyard, Miskolc-
    Avas-Tűzköves, north-eastern Hungary. Most of the finds were extracted from local silex beds with the
    assistance of fire, brown-gray banded and made of transparent chalcedony. While I was studying them, I made
    several unusual observations such as the characteristic pot-lid fractures, the microcracks or the missing
    separation tracks of a tool elaborated on either side. To explain these observations, I carried out a series of
    experiments to which the thermal treatment experiment formerly conducted at the University of Miskolc was
    helpful. I have performed several successful thermal treatment experiments on the rock material of Rátka-
    Hercegköves. From the results, it can be concluded that in prehistoric times fire was not only used for extraction
    of raw material and improving its elaboration, but could also be used for creating supports. As for the future, I
    plan an authentic reconstruction of the whole thermal treatment process in order to better understand the
    Middle Palaeolithic silex mining of Avas-Tűzköves.
    BibTeX:
    @article{TothZH2011_3,
      author = {Tóth, Zoltán Henrik},
      title = {Egy hőkezelési kísérlet a Rátka-hercegkövesi limnokvarciton / Heat-treatment Experiment on the Limnic Quartzite Raw Material of Rátka-Hercegköves / Ein Hitzebehandlungs-Experiment mit dem Limnoquarzit von Rátka-Hercegköves},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {3},
      pages = {219?224},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_3/AM-11-03-TZH.pdf}
    }
    
    Török
    Török, Béla
    A UISPP archeometriai komissziója 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(3), pp. 215-217 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Torok_2016_3,
      author = {Török, Béla},
      title = {A UISPP archeometriai komissziója},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {3},
      pages = {215-217},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_3/AM-2016-3-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Török
    Török, Béla
    Archeometallurgia és/vagy archeometria - összhang és egyedi vonatkozások az ARGUM projektjeinek tükrében / Archaeometallurgy and/or archaeometry - consistency and specifities from the point of view of the ARGUM?s projects 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(1), pp. 7-14 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    This study was made on the basis of the presentation had been held on a symposium entitled ?From the microscope to the reactor: development of the analytics of the archaeological metal artifacts in recent decades? organized on the occasion of Celebration of Hungarian Science on 27.11.2014. It is about archaeometallurgy as interdisciplinary research field which is closely connected to archaeometry with slightly different manner and pluralistic nature. The paper focuses on the possibilities of material testing of metal artifacts and introduction or specific and general experiences of the Archaeometallurgical Research Group of University of Miskolc (ARGUM) as an organizational example related to the implementation of research work
    Kivonat
    A tanulmány a 2014. november 27-én, a Magyar Tudomány Ünnepe alkalmából megrendezett, ?Mikroszkóptól a reaktorig: az utóbbi évtizedek fejlődése a régészeti fémleletek analitikájában? című előadóülésen elhangzott előadás alapján készült. A többi prezentációtól némileg eltérő módon, kissé ?plenáris? jelleggel az archeometallurgiáról, mint az archeometriával szorosan összefüggő, interdiszciplináris kutatási területről szól. Ezen belül fókuszba kerülnek a fémtárgyak anyagvizsgálati lehetőségei, illetve a kutatások lebonyolítása kapcsán szervezeti példaként a Miskolci Egyetem Archeometallurgiai Kutatócsapatának (ARGUM) bemutatása, valamint az ARGUM-projektek egyedi és általános tapasztalatai.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Torok2015_1,
      author = {Török, Béla},
      title = {Archeometallurgia és/vagy archeometria - összhang és egyedi vonatkozások az ARGUM projektjeinek tükrében / Archaeometallurgy and/or archaeometry - consistency and specifities from the point of view of the ARGUM?s projects},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {1},
      pages = {7-14},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_1/AM-2015-01-TB.pdf}
    }
    
    Török and Kovács
    Török, Béla & Kovács, Árpád
    Kora középkori gepida kard archeometallurgiai vizsgálata / Archaeometallurgical investigations of an Early Medieval Gepidic sword 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(4), pp. 337?344 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Following the international terminology, the research fields of archaeometallurgy include not only the
    examinations of archaeological findings, ancient techniques and technologies, but -among others - the professional
    examinations of metallic tools too. The following study reports about the complex material examination of a
    Gepidian sword from the 6th century carried out by the researchers of the Archaeometallurgical Research Group of
    the University of Miskolc and his colleague. The research on one hand is model kind because of many reasons. On
    the other hand it is a pioneer of examinations, since specifically archaeometallurgical interdisciplinary
    examination on a metallic Gepidian tool was not carried out in our country so far. Due to the chemical, physical,
    macro- and microstructure examinations not only the structure and the mechanical properties of the sword and its
    wooden scabbard were revealed, but comparing these to the results of previous similar examinations of metallic
    tools from the Langobard, Avar periods and the Hungarian Settlement Era, conclusions about the production
    technologies of these tools in metallurgical and forging points of views can also be made. Through these it can be
    concluded that the sword presumably made locally was produced from heterogeneous iron bloom without heat
    treatment by a very simple forging technique. Its blade contains some inclusions and it was made of relatively soft
    iron, while its scabbard was made of a wood peculiar for that area.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Torok&Kovacs2011_4,
      author = {Török, Béla and Kovács, Árpád},
      title = {Kora középkori gepida kard archeometallurgiai vizsgálata / Archaeometallurgical investigations of an Early Medieval Gepidic sword},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {4},
      pages = {337?344},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_4/AM-11-04-TB.pdf}
    }
    
    Török et al.
    Török, Béla; Kovács, Árpád; Barkóczy, Péter & Kristály, Ferenc
    Ordacsehi-Csereföld kelta településérHo)l származó vassalak és vastárgyak anyagvizsgálata és készítés-technológiai vonatkozásai / Materials testing and production technology investigation of iron tools and slag from a Celtic settlement of Ordacsehi-Csereföld 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(1), pp. 23-32 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Traces of a diversified settlement system of the middle and late La T?ne period were found recently in South-
    West Hungary. The site of Ordacsehi-Csereföld is one of the most important sites of Celtic settlements of the
    Carpathian Basin due to its 26 buildings, kiln for baking pottery, further objects and its findings of local iron
    forging. Ten slag samples, nine iron tools and a bloom with slag from the mentioned site were examined by our
    research team.
    The main objectives of examinations were to reveal the material and structural properties of the slag and metal
    items, the definition of the metallurgical functions of the different pieces of slag, the exploration of the traces of
    processing and probable heat treatments on the iron tools in order to characterize the technology of local
    smithing. Most of the examined slags are probably the by-product of the purification in an oxidizing atmosphere
    intended to separate the slag from the iron after reheating the bloom.
    The iron tools are of medium quality, generally made of relatively mild, ferritic, ferritic-perlitic material.
    However one of the tools has heterogeneous structure containing constituent (martensite) with extreme
    hardness. The grain size, settlement of inclusions and position of layers containing different volume of perlite
    served information about the technology of forming. Although the examined iron tools were made from the same
    bloom by objects, by taking advantage of the heterogeneity of the bloom, they could modify the distribution of
    carbon in the structure with the help of forging technique when forming edges and points. The planned use
    usually influenced the forming of the tool.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Torok2013_1,
      author = {Török, Béla and Kovács, Árpád and Barkóczy, Péter and Kristály, Ferenc},
      title = {Ordacsehi-Csereföld kelta településérHo)l származó vassalak és vastárgyak anyagvizsgálata és készítés-technológiai vonatkozásai / Materials testing and production technology investigation of iron tools and slag from a Celtic settlement of Ordacsehi-Csereföld},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1},
      pages = {23-32},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_1/AM-13-01-TB.pdf}
    }
    
    Uzonyi
    Uzonyi, Imre
    Ionnyaláb és röntgenanalitikai módszerek alkalmazása művészeti tárgyak és régészeti leletek vizsgálatára / Application of Ion Beam and X-Ray Analytical Techniques for the investigation of Art and Archaeological objects 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(3), pp. 11-18 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This paper summarizes the main features of the non-destructive Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) and X-ray Fluorescence
    (XRF) methods for museologists. It gives an overview about their application in the field of art and archaeological
    objects. The author describes the main facilities and instruments installed at the Ion Beam Applications (IBA)
    laboratory of ATOMKI in detail. The characteristics of analytical methods used in the laboratory are described and
    compared, as well. The capability of the IBA methods is demonstrated by some examples.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Uzonyi2007,
      author = {Uzonyi, Imre},
      title = {Ionnyaláb és röntgenanalitikai módszerek alkalmazása művészeti tárgyak és régészeti leletek vizsgálatára / Application of Ion Beam and X-Ray Analytical Techniques for the investigation of Art and Archaeological objects},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {3},
      pages = {11-18},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_3/AM-07-03-UI.pdf}
    }
    
    Vanicsek et al.
    Vanicsek, Katalin; Szakmány, György; Horváth, Ferenc; Kreiter, Attila & Zsolt, BendHo)
    ElHo)zetes eredmények HódmezHo)vásárhely-gorzsai tell késHo) neolit kerámiáinak (Tisza-kultúra Gorzsa-csoport) vizsgálatáról / Preliminary results of Late Neolithic ceramic analysis from HódmezHo)vásárhely-Gorzsa (Tisza Culture, SE Hungary) 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(1), pp. 5-12 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to give preliminary information on the petrological examination of Late Neolithic (4990-
    4450 B.C.) ceramics from a Tisza Culture site at Hódmezővásárhely-Gorzsa and answer questions concerning
    manufacturing technology. Vessels were examined in thin sections by polarising microscopy, and SEM-EDX
    analysis. Ceramics were also compared with daubs and argillaceous sediments. The sediments were acquired in
    the vicinity of Gorzsa aiming to identify potential ceramic raw materials. The raw materials of the Gorzsa
    ceramics are very fine or fine (25?150 ?m), the amounts of non-plastic inclusions are common to abundant (20?
    40%) and comprise mainly of monocrystalline quartz and muscovite-sericite. Inclusions are moderately to well
    sorted. The most commonly used tempering material is grog and hard pieces of clay or argillaceous rock
    fragments (ARF). Some of the argillaceous sediments collected from the vicinity of the Gorzsa site are similar to
    the ceramics in terms of mineralogical and chemical composition, however, the amount of their non-plastic
    inclusions is different; therefore mixing of different raw materials could also be assumed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Vanicsek2013_1,
      author = {Vanicsek, Katalin and Szakmány, György and Horváth, Ferenc and Kreiter, Attila and BendHo) Zsolt},
      title = {ElHo)zetes eredmények HódmezHo)vásárhely-gorzsai tell késHo) neolit kerámiáinak (Tisza-kultúra Gorzsa-csoport) vizsgálatáról / Preliminary results of Late Neolithic ceramic analysis from HódmezHo)vásárhely-Gorzsa (Tisza Culture, SE Hungary)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1},
      pages = {5-12},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_1/AM-13-01-VK.pdf}
    }
    
    Vaughan et al.
    Vaughan, Maureen; Bonsall, Clive; Bartosiewicz, László; Schoop, Ulf-Dietrich & Pickard, Catriona
    Variation in the Carbon and Nitrogen isotopic signatures of pig remains from prehistoric sites in the Near East and Central Europe / Az őskori házisertés közel-keleti és közép-európai maradványainak szén- és nitrogénizotóp összetételének változékonysága 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(4), pp. 307-312 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    The first results of carbon and nitrogen (?13C, ?15N) stable isotope analyses of domestic pig (Sus domesticus
    Erxl., 1777) remains from three prehistoric sites are presented. Of these, comparison of the datasets from Tell
    Aqab in Syria and Çaml?bel Tarlas? in Turkey suggests different dietary patterns, and possibly different pig
    husbandry practices, at these sites. The study highlights the need for supporting evidence from archaeobotanical
    and palaeoenvironmental investigations in the interpretation of stable isotope data.
    Kivonat
    A cikk régészeti házisertés (Sus domesticus Erxl., 1777) leleteken mért szén- és nitrogén izotóp (?13C, ?15N)
    méréseinek első eredményeit ismerteti. A leletek három őskori lelőhelyről származnak. Ezek közül a szíriai Tell
    Aqab és a törökországi Çaml?bel Tarlas? mintái szignifikánsan különböző takarmányozási módokra utalnak,
    amelyek a két település eltérő sertéstartási gyakorlatával függhetnek össze. A tanulmány rámutat az
    eredményeket megerősítő régészeti növénytani és környezetrégészeti kutatások fontosságára a stabilizotóp
    adatok értelmezésében.
    BibTeX:
    @article{VaughanETAL2013_4,
      author = {Vaughan, Maureen and Bonsall, Clive and Bartosiewicz, László and Schoop, Ulf-Dietrich and Pickard, Catriona},
      title = {Variation in the Carbon and Nitrogen isotopic signatures of pig remains from prehistoric sites in the Near East and Central Europe / Az őskori házisertés közel-keleti és közép-európai maradványainak szén- és nitrogénizotóp összetételének változékonysága},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {4},
      pages = {307-312},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_4/AM-13-04-MV.pdf}
    }
    
    Veres et al.
    Veres, Zsolt; Sümegi, Pál & Törőcsik, Tünde
    Az ócsai láp archeomalakológiai vizsgálata - a Pomatias elegans első radiokarbon adatokkal korolt holocén előfordulása Magyarországon / First radiocarbon-dated Holocene record of Pomatias elegans in Hungary 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(2), pp. 181-196 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The Selyemrét of Ócsa is located on the northern part of the Duna-Tisza Interfluve at the transitional zone of two
    landscapes with different morphological characters. At the boundary of the Duna-Tisza Interfluve and the
    Dunamenti Plain in Bács-Kiskun County a marshland sequence can be found from Hajós to Ócsa. Since there
    have been environmental historical analysis on the southern part of the area earlier, we extended our research
    project to the bog of Ócsa as well.
    The bog of Ócsa is located in a former pool formed by the Danube River in which eolic sand and thick lake
    sequence deposited from the end of the Pleistocene. The initial oligotrophic lake became mesotrophic, therefore
    thick carbonate sediment deposited. Afterwards, as a consequence of the Neolithic human populations the
    natural development of the lake changed drastically and the lake filled up. The pollen and quarter malacological
    analysis of the area support the mentioned geological processes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Veres2011_2,
      author = {Veres, Zsolt and Sümegi, Pál and Törőcsik, Tünde},
      title = {Az ócsai láp archeomalakológiai vizsgálata - a Pomatias elegans első radiokarbon adatokkal korolt holocén előfordulása Magyarországon / First radiocarbon-dated Holocene record of Pomatias elegans in Hungary},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {2},
      pages = {181-196},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_2/AM-11-02-VZS.pdf}
    }
    
    Vicze
    Vicze, Magdolna
    In memoriam - Poroszlai Ildikó 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(1), pp. 69-70 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Vicze2005,
      author = {Vicze, Magdolna},
      title = {In memoriam - Poroszlai Ildikó},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {1},
      pages = {69-70},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_1/AM-2005-1-kzl.pdf}
    }
    
    Vitezović
    Vitezović, Selena
    Bone manufacturing in the Neolithic: the problems of reconstructing the chaîne opératoire and identifying workshops / Újkőkori csontmegmunkálás: a műveleti sor rekonstrukciójának és a műhelyek azonosításának nehézségei 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(3), pp. 201-208 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    Although in recent decades bone industry is not a neglected archaeological topic any more, there are still many
    open questions. One of the important problems in analysing bone industry is the question of reconstructing the
    chaîne opératoire and other questions related to the organization of production, workshops and working places,
    since manufacturing debris often stays unrecognized during excavations, i.e. it is either not collected, or it is
    stored among faunal remains, awaiting identification and a proper analysis. Also, contextual data are often
    incomplete, especially when artefacts come from older excavations, when faunal remains were not recognized as
    important and thus the attention given to them was limited.
    In this paper a small collection of manufacture debris will be presented, related to the production of decorative
    items, from the site of Čoka-Kremenjak (Banat, northern Serbia). Although the material originates from
    excavations carried out one hundred years ago, certain conclusions can be drawn. These objects, along with the
    material from contemporaneous sites from the south Pannonian plain (Vojvodina region) and central Balkans
    (Starčevo, Grivac, Aniąte), helped in reconstructing the chaîne opératoire for making ornamental pieces from
    bone in Starčevo-Körös-Criş cultural complex and represent indirect evidence for the existence of a workshop
    within the Čoka settlement. This study raises some important questions for future research, especially those
    regarding the level of know-how of Neolithic craftspersons and the organization of production.
    Kivonat
    Noha az utóbbi évtizedekben a csonteszközök vizsgálata már nem mellőzött kutatási irány, számos kérdése még
    nyitott. A csontipar elemzésének egyik legfontosabb feladata a műveleti sor rekonstrukciója valamint az
    eszközkészítés szervezettségének (műhelyek és munkahelyek) felmérése, mert a megmunkálási hulladékot nem
    mindig ismerik fel vagy nem gyűjtik az ásatás során. Jobb esetben az állatcsont együttes hulladékai közé
    keveredve vár megfelelő pontosságú meghatározásra és feldolgozásra. A leletösszefüggések adatai is gyakran
    hiányosak, ha a megmunkált darabok régebbi ásatásokból származnak, amikor az általános állatcsontanyag
    fontosságát még nem ismerték fel és nem szenteltek kellő figyelmet a gyűjtésének. Ez a cikk egy kisebb
    műhelyhulladék-együttes ismertetése, amely a bánáti Čoka-Kremenjak lelőhelyen (Észak-Szerbia) dísztárgyak
    készítésekor keletkezett. Annak ellenére, hogy ez az anyag immár egy évszázada került napvilágra, alkalmas
    bizonyos következtetések levonására. Ezek a darabok a hasonló korú vajdasági, észak- és közép-balkáni
    lelőhelyek (Starčevo, Grivac, Aniąte) leleteivel összevetve segítenek a Starčevo-Körös-Criş kulturális komplexum
    dísztárgyai műveleti sorának rekonstrukciójában és közvetett bizonyítékkal szolgálnak arra, hogy a Čokai
    településen csontmegmunkáló hely működhetett. A tanulmány további fontos kérdéseket vet fel a jövő kutatóinak,
    különösen az újkőkori kézművesek mesterfogásait és a korabeli termelés szervezését illetően.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Vitezovic2013_3,
      author = {Vitezović, Selena },
      title = {Bone manufacturing in the Neolithic: the problems of reconstructing the chaîne opératoire and identifying workshops / Újkőkori csontmegmunkálás: a műveleti sor rekonstrukciójának és a műhelyek azonosításának nehézségei},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {3},
      pages = {201-208},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_3/AM-13-03-SV.pdf}
    }
    
    Véninger
    Véninger, Péter
    Flis és terra rossa fazekas szemmel. Korongozhatósági vizsgálat: milyen agyag lehet alkalmas nagyméretű római amphorák készítésére? / Flysch and terra rossa from potter?s point of view. Studiing by potter?s wheel: what kind of clay might be used for large-sized roman amphora production? 2016 Archeometriai Műhely
    13(2), pp. 131-140 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Two different raw materials used in Roman times (from ca. 40 B.C. to end of the 2nd century A.D.) in Faľana in South Istria for amphora production, the terra rossa available locally at Faľana, and the flysch found in north Istria were investigated with the aim to clarify their suitability for large pot production with wheeling method. During the investigation it was found that the terra rossa is too pure (fat) clay, and not suitable for this purpose. Although the flysch originated sediment itself is too lean , it can be used for this purpose. The investigation of pottery making technique was not restri cted to wheeling, because the drying and firing of clay pots is closely related with the ductility of clays. Parallel with throwing tests, thin section were made of different mixtures of terra rossa and flysch to see what kind of clay mixture gives fired pottery having similar texture and structure with ancient amphorae. Based on our results these mixtures are suitable for large pot wheeling. The drying and firing of amphorae may be performed with fast pace and little scrap. Neither one of the two clays tend to produce the defect named lime concretion.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Veninger2016,
      author = {Véninger, Péter},
      title = {Flis és terra rossa fazekas szemmel. Korongozhatósági vizsgálat: milyen agyag lehet alkalmas nagyméretű római amphorák készítésére? / Flysch and terra rossa from potter?s point of view. Studiing by potter?s wheel: what kind of clay might be used for large-sized roman amphora production?},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {13},
      number = {2},
      pages = {131-140},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2016_2/AM-2016-2-VP.pdf}
    }
    
    Vörös
    Vörös, István
    Sümeg-Mogyorós dombi őskori kovabánya agancsleletei / Antler finds from the Sümeg-Mogyorós domb prehistoric quarry 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(1), pp. 19-30 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The mining activity at Sümeg Mogyorós-domb can be dated to the second half of the Neolithic period (Bácskay-
    Vörös 1980. 41, 1986). The vertebrate fauna of the prehistoric flint mine, excavated between 1958 and 1983
    comprises 486 pieces of animal bones (Table 1). 461 remains of Cervus elaphus (red deer) were found: skull
    fragments (3), antler with skull and pedicle (19), antler or antler fragments (431) postcranial bone fragments (8
    : 5 tibia diaph. fr, metapodium dist. trochlea fr, 2 os ph. I. fr). All the antlers and antler fragments found in the
    flint mine can be considered mining tools (Bácskay-Vörös 1980). Antler with skull fragment was obtained by
    active hunting while cast antler was collected. The topographical distribution of the 252 red deer antlers within
    the excavation shows two focal areas within the flint mine, i.e., the largest shafts at the central and the northern
    territory (Fig. 1.). No intact antlers were found. The parts of the antler tools were cut by stone tools, carving,
    breaking and so-called "string cut". The distribution of the antler parts is shown on Table 2, the dimensions of
    the individual antler regions are demonstrated on Tables 3-12. The relevant regions of the antler are
    demonstrated on Fig. 2.
    The beam of the Sümeg red deer antlers are of medium thickness. The number of the tines is low. Among the 75
    antler beams and bases there are 67 antlers with brow tine and bez tine. Among the intact antler crowns the
    most typical form is finger-like, less typically, chalice-form. The number of tines for the finger-like types was
    twelve-fourteen, the calcite-like forms had fourteen-sixteen tines.
    The red deer antlers from Sümeg, Mogyorós-domb were compared in morphology and size to the Budapest,
    Farkasrét-Denevér street flint mine and show good agreement (Table 13.). Both flint mines had the "eastern-type
    prehistoric" - maraloid - red deer. This is a further argument for the Neolithic/Copper Age dating of the Denevér
    street mine.
    The antlers were cut bay carving or "string-cutting". Antler resists least, similar to bone, to grinding and
    polishing. However, they were generally exposed to this in prehistory. At the Sümeg flint mine, approximately
    100 pairs of antler were used. The antlers were cut on spot. The tool kit comprised percussion tools, picks,
    wedges, chisels and multi-functional tools. The beam of the antler (Region A) was mainly used as hammer, and
    only the beam (C) could be used to extract silex nodules. In general habitation context, e.g. at Aszód Late
    Neolithic settlement, the most important agrarian tools were antler hoe (81 pieces) and antler chisel (end of
    planting stick?, 65 pieces, see Table 16.).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Voros2007a,
      author = {Vörös, István},
      title = {Sümeg-Mogyorós dombi őskori kovabánya agancsleletei / Antler finds from the Sümeg-Mogyorós domb prehistoric quarry},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {1},
      pages = {19-30},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_1/AM-2007-01-VI1.pdf}
    }
    
    Vörös
    Vörös, István
    Egy archaeozoológiai rekonstrukciós módszer: állatcsont-maradványok Kretzoi-féle felosztása / Reconstruction in archaeozoology: division of animal bones according to Kretzoi's method 2007 Archeometriai Műhely
    4(1), pp. 31-36 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The traditional faunistical elaboration of archaeozoological assemblages reached their limits by the 1960-ies.
    The accumulated finds presented as "one period, one region" smudged the differences in the character of sites of
    different types. This approach could not give a clue to the utilisation of individual animal species. Realising the
    problem, Miklós Kretzoi made an essay to serve archaeological interpretation with more data on the basis of a
    methodology worked out for the Érd Middle Palaeolithic open air hunters' camp. The grouping of the animal
    remains suggested follow the natural anatomical order, i.e., listing them together as head, trunk and limbs
    (Table 1).
    Archaeological zoology can base mainly on the anatomical distribution of the bone remains. By grouping the
    bones according to anatomical categories show us, if the animal was taken to the camp as a whole, or, which
    part(s) of the animal was(were) brought to the site - skinned, for meat or for hide etc. The evenly distributed
    bones of large mammals indicate local hunting / butchering, the deficient skeleton indicates the transport of the
    animal in details only, i.e., more distant hunting and butchering. The lack of terminal bones indicate utilisation
    of meat, their mass occurrence speaks for the utilisation of the hide. The grouping of skeletal parts was
    elaborated originally for large Pleistocene mammals. In more recent periods, however, the butchering practice
    has also changed. Therefore, in the case of subfossil bones in prehistory or antiquity, some parts (bones) can
    belong to different categories of body regions. (Table 2.).
    Dividing the percentage of body regions found on the site by that of the natural body regions (standard -
    occurring in the skeletal frame) we get a value termed Q. This value is characteristic of the dominance relations
    of the individual body regions (Table 5.).
    A generally used method of meat quality characterisation on the archaeological bones was suggested by
    Uerpmann (Table 3.).
    The two methods for grouping the archaeozoological material are similar in many ways but give different results
    in many respects. To demonstrate this, data by L. Daróczi-Szabó (2002) are used on cattle utilisation at Buda
    Castle (Table 4, Teleki Palace, 8th well). The body region distribution data are the following: trunk (38,9 %),
    meaty limbs (35,5 %), dry limbs (11,2 %),head (8,7 %) and phalangi (5,7 %) in decreasing order. Considering
    relative dominance values, Q, the accumulation of meaty limbs surpasses expected values 4 times, head 3 times
    the natural (anatomical) values, while, the number of trunk bones is 3/4, the dry limbs are only 1/2 and the
    terminal bones are present only in 1/3 of the expected value.
    Following the Uerpmann's division of the animal bones (Tables 4., 5.) we are facing a human interpretation
    according to nutrition habits of a given period. The "high", "medium" or "low" culinary merits of certain types
    of meat depend on culture and show great variation in time and space.
    The application of the two methods can be complementary and both fit well into a complex zooarchaeological
    investigation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Voros2007b,
      author = {Vörös, István},
      title = {Egy archaeozoológiai rekonstrukciós módszer: állatcsont-maradványok Kretzoi-féle felosztása / Reconstruction in archaeozoology: division of animal bones according to Kretzoi's method},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4},
      number = {1},
      pages = {31-36},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2007_1/AM-2007-01-VI2.pdf}
    }
    
    Vörös
    Vörös, István
    In memoriam Kretzoi Miklós (1907-2005) 2005 Archeometriai Műhely
    2(1), pp. 51-52 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Voros2005,
      author = {Vörös, István},
      title = {In memoriam Kretzoi Miklós (1907-2005)},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {2},
      number = {1},
      pages = {51-52},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2005_2/AM-2005-2-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Waters
    Waters, Elyse
    Zoological analysis of the Unicornas described by classical authors / Az egyszarvú állattani elemzése klasszikus szerzők leírásai alapján 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(3), pp. 231-236 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    This paper will examine the unicorn in classical sources. It will consist of the unicorn?s physical description in
    relation to known animals, as an absolute corporeal creature. Around the time 400 B.C., the first classical
    record of a single-horned creature was documented by Ctesias. Classical authors succeeding him all assert that
    it lived in India, though other sources reference Africa and China as well. The geographical focus in this paper
    will be India and the adjacent regions. Though unicorns have come to be perceived as fantastic and mysterious,
    classical authors keep the description of this creature so precisely within the realm of possibility that modern
    zoological research can locate its homeland. Additionally, it is possible to identify nonfictional animals whose
    zoological traits may have been combined in the unicorn.
    Kivonat
    Tanulmányom az egyszarvúakat vizsgálja klasszikus forrásokban. Küllemük leírását más, ismert állatokhoz
    viszonyítja, mintha maga is hús-vér, valódi lény lenne. Az első egyszarvú lényről szóló klasszikus leírás i. e. 400
    táján Ctesiastól származik. Az őt követő klasszikus szerzők megerősítik, hogy ez a lény Indiában élt, noha
    előfordul utalás Afriára és Kínára is. Ez a tanulmány azonban Indiára és a környező térségekre összpontosít.
    Noha az egyszarvúakat képzeletbeli lényeknek tekintjük, az auktorok leírásukat annyira a lehetséges állatok
    sorában tartják, hogy a mai állattani kutatás képes behatárolni az előfordulási területét. Ráadásul azok a valós
    fajok is azonosíthatók, amelyek állattani jegyeit az egyszarvú leírásában elegyítették..
    BibTeX:
    @article{Waters2013_3,
      author = {Waters, Elyse},
      title = {Zoological analysis of the Unicornas described by classical authors / Az egyszarvú állattani elemzése klasszikus szerzők leírásai alapján},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {3},
      pages = {231-236},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_3/AM-13-03-EW.pdf}
    }
    
    Zacharias et al.
    Zacharias, Nikolaos; Kaparou, Maria; Kasztovszky, ?solt; Maróti, Boglárka; Beltsios, Konstantinos; Murphy, Joanne; Kantarelou, Vasilike & Karydas, Andreas Germanos
    Mükénéi üvegek korróziójának és eredetének vizsgálata SEM-EDS, XRF és PGAA módszerekkel / An alteration and provenance study of Mycenaean glass objects using neutron-beam and X-ray methods 2013 Archeometriai Műhely
    10(2), pp. 127-140 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    The aims of this study were to characterize corrosion effects on Mycenaean glass objects and their implications
    for provenance studies. Investigations of archaeological glass collections from Greek 16th -13th c. B. C. Late
    Bronze Age sites in North-East Peloponnese, Palaia Epidavros and Ancient Asine in the Argolid and from Pylos
    in Messenia, South Peloponnese have been performed. The study was prompted by specific archaeological
    questions: whether the glass artifacts were imported as ingots and/or previously shaped materials via exchange
    roots or they were produced in local glassmaking workshops.
    Optical microscopy was employed for an initial morphological examination, followed by Scanning Electron
    Microscopy coupled with an Energy Dispersive Analyser (SEM-EDS) and by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)
    Analysis. The general trend was found to be in agreement with the existent knowledge about altered glass, that
    is, severe alkaline, alkaline earths and silica deviations. For the bulk analytical examination, Prompt Gamma
    Activation Analysis was applied. Based on the bulk PGAA results, it was possible to differentiate between base
    glass used for the production of the Argolid samples and that used for the production of the Messene samples.
    Also, possibly more than one recipes of alkaline source have been used for the production of the Argolid
    samples.
    Kivonat
    A módszertani tanulmányban a korrózió összetételt módosító hatását vizsgáltuk mükénéi üvegtárgyakon. Késő
    bronzkori (Kr. e. 16-13. sz.), a Peloponnészoszi-félszigetről, az argoliszi Palaia Epidavroszból, Aszinéből és a
    messzéniai Püloszból származó leleteket vizsgáltunk. A vizsgálatok célja annak megállapítása volt, hogy a leletek
    mállottsága ellenére lehet-e az eredetükre (provenienciára) vonatkozó megállapításokat tenni a rendelkezésre
    álló analitikai módszerek alkalmazásával. Első lépésként LED optikai mikroszkóppal általános morfológiai
    vizsgálatokat végeztünk, majd SEM-EDS mérésekkel tanulmányoztuk egy-egy minta mikroszerkezetét és
    elemösszetételének térbeli változását. A teljes minta átlagos elemösszetételt PGAA módszerrel határoztuk meg.
    Az irodalmi adatokkal összhangban, a korrodált részek alkálifém-, alkáliföldfém- és szilíciumtartalma eltért az
    ép üvegétől. A teljes mintára jellemző PGAA eredmények alapján meg tudtuk különíteni az Argoliszból és a
    Messzéniából származó mintákat leletek gyártásához használt különböző nyersüveg alapanyagokat, valamint az
    előbbiek esetében a különböző receptek szerint készült adalék alkáli összetevőket.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ZachariasETAL2013_3,
      author = {Zacharias, Nikolaos and Kaparou, Maria and Kasztovszky, ?solt and Maróti, Boglárka and Beltsios, Konstantinos and Murphy, Joanne and Kantarelou, Vasilike and Karydas, Andreas Germanos},
      title = {Mükénéi üvegek korróziójának és eredetének vizsgálata SEM-EDS, XRF és PGAA módszerekkel / An alteration and provenance study of Mycenaean glass objects using neutron-beam and X-ray methods},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {10},
      number = {2},
      pages = {127-140},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2013_2/AM-13-02-NZ.pdf}
    }
    
    Zandler and Horváth
    Zandler, Krisztián & Horváth, Tünde
    Balatonőszöd?Temetői dűlő őskori, több periódusú település pattintott kőeszközeinek vizsgálata / The investigation of the Chipped Stone Industry of the Prehistorical Multi-Period Settlement of Balatonőszöd?Temetői dűlő 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(4), pp. 259-296 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The main part of the chipped stone implements from the multiperiodical prehistoric settlements of Balatonőszöd?
    Temetői dűlő belong to the Late Copper Age, Boleráz/Baden cultures. Some other finds are from Upper
    Paleolithic, Middle Neolithic and Early Bronze Age. The investigations of the raw materials, technology, and
    typology, adding with phytolith analyses give more details for the lifestyle of the prehistorical cultures, mainly
    for the Late Copper Age.
    The inventory of the chipped stone finds of Balatonőszöd in the region of the southern lakeshore of Balaton we
    described a small-sized, blade-and-flake industry. The blades are in generally without retouch, they were used
    ad hoc cutting tools. Characteristic finds are the triangular arrowheads, without concave basis in Boleráz, and
    with concave basis in Baden time. Such type arrowheads longlife tools, until the end of the Middle Bronze Age
    we can desribed these finds (Horváth 2009a, 416-417). Other representative chipped stones were parts of
    composite tools (toothed sickle), as denticulated edge on flake for prepare vegetal food/remains. The
    geometrical tools are uncharacteristic, and did not appear the large blades at all at the site.
    The Late Copper Age chipped stone finds very similar to the other sites from the southern lakeshore of Balaton,
    but significantly divergent as in tool-kits and raw materials from the middle and eastern part of Hungary.
    The so-called Western stimulation/westliche Strömung can detect as an appearance of the bifacial retouch,
    denticulated edges and triangular arrowheads.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Zandler&Horvath2010,
      author = {Zandler, Krisztián and Horváth, Tünde},
      title = {Balatonőszöd?Temetői dűlő őskori, több periódusú település pattintott kőeszközeinek vizsgálata / The investigation of the Chipped Stone Industry of the Prehistorical Multi-Period Settlement of Balatonőszöd?Temetői dűlő},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {4},
      pages = {259-296},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_4/AM-10-04-ZK.pdf}
    }
    
    Zandler and Horváth
    Zandler, Krisztián & Horváth, Tünde
    Az őskori települések pattintott kőanyagának leírása / Description of the stone artefacts 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(4), pp. - 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Zandler&Horvath2010appendix,
      author = {Zandler, Krisztián and Horváth, Tünde},
      title = {Az őskori települések pattintott kőanyagának leírása / Description of the stone artefacts},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {4},
      pages = {-},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_4/AM-10-04-melleklet-ZK&HT.pdf}
    }
    
    Zámolyi
    Zámolyi, András
    Új elektronikus információ forrás - A georeferált Második Katonai Felmérés 2006 Archeometriai Műhely
    3(3), pp. 41-42 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Zamolyi2006,
      author = {Zámolyi, András},
      title = {Új elektronikus információ forrás - A georeferált Második Katonai Felmérés},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {3},
      number = {3},
      pages = {41-42},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2006_3/AM-2006-3-kozl.pdf}
    }
    
    Zöldföldi
    Zöldföldi, Judit
    Fehér márványok sikeres eredetmeghatározásának feltételei (avagy a sikertelen eredetmeghatározás okai) / Conditions for successful provenance studies of white marbles 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(4), pp. 37-52 
    article URL 
    Abstract: I wish to present a synthesis of experience from previous measurements regarding the provenance study of
    marbles; to explain different methods, techniques and their combination of successful provenancing; and to
    draw the attention to some avoidable, typical mistakes, which I discovered during my studies.
    As a basic condition, it is important to examine the processes that can affect the samples during and after
    quarrying, and change the original characteristics. Therefore, it is necessary to reconstruct the ˝history˝ of the
    given sample, to know where and when it was changed; e.g., when the sample is displayed to high temperature,
    which can influence some parameters (e.g. isotope ratios). Conservation and/or restoration work can affect the
    correctness of results, i.e. originality of fingerprint parameters.
    Sampling has also a basic role in provenancing studies. In ideal case, the samples are homogenous. In practice,
    this is never the case. Thus, we have to pay attention to inhomogeneities, i.e. the spatial changes of features.
    These parameters can dispose characters useful for provenance studies (e.g. color; texture/bandness;
    appearance of accessory minerals in aggregated or diffused form; and inhomogeneity of the grain size
    distribution). These determining features derive from the original protolith of the marble. However, surface
    weathering can also cause inhomogeneity. To avoid this problem it is useful to take samples from deeper layers.
    Artificial inhomogeneities can be the results of restoration and conservation, such as surface treatments, antic
    or recent replacements on the artwork. Another case of artificial modification is achieved during the creation of
    the artworks. Another important fact is the chemical and physical effect of the iron staples and pins on the
    marble, which helped to hold together the statues. Archeologists, head of excavations, museum curators decide
    about the method of sampling and their main goal is of course not to destruct the artwork, or just as little as
    possible. We reached an important point here, in that we have powder or a bulk sample for further studies.
    The next question is selecting appropriate methods. In the followings, the possible results of combined analysis
    of powder (drilled) samples are discussed. The advantages, but also the obstacles of the most widely applied
    method, stable C and O isotope analyses will be explained. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of
    87Sr/ 86Sr isotopic ratios are discussed, also the subject to the used analytical method, like ICP-MS or TIMS. The
    results of the isotopic analysis can be verified and completed with chemical measurement; however, its
    disadvantage is that the different methods provide information about different elements with different sensitivity.
    The ideal case for investigation is when - instead of powder sample - a representative bulky part (or drilling
    core) of the object can be separated and analytical methods like quantitative textural analyses (QTA) and
    cathodoluminescence investigations can be carried out.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Zoldfoldi2009_4,
      author = {Zöldföldi, Judit},
      title = {Fehér márványok sikeres eredetmeghatározásának feltételei (avagy a sikertelen eredetmeghatározás okai) / Conditions for successful provenance studies of white marbles},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {4},
      pages = {37-52},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_4/AM-09-04-ZJ.pdf}
    }
    
    Zöldföldi et al.
    Zöldföldi, Judit; Kasztovszky, Zsolt; Mihály, Judith & Richter, Sophie
    Honnan származik a lápisz lazuli? Roncsolás mentes eredetvizsgálat prompt gamma aktivációs analízis segítségével 2004 Archeometriai Műhely
    1(1), pp. 16-22 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all precious stones, with a history going back as far as 7000 years or more in the past. Lapis lazuli has been highly valued for thousands of years. It was often inserted into jewels, carvings, amulets and talismans that were believed to have occult powers. Archaeological objects made of lapis lazuli are widely distributed in the ancient East and some date back as early as the second half of the fourth millennium B.C. in Central Asia.
    Although considerable attention has been previously payed to the mineralogy of lapis lazuli, the new non-destructive analytical techniques offer wider perspectives to the archaeometry research. Knowledge of the elemental composition, including major and trace elements may provide clues concerning the provenance and raw materials. PGAA is one of the new candidates to answer these questions.
    In this project we succeeded to collect lapis lazuli samples from the most relevant quarries in the world. Rock samples from Afghanistan, from Lake Baikal, from Chile and from Ural Mountains have been investigated. With PGAA we were able to detect the major components, H, Na, Ca, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, and the accessory elements Mg, Fe, Mn. In addition, the trace elements of B, Sc, Cr, Co, Sm and Gd were identified. According to some characteristic element ratios the samples from Afghanistan and Baikal are more or less overlapping, while the samples from Ural and Chile are definitely different from the others. This paper also attempts to determine the origin of the natural ultramarine, based on provenance analysis on lapis lazuli by PGAA and complementary FTIR Spectroscopy.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ZoeldfoeldiETAL2004a,
      author = {Zöldföldi, Judit and Kasztovszky, Zsolt and Mihály, Judith and Sophie Richter},
      title = {Honnan származik a lápisz lazuli? Roncsolás mentes eredetvizsgálat prompt gamma aktivációs analízis segítségével},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {1},
      number = {1},
      pages = {16-22},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2004_1/AM-2004-ZJ2.pdf}
    }
    
    Zöldföldi et al.
    Zöldföldi, J.; Pintér, F.; Székely, B.; Taubald, H.; T. Biró, K.; Mráv, Zs.; Tóth, M.; Satir, M.; Kasztovszky, Zs. & Szakmány, Gy.
    Római márványtöredékek vizsgálata a Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum gyűjteményéből 2004 Archeometriai Műhely
    1(1), pp. 40-46 
    article URL 
    Abstract: During the archaeological excavation of the Roman military fortress Heténypuszta (SW Hungary) 860 marble fragments were found, used in a secondary manner for the construction of the Late Roman fortress. Heténypuszta used to belong to the province Pannonia Valeria. The marble fragments originated most probably from memorial stones of a heathen cemetery. The fragments are now in the collection of the Hungarian National Museum. This study is the first large-scale effort for the determination of the origin of marble of Roman period from the territory of Hungary. More than 80 samples from several Austrian, Slovenian, Romanian and Macedonian marble quarries, crystalline limestone of marble-like quality from Hungary (Polgárdi Limestone) and so far 18 samples from archaeological objects were investigated. Besides of the archaeological and historical approaches, more and more scientific methods have been developed to analyse various types of historical artefacts. In order to determine the origin, mineral composition (by petrographical thin section and X-ray diffraction), stable isotope geochemical analysis (delta-13C and delta-18O), trace element analysis (AAS), cathodoluminescence methods and quantitative textural analysis were applied.
    Two groups of archaeological objects were distinguishable based on their petrographical properties, trace element amounts and stable isotope compositions. One of them belongs probably to the marble quarries Puppitsch/Kraig or Tiffen in Austria/Carinthia. The second group seems to be derived from the Gummern, Sekull, Tiffen, Treffen group (Austria/Carithia), but some overlapping occurs with Polgárdi (Hungary) and Slovenska Bistrica (Slovenia). The provenance analysis makes possible some implications on ancient trade relations, as well as political and economical background of the construction activity. The quality of the applied material of archaeological objects gives us information about the economical and social situation of the population. The framework of the project was supplied by the bilateral scientific collaboration project DAAD and MÖB.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ZoeldfoeldiETAL2004b,
      author = {Zöldföldi, J. and Pintér, F. and Székely, B. and H. Taubald and T. Biró, K. and Mráv, Zs. and Tóth, M. and M. Satir and Kasztovszky, Zs. and Szakmány, Gy.},
      title = {Római márványtöredékek vizsgálata a Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum gyűjteményéből},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {1},
      number = {1},
      pages = {40-46},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2004_1/AM-2004-ZJ1.pdf}
    }
    
    Zöldföldi et al.
    Zöldföldi, Judit; Péter, Hegedüs & Balázs, Székely
    MissMarble - egy archeometriai, művészettörténeti és műemlékvédelmi célú, internet-alapú, interdiszciplináris adatbázis / Interdisciplinary data base of marble for archaeometric, art historian and restoration use 2008 Archeometriai Műhely
    5(3), pp. 41-50 
    article URL 
    Abstract: After a four-year-long development phase the MissMarble database, a system managing measurement results of
    archeological and geological samples of marble, is ready to be used. The system provides a user-friendly,
    interactive user interface. The data bank contains data about more than 1600 samples, further 1300 samples are
    about to be added currently. In this paper we present the isotope-geochemical subsystem of the data bank.
    In some cases the values of the stable (delta-13C and delta-18O) isotope ratios are separable from those of the other
    marble occurrences, though the overlapping of the distributions is by far more typical. The same applies to the
    strontium (87Sr / 86Sr) isotope ratios. However, the integrated application of the three isotopic ratios often
    clarifies the provenance of the sample.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ZoeldfoeldiETAL2008,
      author = {Zöldföldi, Judit and Hegedüs Péter and Székely Balázs},
      title = {MissMarble - egy archeometriai, művészettörténeti és műemlékvédelmi célú, internet-alapú, interdiszciplináris adatbázis / Interdisciplinary data base of marble for archaeometric, art historian and restoration use},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5},
      number = {3},
      pages = {41-50},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2008_3/AM-08-03-ZJ.pdf}
    }
    
    Zöldföldi and Székely
    Zöldföldi, Judit & Székely, Balázs
    Kísérlet a nyugat-anatóliai tektonikai egyégek kvantitatív textúraelemzésen alapuló szétválasztására régészeti származásvizsgálati szempontból 2004 Archeometriai Műhely
    1(1), pp. 23-27 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Plenty of analytical methods were introduced to clarify provenance problems of white marble artefacts and building materials. The goal of all these techniques is to determine individual features of different marble quarries or at least to cluster them into reasonable groups with localised geographic origin.
    The study presented here is a part of a multi-method investigation technique, developed to clarify Western Anatolian white marble provenance questions. Beside of the instrumental analytical investigations the analysis of fabric became a key technique in the last years. The quantitative texture analysis (QTA), the combination of the quantitative fabric analysis and extraction of fractal properties of the calcite grain boundaries was applied on Western Anatolian white marbles. The advantage of the QTA is that it can be performed on the same thin section as used for cathodoluminescence microscopy and therefore requires no extra material.
    Thin sections of marble samples from different Western Anatolian occurrences were prepared and digitally enhanced images of these thin sections were processed. Various parameters from the images themselves and from vectorised contours of grain boundaries were calculated. Based on the distribution of the derived parameters the rock samples were grouped into distinct categories. These clusters represent different tectonic and geological units. Having defined the grouping criteria for the rock samples, this categorisation was then applied to the thin sections of archaeological artefacts determining the supposed provenance. The results were compared to categorisations based on other methods like isotope geochemistry, trace element analysis, and cathodoluminescence investigation. These techniques mutually support each other resulting in clearly defined provenance groups and provide an opportunity to organise them into a decision tree scheme. The decision tree paves the way towards a logically set of analytical techniques avoiding unnecessary analytical steps: the digital imaging and feature extraction methods provide quantitative values, therefore parameter intervals can be defined for different provenance groups.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ZoeldfoeldiSzekely2004,
      author = {Zöldföldi, Judit and Székely, Balázs},
      title = {Kísérlet a nyugat-anatóliai tektonikai egyégek kvantitatív textúraelemzésen alapuló szétválasztására régészeti származásvizsgálati szempontból},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {1},
      number = {1},
      pages = {23-27},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2004_1/AM-2004-SZB.pdf}
    }
    
    Árvai et al.
    Árvai, Mátyás; Kohán, Balázs & Kern, Zoltán
    Egy festett táblakép faanyagának vizsgálata nagy felbontású digitális fénykép felhasználásával / Dendrological investigation of the wood of a panel painting assisted by digital image 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(3), pp. 221-228 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This short paper summarizes experience gain during dendroanatomical and dendrochronological study of the wooden material of a panel painting assisted by digital image analysis. Primary aims were to identify the species, the origin of the wooden material and the classical dendrochronological assessment. Hidden surfaces were polished and documented using a high resolution DSLR camera. The analysis of the images has been performed using ArcMap 10.3 software. Because only few (max 17) rings have been found in the samples, traditional dendrochronological analysis practically failed. However, dendroanatomical analysis revealed the wood is black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia). Black locust locust had been introduced to Hungary at the end of the 18th century. Its spreading period started from the late 1820s. Considering the total number of tree rings (17), the estimated pith offset (+5 years), and the sapwood corrections (+2 years) the earliest potential felling date of the tree was probably after 1853 AD. Therefore panel painting was prepared not before the second half of the 19th century.
    Up to our knowledge this research is the first attempt for dendrochronological analysis of a panel painting using digital images in Hungary. The methodological message of the present results is, in agreement with previous observations, that the photography-assisted method could indeed be a viable approach for wood identification and dendrochronology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ArvaiETAL2015_3,
      author = {Árvai, Mátyás and Kohán, Balázs and Kern, Zoltán},
      title = {Egy festett táblakép faanyagának vizsgálata nagy felbontású digitális fénykép felhasználásával / Dendrological investigation of the wood of a panel painting assisted by digital image},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {3},
      pages = {221-228},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_3/AM-2015-3-AM.pdf}
    }
    
    Újvári et al.
    Újvári, Gábor; Páll, Gergely Barna & Varga, György
    Előzetes adatok a Gödöllői-dombság porfelhalmozódási és őskörnyezeti viszonyaihoz az utolsó 30 ezer évben / Preliminary data to dust accumulation and paleoenvironmental conditions at the Gödöllő Hills during the last 30 kyr 2011 Archeometriai Műhely
    8(2), pp. 175-180 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The Mende loess-palaeosol sequence is one of the type profiles in Hungary, which records the evolution of
    middle and late Pleistocene environments at the Gödöllő Hills. A rudimentary age-depth model has been created
    for the youngest part (30 kyr) of the profile by using previous TL-IRSL data. According to this model, the mean
    sedimentation rate (SR) was ca 0.51 mm/yr, while the dust flux amounted to 761 g/m2/yr during the final stage of
    loess accumulation (12-28 kyr, MIS2) at the study site, referring to the fact that this part of the basin must have
    been a "hot spot" of dust accumulation.
    Shells of 18,931 individuals representing 33 species were found in 129 samples taken from the profile in 10 cm
    resolution. The mesophilous species (Pupilla muscorum, Vallonia costata) and the warm-loving Pupilla triplicata
    occur frequently in the mollusc assemblages implying prevalent open, semi-arid/arid environments during loess
    formation. Significant increase of wetland, cold-tolerant species and ecotone and closed forest preferring
    elements could be observed in more consecutive samples in several phases. Some dominance peaks of
    cryophilous species (Vallonia tenuilabris, Pupilla sterri) likewise occur mainly in the first half (ca 20-28 kyr) of
    the period studied, indicating cold climatic conditions (TJuly: 12-14 °C) in these phases. By contrast, the other
    extreme of palaeo-temperatures can be characterized by July maximum values as high as 18-19 °C. The regional
    and/or global (ice cores) correlation of fluctuations mentioned above is not possible owing to the poor age-depth
    model.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ujvari2011_2,
      author = {Újvári, Gábor and Páll, Gergely Barna and Varga, György},
      title = {Előzetes adatok a Gödöllői-dombság porfelhalmozódási és őskörnyezeti viszonyaihoz az utolsó 30 ezer évben / Preliminary data to dust accumulation and paleoenvironmental conditions at the Gödöllő Hills during the last 30 kyr},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2011},
      volume = {8},
      number = {2},
      pages = {175-180},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2011_2/AM-11-02-UG.pdf}
    }
    
    ©mit
    ©mit, ®iga
    Metal analysis with ion-beam methods / Fémvizsgálatok ionnyaláb analitikai módszerekkel 2015 Archeometriai Műhely
    12(4), pp. 255-262 
    article URL 
    Abstract: A review presents application of PIXE spectrometry using in-air proton beam on the metal archaeological objects from Slovenia. Among the copper-based alloys, the examples include analysis of prehistoric bronze, analysis of coloured metals used for the Roman military equipment, the introduction of brass, analysis of medieval bronze fiery weapons, and analysis of aluminum bronzes in modern coinage. The silver objects represent artefacts from the Late Iron Age including Celtic coins, and medieval silver coins of the 12th-13th c AD. Special techniques describe profile measurements with differential PIXE and mapping of the 3rd c. AD Roman coins.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Smit2015_4,
      author = {©mit, ®iga},
      title = {Metal analysis with ion-beam methods / Fémvizsgálatok ionnyaláb analitikai módszerekkel},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {12},
      number = {4},
      pages = {255-262},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2015_4/AM-2015-4-ZS.pdf}
    }
    
    ©mit
    ©mit, ®iga
    Analysis of historic glass by ion-beam methods / Történelmi üvegek vizsgálata ionnyaláb-analitikai módszerekkel 2014 Archeometriai Műhely
    11(3), pp. 159-168 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract
    Analytical methods, based on irradiation of samples with MeV ion beams, notably particle induced X-ray (PIXE) and gamma ray (PIGE) emission analysis can be used to provide complete chemical analysis of glass objects in a non-destructive way. A review of applications is given that were performed at the Tandetron accelerator of the Joľef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana, which involve glass of the first centuries BC, Roman and late Antique glass, as well early medieval and Venetian glass till the glass of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Historical questions like the origin of raw materials and classification of glass compositional groups according to individual workshops are addressed.
    Kivonat
    Azok az analitikai módszerek, amelyek a minták MeV-es ionnyalábbal való besugárzásán alapulnak ? nevezetesen a részecske-indukált röntgen-, ill. gammaemissziós (PIXE, ill. PIGE) módszerek ?, alkalmasak üvegtárgyak kémiai (elem-) összetételének roncsolásmentes meghatározására. A cikkben áttekintjük a ljubljanai Joľef Stefan Intézet Tandetron gyorsítójánál, Kr. e. I. századi római és késő antik, valamint korai középkori, velencei és 19-20. századi üvegeken végzett vizsgálatokat. A kutatás során a megválaszolandó kérdések voltak: a nyersanyag eredetének meghatározása, összetétel szerinti csoportok felismerése és azonosítása az üveggyártó műhelyekkel.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Smit2014_3,
      author = {©mit, ®iga},
      title = {Analysis of historic glass by ion-beam methods / Történelmi üvegek vizsgálata ionnyaláb-analitikai módszerekkel},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {11},
      number = {3},
      pages = {159-168},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2014_3/AM-14-03-ZS.pdf}
    }
    
    ©oąić-Klindľić
    ©oąić-Klindľić, Rajna
    Problems of siliceous rock terminology in Croatian archaeology / A kovakőzetek nevezéktanával kapcsolatos problémák a horvát régészetben 2010 Archeometriai Műhely
    7(3), pp. 191-194 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This paper will give a short overview on the problems concerning terminology of siliceous rocks in
    archaeological context in Croatian language. Short history of the use of specific terms will be presented, as well
    as some discrepancies in use of certain terms in archaeological and geological context.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sosic2010_3,
      author = {©oąić-Klindľić, Rajna},
      title = {Problems of siliceous rock terminology in Croatian archaeology / A kovakőzetek nevezéktanával kapcsolatos problémák a horvát régészetben},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {3},
      pages = {191-194},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2010_3/AM-10-03-RSK.pdf}
    }
    
    ©oąić-Klindľić
    ©oąić-Klindľić, Rajna
    General characteristics of Starčevo sites and its lithic assemblages included in TéT project / A TéT program keretében vizsgált Starčevo lelőhelyek és kőeszköz leletegyüttesek ismertetése 2009 Archeometriai Műhely
    6(3), pp. 15-18 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In this project samples from 6 archaeological sites in Croatia were analysed (Zadubravlje, Galovo, Virovitica-
    Brekinja, Đakovo-Ivandvor, Đakovo-Tomaąanci and Cernička ©agovina). All of them belong to Starčevo
    culture. Each site will be presented with its general characteristics, position in relative and/or absolute
    chronology within Starčevo culture, and settlement composition. Lithic assemblages from sites will be compared
    to establish differences or similarities in typology and phases of production.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sosic2009_3,
      author = {©oąić-Klindľić, Rajna},
      title = {General characteristics of Starčevo sites and its lithic assemblages included in TéT project / A TéT program keretében vizsgált Starčevo lelőhelyek és kőeszköz leletegyüttesek ismertetése},
      journal = {Archeometriai Műhely},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      number = {3},
      pages = {15-18},
      url = {http://www.ace.hu/am/2009_3/AM-09-03-RSK.pdf}
    }
    

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